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AIP (aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein)

Identity

Other namesARA9
FKBP16
FKBP37
SMTPHN
XAP-2
XAP2
HGNC (Hugo) AIP
LocusID (NCBI) 9049
Location 11q13.2
Location_base_pair Starts at 67250505 and ends at 67258579 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]

DNA/RNA

Description The AIP gene is located on Chromosome 11 at 67250505-67258579 (GRCh37/hg19). The AIP gene is composed of 6 exons and spans approximately 8.07 kb of genomic DNA.
Transcription AIP gene encodes a 1250bp mRNA transcript. No splice variants have been identified.
Pseudogene No pseudogene reported.

Protein

Description AIP protein consists of 330 amino acids with a molecular weight of 37 kDa.
AIP belongs to the family of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain-containing proteins. It has three TPR-domains which are important for protein-protein interactions and an α helix at the C-terminal region and a PPIase-like domain (FKBP-type) in the N-terminus.
Expression AIP is expressed ubiquitously and found in various human tissues such as: heart, brain, lung, placenta, kidney, skeletal muscle, mouth mucosa, exocrine pancreas, salivary gland, stomach, parathyroid, tonsil, nerve, ovary, connective adipose tissue, spleen, thymus, prostate, testis, colon, leucocytes and pituitary (Kuzhandaivelu et al., 1996; Leontiou et al., 2008).
Localisation Cytoplasm and nucleus.
Function To date, several AIP interacting partners have been identified including HBV-X, EBNA-3, AhR, Hsp90, Hsc70, PDE4A5, PDE2A3, PPARα, TRβ1, Gα13, Gαq, TOMM20, RET, survivin and ERα, which may indicate that AIP is involved in various cellular pathways, however, the consequenses ot these interactions are not fully understood (Cai et al., 2011; Trivellin and Korbonits, 2011).
Clinical and functional data supports its role as a tumour suppressor gene. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is found in AIP mutation positive tumours. Our lab has previously shown that over-expression of wild-type AIP in human fibroblast and pituitary cell lines reduced cell proliferation compared with the empty vector control in vitro whereas the mutant AIP loses this ability compared to the wild-type AIP (Leontiou et al., 2008). AIP knockdown with siRNA also supports the tumour-suppressor role for AIP as it results in increased cell proliferation in GH3 cells (Heliovaara et al., 2009; Leontiou et al., 2008).
Homozygous deletion of AIP is embryonically lethal due to cardiovascular developmental abnormalities and erythropoetic failure (Kang et al., 2011; Lin et al., 2007), suggesting that AIP has a crucial role for cardiac development and for maintaining erythropoiesis in mice. Heterozygote deletion of the AIP gene lead to the development of growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas (Raitila et al., 2010).
AIP is a molecular co-chaperone protein. The most studied partner is the nuclear xenobiotic receptor AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor). AIP regulates its sub-cellular localization and degradation. AhR, also known as dioxin receptor is a ligand activated transcription factor found in the cytoplasm as part of a multiprotein complex with Hsp90 (Perdew, 1988), AIP (Carver and Bradfield, 1997; Meyer et al., 1998) and p23 (Kazlauskas et al., 1999). After binding to its ligand it is transported to the nucleus where it heterodimerizes with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). This complex then binds to DNA recognition sequences known as xenobiotic inducible response elements (XREs/DREs/AHREs) within the promoter region of specific genes, leading to the transcription of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. However, there is conflicting data regarding the role of AIP on AhR function. Some findings suggested that AIP has a role in stabilising unliganded AhR in the cytoplasm (LaPres et al., 2000; Meyer and Perdew, 1999; Nukaya et al., 2010), therefore AIP may play a positive role in AhR-mediated signalling. In contrast, other studies have suggested that AIP has a negative effect on AhR transcriptional activity (Hollingshead et al., 2004; Pollenz et al., 2006; Pollenz and Dougherty, 2005). AIP has other functions related to the other interacting partners but it is currently not known how lack of AIP leads to pituitary tumorigenesis.
Homology AIP shares 94% and 93% sequence identity with mouse and rat AIP respectively.

