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ADRB2 (adrenoceptor beta 2, surface)

Written2014-02Denise Tostes Oliveira, Diego Mauricio Bravo-Calderón
Department of Stomatology, Area of Pathology, Bauru School of Dentistry - University of Sao Paulo, Bauru, Brazil

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesADRB2R
adrenergic, beta-2-, receptor, surface
adrenoceptor beta 2, surface
Alias_symbol (synonym)ADRBR
BAR
B2AR
Other aliasBETA2AR
HGNC (Hugo) ADRB2
LocusID (NCBI) 154
Atlas_Id 43818
Location 5q32  [Link to chromosome band 5q32]
Location_base_pair Starts at 148826593 and ends at 148828634 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping ADRB2.png]

DNA/RNA

Description ADBR2 gene spans about 2,04 kb and consists of one exon.
Transcription ADBR2 no has introns in either their coding or untranslated sequences. The primary transcripts are processed at their 5' and 3' ends like other premessenger RNAs, but no splicing is needed.
Pseudogene No pseudogenes have been reported.

Protein

Description β2 adrenergic receptor is a member of the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (McGraw and Liggett, 2005; Johnson, 2006). The receptor is comprised of 413 amino acid residues of approximately 46500 daltons (Johnson, 2006). β2 adrenergic receptor is N-glycosylated at amino acids 6, 15, and 187; these are important for roper insertion of the receptor into the membrane as well as for agonist trafficking (McGraw and Liggett, 2005; Johnson, 2006).
Expression β2 adrenergic receptor is widely distributed, this protein is expressed by airway smooth muscle (30-40000 per cell), epithelial and endothelial cells of the lung, smooth muscle of blood vessels, skeletal muscle, mast cells, lymphocytes, oral and skin keratinocytes and also by diverse cancer cells (Kohm and Sanders, 2001; Lutgendorf et al., 2003; Johnson, 2006; Sood et al., 2006; Thaker et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2006; Sastry et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2008a; Liu et al., 2008b; Shang et al., 2009; Sivamani et al., 2009; Yang et al., 2009; Bernabé et al., 2011; Bravo-Calderón et al., 2011-2012; Steenhuis et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2011; Loenneke et al., 2012).
Localisation β2 adrenergic receptor is a transmembrane protein. Like all GPCRs, the β2 adrenergic receptor has seven transmembrane a domains that form a pocket containing binding sites for agonists and competitive antagonists (McGraw and Liggett, 2005; Johnson, 2006). There are 3 extracellular loops, with one being the amino terminus, and 3 intracellular loops, with a carboxy terminus (McGraw and Liggett, 2005; Johnson, 2006).
Function Agonist binding of β2 adrenergic receptor results in activation of Gs protein. The Gs protein a subunit stimulates adenylyl cyclase to generate cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which in sequence activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and the agonist-occupied receptor is phosphorylated. After phosphorylation, the receptor switches its coupling specificity to Gi. GTP-bound Giα dissociates from the heterodimeric Gβγ, and free Gβγ subunits mediate activation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway in the same way as Gi-coupled receptors. Increase of intracellular cAMP levels leads diverse cell functions as cell proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and migration (Daaka et al., 1997).
 
  Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by signal transduction of β2 adrenergic receptor (adapted of Rosenbaum et al., 2009).

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Ovarian carcinoma
Note Reverse transcriptase-PCR studies indicated constitutive expression of β2 adrenergic receptor on ovarian carcinoma cell lines (Lutgendorf et al., 2003). Lutgendorf et al. (Lutgendorf et al., 2003) investigated the effects of norepinephrine and isoproterenol (a nonspecific-adrenergic agonist) on the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by ovarian cancer cell lines; and found that both, norepinephrine and isoproterenol, significantly enhanced VEGF production. These effects were blocked by thenon-specific β antagonist propranolol, supporting a role foradrenergic receptors in these experimental effects.
Norepinephrine was later found to increase the in vitro invasive potential of ovarian cancer cells, an effect that was blocked by propranolol (Sood et al., 2006). Norepinephrine also increased tumor cell expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, and pharmacologic blockade of MMPs abrogated the effects of norepinephrine on tumor cell invasive potential (Sood et al., 2006).
In the same way, Thaker et al. (Thaker et al., 2006) correlated chronic behavioral stress with higher levels of tissue catecholamines and more invasive growth of ovarian carcinoma cells in an orthotopic mouse model. These effects were mediated through β2 adrenergic receptor activation of PKA signaling pathway (Thaker et al., 2006). Tumors in stressed animals showed increased vascularization and enhanced expression of VEGF, MMP2 and MMP9; these effects could be abrogated by propranolol (Thaker et al., 2006).
  
