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AKR1C3 (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 (3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type II))

Written2007-11Hsueh Kung Lin
Department of Urology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 920 Stanton L Young Blvd, WP3150, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesHSD17B5
hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 5
aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 (3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type II)
Alias_symbol (synonym)KIAA0119
DDX
HAKRB
PGFS
Other aliasDD3
HA1753
HAKRe
hluPGFS
HGNC (Hugo) AKR1C3
LocusID (NCBI) 8644
Atlas_Id 612
Location 10p15.1  [Link to chromosome band 10p15]
Location_base_pair Starts at 5048766 and ends at 5107686 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping AKR1C3.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2016)
AKR1C3 (10p15.1) / CLSTN1 (1p36.22)

DNA/RNA

Transcription 1170 bp mRNA; transcript has been detected in brain, lung, liver, small intestine, mammary gland, uterus, prostate, testis.

Protein

Description 323 amino acids, molecular weight 37 kDa.
Expression Activated macrophage, malignant prostate epithelium, normal mammary epithelium, mature blood vessel.
Localisation Mainly in cytoplasm.
Function AKR1C3 metabolizes various androgen metabolites including 5a-dihydrotestosterone to 5a-androstane-3a,17b-diol, Delta4-androstene-3,17-dione to testosterone, androstanedione to 5a-dihydrotestosterone, androsterone to 5a-androstane-3a,17b-diol.
AKR1C3 is also involved in estrogen metabolism converting estrone to 17b-estradiol as well as progesterone metabolism converting prostaglandin D2 to 9a,11b-prostaglandin F2a.
AKR1C3 has the capability of regulating the trans-activation of various nuclear receptors including androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARG) by regulating the ligand availability for the nuclear receptors.
Homology A member of the of AKR1C family proteins; AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, AKR1C4 in human, and AKR1C9 in rat.

Mutations

Note Mutation of AKR1C3 has not been identified.

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Various cancers
Note Elevated levels of AKR1C3 expression are implicated in leukemia cell differentiation, prostate cancer (in both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer), and endometrial cancer. Expression of AKR1C3 was detected in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, refractory anemia) with progression to acute myelogenous leukemia. Overexpression of AKR1C3 in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60, rendered cells more resistant to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induced cell differentiation.
  
  
Entity Prostate cancer
Disease Immunohistochemical staining of human prostate tissues detected negative or low levels of AKR1C3 expression in normal prostate epithelial cells. Strong positive AKR1C3 immunoreactivity was demonstrated in primary and androgen-independent prostate cancers. Variable increases in AKR1C3 expression were also demonstrated in non-neoplastic changes in the prostate including chronic inflammation, atrophy, and urothelial cell metaplasia.
  
  
Entity Endometrial cancer
Disease Quantitative transcriptosome analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction, AKR1C3 mRNA expression was shown to be elevated in endometrial cancer versus adjacent normal endometrium.
  
  
Entity Breast tumor
Disease Expression of AKR1C3 mRNA was reduced in breast tumor as compared to adjacent normal breast tissue. Immunohistochemstry revealed that the ductal epithelial cells and stromal cells of the breast express AKR1C3. In myoepithelial cells of the breast, immunoreactive AKR1C3 was absent in normal tissues, whereas strong AKR1C3 staining was apparent in cells surrounding the neoplastic epithelium of ductal carcinoma in situ.
  

Bibliography

Paracrine-stimulated gene expression profile favors estradiol production in breast tumors.
Amin SA, Huang CC, Reierstad S, Lin Z, Arbieva Z, Wiley E, Saborian H, Haynes B, Cotterill H, Dowsett M, Bulun SE
Molecular and cellular endocrinology. 2006 ; 253 (1-2) : 44-55.
PMID 16735089
 
The aldo-keto reductase AKR1C3 is a novel suppressor of cell differentiation that provides a plausible target for the non-cyclooxygenase-dependent antineoplastic actions of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Desmond JC, Mountford JC, Drayson MT, Walker EA, Hewison M, Ride JP, Luong QT, Hayden RE, Vanin EF, Bunce CM
Cancer research. 2003 ; 63 (2) : 505-512.
PMID 12543809
 