Mutations

Germinal Germline mutations of AIP are associated with familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA). Approximately 20% of FIPA families and 13% of sporadic young (<30 years) onset have somatotroph or lactotroph adenomas (Cazabat et al., 2007; Cazabat et al., 2012; Chahal et al., 2010; Daly et al., 2007; Leontiou et al., 2008; Tichomirowa et al., 2011; Vierimaa et al., 2006). Over 50 pathogenic mutations have been identified including deletions, insertions, segmental duplications, nonsense, missense, splice-site and promoter mutations, as well as large deletions of whole exons or the entire AIP gene. Mutations are present throughout the whole length of the gene and disrupt the protein. Sixty five percent of known AIP variants result in a truncated protein. The majority of the missense mutations are typically clustered around the C-terminal part of the protein, appeared to be crucial for its biological function (Ozfirat and Korbonits, 2010). The most common mutation is found at residue 304, a mutational 'hotspot' CpG site. Informations regarding AIP mutations and polymorphisms are available in a locus-specific mutation database, available at: http://aip.fipapatients.org/.
Somatic Somatic mutations in AIP have not been found to date in sporadic pituitary adenomas. Somatic mutations in AIP have been investigated in colorectal cancers, breast cancers, prostate tumours (Georgitsi et al., 2007) as well as endocrine tumours (thyroid lesions, adrenal lesions, carcinoids, parathyroid lesions, paragangliomas, pancreatic endocrine tumours and adenocarcinoids) but no somatic mutations were found (Raitila et al., 2007; Tichomirowa et al., 2011).

Implicated in

Entity Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) and simplex pituitary adenoma cases with germline AIP mutation
Note Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. Heterozygote germline mutations have been identified in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene in 20% of FIPA families. FIPA has been characterised in >200 families. Most of the FIPA families with AIP mutations presented somatotropinomas or somatomammotropinomas followed by prolactinomas as well as non-functioning adenomas and very rarely corticotroph or thyrotropinomas. Approximately, eighty five percent of AIP mutation positive FIPA patients have acromegaly and around fifty percent with AIP mutation positive somatotropinomas are associated with gigantism (Daly et al., 2010). Pituitary tumours in AIP mutation positive patients have larger, more aggressive, invasive tumours, most commonly sparsely granulated subtype which show a poor response to somatostatin analogues (Daly et al., 2010) and also have a younger age at disease onset (18-24 years) (Korbonits and Kumar, 2012).
Prognosis AIP mutation positive patients show younger mean age at diagnosis than sporadic pituitary cases. Decreased level of AIP has been correlated with tumour invassiveness in somatotropinomas (Kasuki Jomori de Pinho et al., 2011). Genetic screening is now able to stratify carrier subjects and help to diagnose the presymptomatic patients (Chahal et al., 2011).
  

Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

Solid Tumors AmeloblastomID5945

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)AIP   358
Cards
AtlasAIPID604ch11q13
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)AIP  9049  aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein
GeneCards (Weizmann)AIP
Ensembl (Hinxton)ENSG00000110711 [Gene_View]  chr11:67250505-67258579 [Contig_View]  AIP [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000110711
AceView (NCBI)AIP
Genatlas (Paris)AIP
WikiGenes9049
SOURCE (Princeton)NM_003977
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath (UCSC)AIP  -  11q13.2   chr11:67250505-67258579 +  11q13.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblAIP - 11q13.3 [CytoView]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIAIP [Mapview]
OMIM102200   219090   600634   605555   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)BC104797 BC104827 BG821308 BU689235 CN480874
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_003977
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)AC_000143 NC_000011 NC_018922 NG_008969 NT_167190 NW_001838025 NW_004929380
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)AIP
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.412433 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.412433
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0005040
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000110711
Gene ExpressionAIP [ NCBI-GEO ]     AIP [ SEEK ]   AIP [ MEM ]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtO00170 (Uniprot)
NextProtO00170  [Medical]
With graphics : InterProO00170
Splice isoforms : SwissVarO00170 (Swissvar)
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)FKBP_PPIASE (PS50059)    TPR (PS50005)    TPR_REGION (PS50293)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)PPIase_FKBP_dom    TPR-contain_dom    TPR-like_helical    TPR_repeat   
Related proteins : CluSTrO00170
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)FKBP_C (PF00254)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00254   
DMDM Disease mutations9049
Blocks (Seattle)O00170
PDB (SRS)2LKN    4AIF    4APO   
PDB (PDBSum)2LKN    4AIF    4APO   
PDB (IMB)2LKN    4AIF    4APO   
PDB (RSDB)2LKN    4AIF    4APO   
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000110711
Peptide AtlasO00170
HPRD10408
IPIIPI00939349   IPI00010460   IPI00925804   IPI00953925   IPI01011438   IPI00985244   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)O00170
IntAct (EBI)O00170
FunCoupENSG00000110711
BioGRIDAIP
IntegromeDBAIP
STRING (EMBL)AIP
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOO00170
Ontology : AmiGOtranscription coactivator activity  signal transducer activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleolus  cytoplasm  cytosol  cytosol  plasma membrane  protein targeting to mitochondrion  xenobiotic metabolic process  signal transduction  transcription factor binding  regulation of protein kinase A signaling  protein maturation by protein folding  GAF domain binding  unfolded protein binding  negative regulation of cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity  regulation of RNA biosynthetic process  regulation of RNA biosynthetic process  
Ontology : EGO-EBItranscription coactivator activity  signal transducer activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleolus  cytoplasm  cytosol  cytosol  plasma membrane  protein targeting to mitochondrion  xenobiotic metabolic process  signal transduction  transcription factor binding  regulation of protein kinase A signaling  protein maturation by protein folding  GAF domain binding  unfolded protein binding  negative regulation of cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity  regulation of RNA biosynthetic process  regulation of RNA biosynthetic process  
Pathways : BIOCARTAAhr Signal Transduction Pathway [Genes]   
Protein Interaction DatabaseAIP
Wikipedia pathwaysAIP
Gene fusion - rearrangments
Polymorphisms : SNP, mutations, diseases
SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)AIP
SNP (GeneSNP Utah)AIP
SNP : HGBaseAIP
Genetic variants : HAPMAPAIP
1000_GenomesAIP 
ICGC programENSG00000110711 
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisAIP 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICAIP 
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
DECIPHER (Syndromes)11:67250505-67258579
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDAIP
OMIM102200    219090    600634    605555   
MedgenAIP
GENETestsAIP
Disease Genetic AssociationAIP
Huge Navigator AIP [HugePedia]  AIP [HugeCancerGEM]
Genomic VariantsAIP  AIP [DGVbeta]
Exome VariantAIP
dbVarAIP
ClinVarAIP
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease9049
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneAIP
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)AIP
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamAIP
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD9049
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA24652
Clinical trialAIP
Cancer Resource (Charite)ENSG00000110711
Other databases
Probes
Litterature
PubMed104 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
CoreMineAIP
GoPubMedAIP
iHOPAIP