  
Entity Prostate cancer
Note β2 adrenergic receptor signaling was related to prostate cancer cell progression (Sastry et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2011). β2 adrenergic receptor activation of PKA signaling pathway has been associated with reduction of sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to apoptosis (Sastry et al., 2007) and promotion of cell proliferation and cell migration (Zhang at al., 2011).
Contrastingly, other investigation demonstrated that the genetic silencing of β2 adrenergic receptor increases cell migration and invasion of normal prostate cells and that the weak expression of this protein is associated with metastases and with worst survival rates in prostate cancer patients (Yu et al., 2007).
  
  
Entity Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
Note Liu et al. (Liu et al., 2008b) demonstrated that stimulation of β2 adrenergic receptor with epinephrine significantly increase the esophageal cancer cell proliferation accompanied by elevation of the expression of VEGF, VEGF receptor VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. In addition, it has been shown that the epidermal growth factor mediates the mitogenic signals in esophageal cancer cells through transactivation of β2 adrenergic receptor (Liu et al., 2008a).
  
  
Entity Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)
Note Genetic and protein expression of β2 adrenergic receptor was demonstrated in OSCC by using RT-PCR assay, Western blot and immunohistochemistry (Shang et al., 2009; Bernabé et al., 2011; Bravo-Calderón et al., 2011-2012). Investigations performed in different oral cancer cell lines demonstrated that β2 adrenergic receptor signaling by norepinephrine increases cell proliferation and invasion, and upregulates interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression and protein release (Shang et al., 2009; Bernabé et al., 2011). Furthermore, Shang et al. (Shang et al., 2009) reported that malignant cell positive immunoexpression of β2-AR was significantly correlated with age, tumor size, clinical stage and cervical lymph node metastasis in OSCC patients, and that β2-AR may play an important role in the formation and metastasis of oral cancer. However, a retrospective clinical study of a large number of patients showed that patients with OSCC who exhibited strong β2-AR immunohistochemical expression by malignant epithelial cells demonstrated higher survival rates compared to patients with weak/negative β2-AR expression (Bravo-Calderón et al., 2011-2012). Therefore, further clinical and laboratory studies are warranted to elucidate the role of β2 adrenergic receptor activation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
  
  
Entity Various cancers
Note β2 adrenergic receptor was also immunohistochemically identified in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Yang et al., 2006) and in melanoma (Yang et al., 2009). Norepinephrine treatment increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF levels in culture supernatants of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells lines (Yang et al., 2006); as well upregulated the production of VEGF, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-6 in human melanoma tumor cell lines (Yang et al., 2009).
  

Bibliography

Stress hormones increase cell proliferation and regulates interleukin-6 secretion in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Bernabe DG, Tamae AC, Biasoli ER, Oliveira SH.
Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Mar;25(3):574-83. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2010.12.012. Epub 2010 Dec 25.
PMID 21187140
 
Prognostic significance of beta-2 adrenergic receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Bravo-Calderon DM, Oliveira DT, Marana AN, Nonogaki S, Carvalho AL, Kowalski LP.
Cancer Biomark. 2011-2012;10(1):51-9. doi: 10.3233/CBM-2012-0228.
PMID 22297552
 
Switching of the coupling of the beta2-adrenergic receptor to different G proteins by protein kinase A.
Daaka Y, Luttrell LM, Lefkowitz RJ.
Nature. 1997 Nov 6;390(6655):88-91.
PMID 9363896
 
Molecular mechanisms of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor function, response, and regulation.
Johnson M.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Jan;117(1):18-24; quiz 25. (REVIEW)
PMID 16387578
 
Norepinephrine and beta 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation regulate CD4+ T and B lymphocyte function in vitro and in vivo.
Kohm AP, Sanders VM.
Pharmacol Rev. 2001 Dec;53(4):487-525. (REVIEW)
PMID 11734616
 