Localization of type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and androgen receptor in the human prostate by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry.
El-Alfy M, Luu-The V, Huang XF, Berger L, Labrie F, Pelletier G
Endocrinology. 1999 ; 140 (3) : 1481-1491.
PMID 10067877
 
Increased expression of type 2 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) and its relationship with androgen receptor in prostate carcinoma.
Fung KM, Samara EN, Wong C, Metwalli A, Krlin R, Bane B, Liu CZ, Yang JT, Pitha JV, Culkin DJ, Kropp BP, Penning TM, Lin HK
Endocrine-related cancer. 2006 ; 13 (1) : 169-180.
PMID 16601286
 
Selective loss of AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 in breast cancer and their potential effect on progesterone signaling.
Ji Q, Aoyama C, Nien YD, Liu PI, Chen PK, Chang L, Stanczyk FZ, Stolz A
Cancer research. 2004 ; 64 (20) : 7610-7617.
PMID 15492289
 
Expression of progesterone metabolizing enzyme genes (AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, SRD5A1, SRD5A2) is altered in human breast carcinoma.
Lewis MJ, Wiebe JP, Heathcote JG
BMC cancer. 2004 ; 4 : page 27.
PMID 15212687
 
Expression and characterization of recombinant type 2 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) from human prostate: demonstration of bifunctional 3 alpha/17 beta-HSD activity and cellular distribution.
Lin HK, Jez JM, Schlegel BP, Peehl DM, Pachter JA, Penning TM
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). 1997 ; 11 (13) : 1971-1984.
PMID 9415401
 
Transcriptosome and serum cytokine profiling of an atypical case of myelodysplastic syndrome with progression to acute myelogenous leukemia.
Mahadevan D, DiMento J, Croce KD, Riley C, George B, Fuchs D, Mathews T, Wilson C, Lobell M
American journal of hematology. 2006 ; 81 (10) : 779-786.
PMID 16838325
 
In situ androgen producing enzymes in human prostate cancer.
Nakamura Y, Suzuki T, Nakabayashi M, Endoh M, Sakamoto K, Mikami Y, Moriya T, Ito A, Takahashi S, Yamada S, Arai Y, Sasano H
Endocrine-related cancer. 2005 ; 12 (1) : 101-107.
PMID 15788642
 
Immunoelectron microscopic localization of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the human prostate and mammary gland.
Pelletier G, Luu-The V, El-Alfy M, Li S, Labrie F
Journal of molecular endocrinology. 2001 ; 26 (1) : 11-19.
PMID 11174850
 
Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3: role in prostate disease and the development of specific inhibitors.
Penning TM, Steckelbroeck S, Bauman DR, Miller MW, Jin Y, Peehl DM, Fung KM, Lin HK
Molecular and cellular endocrinology. 2006 ; 248 (1-2) : 182-191.
PMID 16417966
 
AKR1C1 and AKR1C3 may determine progesterone and estrogen ratios in endometrial cancer.
Rizner TL, Smuc T, Rupreht R, Sinkovec J, Penning TM
Molecular and cellular endocrinology. 2006 ; 248 (1-2) : 126-135.
PMID 16338060
 