Bibliography

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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene mutations in familial isolated pituitary adenomas: analysis in 73 families.
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Mutation analysis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene in colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers.
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PMID 17916558
 
No evidence of somatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations in sporadic endocrine neoplasia.
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The expression of AIP-related molecules in elucidation of cellular pathways in pituitary adenomas.
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Clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of patients with familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA).
Chahal HS, Chapple JP, Frohman LA, Grossman AB, Korbonits M.
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jul;21(7):419-27. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2010.02.007. Epub 2010 Jun 1. (REVIEW)
PMID 20570174
 
Clinical characteristics and therapeutic responses in patients with germ-line AIP mutations and pituitary adenomas: an international collaborative study.
Daly AF, Tichomirowa MA, Petrossians P, Heliovaara E, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Barlier A, Naves LA, Ebeling T, Karhu A, Raappana A, Cazabat L, De Menis E, Montanana CF, Raverot G, Weil RJ, Sane T, Maiter D, Neggers S, Yaneva M, Tabarin A, Verrua E, Eloranta E, Murat A, Vierimaa O, Salmela PI, Emy P, Toledo RA, Sabate MI, Villa C, Popelier M, Salvatori R, Jennings J, Longas AF, Labarta Aizpun JI, Georgitsi M, Paschke R, Ronchi C, Valimaki M, Saloranta C, De Herder W, Cozzi R, Guitelman M, Magri F, Lagonigro MS, Halaby G, Corman V, Hagelstein MT, Vanbellinghen JF, Barra GB, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Cameron FJ, Borson-Chazot F, Holdaway I, Toledo SP, Stalla GK, Spada A, Zacharieva S, Bertherat J, Brue T, Bours V, Chanson P, Aaltonen LA, Beckers A.
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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) is required for dioxin-induced hepatotoxicity but not for the induction of the Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 genes.
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AIP gene and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.
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Mice with inactivation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (Aip) display complete penetrance of pituitary adenomas with aberrant ARNT expression.
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The immunophilin-like protein XAP2 is a negative regulator of estrogen signaling through interaction with estrogen receptor α.
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Low aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein expression is a better marker of invasiveness in somatotropinomas than Ki-67 and p53.
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Contributor(s)

Written11-2012Sayka Barry, Márta Korbonits
Molecular Oncology Centre, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom (SB); Department of Endocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom (MK)

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Barry, S ; Korbonits, M
AIP (aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2013;17(5):-.
Free online version   Free pdf version   [Bibliographic record ]
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/AIPID604ch11q13.html

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