Epinephrine stimulates esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma cell proliferation via beta-adrenoceptor-dependent transactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cyclooxygenase-2 pathway.
Liu X, Wu WK, Yu L, Sung JJ, Srivastava G, Zhang ST, Cho CH.
J Cell Biochem. 2008b Sep 1;105(1):53-60. doi: 10.1002/jcb.21802.
PMID 18452159
 
beta2 Adrenoceptor signaling-induced muscle hypertrophy from blood flow restriction: is there evidence?
Loenneke JP, Wilson JM, Thiebaud RS, Abe T, Lowery RP, Bemben MG.
Horm Metab Res. 2012 Jun;44(7):489-93. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1314787. Epub 2012 May 25. (REVIEW)
PMID 22638833
 
Stress-related mediators stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by two ovarian cancer cell lines.
Lutgendorf SK, Cole S, Costanzo E, Bradley S, Coffin J, Jabbari S, Rainwater K, Ritchie JM, Yang M, Sood AK.
Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Oct 1;9(12):4514-21.
PMID 14555525
 
Molecular mechanisms of beta2-adrenergic receptor function and regulation.
McGraw DW, Liggett SB.
Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2005;2(4):292-6; discussion 311-2. (REVIEW)
PMID 16267351
 
The structure and function of G-protein-coupled receptors.
Rosenbaum DM, Rasmussen SG, Kobilka BK.
Nature. 2009 May 21;459(7245):356-63. doi: 10.1038/nature08144. (REVIEW)
PMID 19458711
 
Epinephrine protects cancer cells from apoptosis via activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and BAD phosphorylation.
Sastry KS, Karpova Y, Prokopovich S, Smith AJ, Essau B, Gersappe A, Carson JP, Weber MJ, Register TC, Chen YQ, Penn RB, Kulik G.
J Biol Chem. 2007 May 11;282(19):14094-100. Epub 2007 Mar 12.
PMID 17353197
 
Expression of beta2-adrenergic receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Shang ZJ, Liu K, Liang de F.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2009 Apr;38(4):371-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2008.00691.x. Epub 2008 Dec 30.
PMID 19141064
 
Stress-mediated increases in systemic and local epinephrine impair skin wound healing: potential new indication for beta blockers.
Sivamani RK, Pullar CE, Manabat-Hidalgo CG, Rocke DM, Carlsen RC, Greenhalgh DG, Isseroff RR.
PLoS Med. 2009 Jan 13;6(1):e12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000012.
PMID 19143471
 
Stress hormone-mediated invasion of ovarian cancer cells.
Sood AK, Bhatty R, Kamat AA, Landen CN, Han L, Thaker PH, Li Y, Gershenson DM, Lutgendorf S, Cole SW.
Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jan 15;12(2):369-75.
PMID 16428474
 
Adrenergic signaling in human oral keratinocytes and wound repair.
Steenhuis P, Huntley RE, Gurenko Z, Yin L, Dale BA, Fazel N, Isseroff RR.
J Dent Res. 2011 Feb;90(2):186-92. doi: 10.1177/0022034510388034. Epub 2010 Dec 2.
PMID 21127260
 
Chronic stress promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma.
Thaker PH, Han LY, Kamat AA, Arevalo JM, Takahashi R, Lu C, Jennings NB, Armaiz-Pena G, Bankson JA, Ravoori M, Merritt WM, Lin YG, Mangala LS, Kim TJ, Coleman RL, Landen CN, Li Y, Felix E, Sanguino AM, Newman RA, Lloyd M, Gershenson DM, Kundra V, Lopez-Berestein G, Lutgendorf SK, Cole SW, Sood AK.
Nat Med. 2006 Aug;12(8):939-44. Epub 2006 Jul 23.
PMID 16862152
 
Norepinephrine upregulates VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 expression in human melanoma tumor cell lines: implications for stress-related enhancement of tumor progression.
Yang EV, Kim SJ, Donovan EL, Chen M, Gross AC, Webster Marketon JI, Barsky SH, Glaser R.
Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Feb;23(2):267-75. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2008.10.005. Epub 2008 Oct 21.
PMID 18996182
 
Norepinephrine up-regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor cells.
Yang EV, Sood AK, Chen M, Li Y, Eubank TD, Marsh CB, Jewell S, Flavahan NA, Morrison C, Yeh PE, Lemeshow S, Glaser R.
Cancer Res. 2006 Nov 1;66(21):10357-64.
PMID 17079456
 
Integrative genomics analysis reveals silencing of beta-adrenergic signaling by polycomb in prostate cancer.
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Cancer Cell. 2007 Nov;12(5):419-31.
PMID 17996646
 
beta-arrestin2 mediates beta-2 adrenergic receptor signaling inducing prostate cancer cell progression.
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PMID 21833475
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
DT Oliveira, DM Bravo-Calderón
ADRB2 (adrenoceptor beta 2, surface)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2014;18(9):659-662.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/ADRB2ID43818ch5q32.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)ADRB2   286
Cards
AtlasADRB2ID43818ch5q32
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)ADRB2  154  adrenoceptor beta 2
AliasesADRB2R; ADRBR; B2AR; BAR; 
BETA2AR
GeneCards (Weizmann)ADRB2
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000169252 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000169252 [Gene_View]  chr5:148826593-148828634 [Contig_View]  ADRB2 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000169252
TCGA cBioPortalADRB2
AceView (NCBI)ADRB2
Genatlas (Paris)ADRB2
WikiGenes154
SOURCE (Princeton)ADRB2
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)ADRB2
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)ADRB2  -     chr5:148826593-148828634 +  5q32   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)ADRB2  -     5q32   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblADRB2 - 5q32 [CytoView hg19]  ADRB2 - 5q32 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIADRB2 [Mapview hg19]  ADRB2 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM109690   600807   601665   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AA886615 AK223025 AK313151 AY136741 BC012481
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_000024
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)ADRB2
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.2551 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.2551
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000169252
Gene ExpressionADRB2 [ NCBI-GEO ]   ADRB2 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   ADRB2 [ SEEK ]   ADRB2 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)ADRB2 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)154
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)ADRB2
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP07550   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP07550  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP07550
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP07550
PhosPhoSitePlusP07550
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_1 (PS00237)    G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_2 (PS50262)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)ADR_fam    ADRB2_rcpt    GPCR_Rhodpsn    GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)7tm_1 (PF00001)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00001   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)7TM_GPCR_Srsx (SM01381)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)ADRB2
DMDM Disease mutations154
Blocks (Seattle)ADRB2
PDB (SRS)1GQ4    2R4R    2R4S    2RH1    3D4S    3KJ6    3NY8    3NY9    3NYA    3P0G    3PDS    3SN6    4GBR    4LDE    4LDL    4LDO    4QKX    5D5A    5D5B    5D6L    5JQH   
PDB (PDBSum)1GQ4    2R4R    2R4S    2RH1    3D4S    3KJ6    3NY8    3NY9    3NYA    3P0G    3PDS    3SN6    4GBR    4LDE    4LDL    4LDO    4QKX    5D5A    5D5B    5D6L    5JQH   
PDB (IMB)1GQ4    2R4R    2R4S    2RH1    3D4S    3KJ6    3NY8    3NY9    3NYA    3P0G    3PDS    3SN6    4GBR    4LDE    4LDL    4LDO    4QKX    5D5A    5D5B    5D6L    5JQH   
PDB (RSDB)1GQ4    2R4R    2R4S    2RH1    3D4S    3KJ6    3NY8    3NY9    3NYA    3P0G    3PDS    3SN6    4GBR    4LDE    4LDL    4LDO    4QKX    5D5A    5D5B    5D6L    5JQH   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1GQ4    2R4R    2R4S    2RH1    3D4S    3KJ6    3NY8    3NY9    3NYA    3P0G    3PDS    3SN6    4GBR    4LDE    4LDL    4LDO    4QKX    5D5A    5D5B    5D6L    5JQH   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1GQ4    2R4R    2R4S    2RH1    3D4S    3KJ6    3NY8    3NY9    3NYA    3P0G    3PDS    3SN6    4GBR    4LDE    4LDL    4LDO    4QKX    5D5A    5D5B    5D6L    5JQH   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1GQ4    2R4R    2R4S    2RH1    3D4S    3KJ6    3NY8    3NY9    3NYA    3P0G    3PDS    3SN6    4GBR    4LDE    4LDL    4LDO    4QKX    5D5A    5D5B    5D6L    5JQH   
SuperfamilyP07550
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000169252
Peptide AtlasP07550
HPRD00187
IPIIPI00465066   IPI00983610   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P07550
IntAct (EBI)P07550
FunCoupENSG00000169252
BioGRIDADRB2
STRING (EMBL)ADRB2
ZODIACADRB2
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP07550
Ontology : AmiGOdiet induced thermogenesis  norepinephrine-epinephrine-mediated vasodilation involved in regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure  regulation of sodium ion transport  desensitization of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway by arrestin  beta2-adrenergic receptor activity  protein binding  nucleus  lysosome  endosome  early endosome  plasma membrane  plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  receptor-mediated endocytosis  cell surface receptor signaling pathway  activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity  adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway  activation of adenylate cyclase activity  cell-cell signaling  adenylate cyclase binding  endosome to lysosome transport  response to cold  endosome membrane  potassium channel regulator activity  apical plasma membrane  protein deubiquitination  positive regulation of bone mineralization  clathrin-coated vesicle membrane  positive regulation of protein ubiquitination  heat generation  negative regulation of multicellular organism growth  protein homodimerization activity  receptor complex  positive regulation of MAPK cascade  bone resorption  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  negative regulation of smooth muscle contraction  brown fat cell differentiation  epinephrine binding  norepinephrine binding  membrane organization  adrenergic receptor signaling pathway  adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway  positive regulation of autophagosome maturation  positive regulation of lipophagy  
Ontology : EGO-EBIdiet induced thermogenesis  norepinephrine-epinephrine-mediated vasodilation involved in regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure  regulation of sodium ion transport  desensitization of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway by arrestin  beta2-adrenergic receptor activity  protein binding  nucleus  lysosome  endosome  early endosome  plasma membrane  plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  receptor-mediated endocytosis  cell surface receptor signaling pathway  activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity  adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway  activation of adenylate cyclase activity  cell-cell signaling  adenylate cyclase binding  endosome to lysosome transport  response to cold  endosome membrane  potassium channel regulator activity  apical plasma membrane  protein deubiquitination  positive regulation of bone mineralization  clathrin-coated vesicle membrane  positive regulation of protein ubiquitination  heat generation  negative regulation of multicellular organism growth  protein homodimerization activity  receptor complex  positive regulation of MAPK cascade  bone resorption  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  negative regulation of smooth muscle contraction  brown fat cell differentiation  epinephrine binding  norepinephrine binding  membrane organization  adrenergic receptor signaling pathway  adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway  positive regulation of autophagosome maturation  positive regulation of lipophagy  
Pathways : BIOCARTACystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and beta 2 adrenergic receptor (b2AR) pathway [Genes]    Phospholipase C-epsilon pathway [Genes]    Corticosteroids and cardioprotection [Genes]   
Pathways : KEGGCalcium signaling pathway    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction    Endocytosis    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes    Salivary secretion   
REACTOMEP07550 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-8856828 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkADRB2
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkADRB2
Wikipedia pathwaysADRB2
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB154
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000169252
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamADRB2
HOVERGENP07550
HOGENOMP07550
Homologs : HomoloGeneADRB2
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)ADRB2
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerADRB2 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)ADRB2
dbVarADRB2
ClinVarADRB2
1000_GenomesADRB2 
Exome Variant ServerADRB2
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ADRB2 (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP154
Genomic Variants (DGV)ADRB2 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERADRB2 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisADRB2 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalADRB2 
TCGA Data PortalADRB2 
Broad Tumor PortalADRB2
OASIS PortalADRB2 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICADRB2  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDADRB2
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)MSeqDR-LSDB Mitochondrial Disease Locus Specific Database
BioMutasearch ADRB2
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)ADRB2
DoCM (Curated mutations)ADRB2 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)ADRB2 (select a term)
intoGenADRB2
NCG5 (London)ADRB2
Cancer3DADRB2(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM109690    600807    601665   
Orphanet
MedgenADRB2
Genetic Testing Registry ADRB2
NextProtP07550 [Medical]
TSGene154
GENETestsADRB2
Target ValidationADRB2
Huge Navigator ADRB2 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease154
BioCentury BCIQADRB2
ClinGenADRB2
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD154
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA39
Clinical trialADRB2
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)ADRB2 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed499 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineADRB2
EVEXADRB2
GoPubMedADRB2
iHOPADRB2
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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