Increased expression of genes converting adrenal androgens to testosterone in androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Stanbrough M, Bubley GJ, Ross K, Golub TR, Rubin MA, Penning TM, Febbo PG, Balk SP
Cancer research. 2006 ; 66 (5) : 2815-2825.
PMID 16510604
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Lin, HK
AKR1C3 (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 (3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type II))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2008;12(4):267-268.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/AKR1C3ID612ch10p15.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)AKR1C3   386
Cards
AtlasAKR1C3ID612ch10p15
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)AKR1C3  8644  aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3
AliasesDD3; DDX; HA1753; HAKRB; 
HAKRe; HSD17B5; PGFS; hluPGFS
GeneCards (Weizmann)AKR1C3
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000196139 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000196139 [Gene_View]  chr10:5048766-5107686 [Contig_View]  AKR1C3 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000196139
TCGA cBioPortalAKR1C3
AceView (NCBI)AKR1C3
Genatlas (Paris)AKR1C3
WikiGenes8644
SOURCE (Princeton)AKR1C3
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)AKR1C3
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)AKR1C3  -     chr10:5048766-5107686 +  10p15.1   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)AKR1C3  -     10p15.1   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblAKR1C3 - 10p15.1 [CytoView hg19]  AKR1C3 - 10p15.1 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIAKR1C3 [Mapview hg19]  AKR1C3 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM603966   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB018580 AF149416 AK290365 AK296701 AK296829
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001253908 NM_001253909 NM_003739
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)AKR1C3
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.78183 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.78183
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000196139
Gene ExpressionAKR1C3 [ NCBI-GEO ]   AKR1C3 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   AKR1C3 [ SEEK ]   AKR1C3 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)AKR1C3 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)8644
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)AKR1C3
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP42330   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP42330  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP42330
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP42330
Catalytic activity : Enzyme1.-.-.- [ Enzyme-Expasy ]   1.-.-.-1.-.-.- [ IntEnz-EBI ]   1.-.-.- [ BRENDA ]   1.-.-.- [ KEGG ]   
PhosPhoSitePlusP42330
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_1 (PS00798)    ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_2 (PS00062)    ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_3 (PS00063)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Aldo/ket_reductase_CS    Aldo/keto_reductase    NADP_OxRdtase_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Aldo_ket_red (PF00248)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00248   
Conserved Domain (NCBI)AKR1C3
DMDM Disease mutations8644
Blocks (Seattle)AKR1C3
PDB (SRS)1RY0    1RY8    1S1P    1S1R    1S2A    1S2C    1XF0    1ZQ5    2F38    2FGB    3R43    3R58    3R6I    3R7M    3R8G    3R8H    3R94    3UFY    3UG8    3UGR    3UWE    4DBS    4DBU    4DBW    4DZ5    4FA3    4FAL    4FAM    4H7C    4HMN    4WDT    4WDU    4WDW    4WDX    4WRH    4XVD    4XVE    4YVV    4YVX    4ZFC    5HNU   
PDB (PDBSum)1RY0    1RY8    1S1P    1S1R    1S2A    1S2C    1XF0    1ZQ5    2F38    2FGB    3R43    3R58    3R6I    3R7M    3R8G    3R8H    3R94    3UFY    3UG8    3UGR    3UWE    4DBS    4DBU    4DBW    4DZ5    4FA3    4FAL    4FAM    4H7C    4HMN    4WDT    4WDU    4WDW    4WDX    4WRH    4XVD    4XVE    4YVV    4YVX    4ZFC    5HNU   
PDB (IMB)1RY0    1RY8    1S1P    1S1R    1S2A    1S2C    1XF0    1ZQ5    2F38    2FGB    3R43    3R58    3R6I    3R7M    3R8G    3R8H    3R94    3UFY    3UG8    3UGR    3UWE    4DBS    4DBU    4DBW    4DZ5    4FA3    4FAL    4FAM    4H7C    4HMN    4WDT    4WDU    4WDW    4WDX    4WRH    4XVD    4XVE    4YVV    4YVX    4ZFC    5HNU   
PDB (RSDB)1RY0    1RY8    1S1P    1S1R    1S2A    1S2C    1XF0    1ZQ5    2F38    2FGB    3R43    3R58    3R6I    3R7M    3R8G    3R8H    3R94    3UFY    3UG8    3UGR    3UWE    4DBS    4DBU    4DBW    4DZ5    4FA3    4FAL    4FAM    4H7C    4HMN    4WDT    4WDU    4WDW    4WDX    4WRH    4XVD    4XVE    4YVV    4YVX    4ZFC    5HNU   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1RY0    1RY8    1S1P    1S1R    1S2A    1S2C    1XF0    1ZQ5    2F38    2FGB    3R43    3R58    3R6I    3R7M    3R8G    3R8H    3R94    3UFY    3UG8    3UGR    3UWE    4DBS    4DBU    4DBW    4DZ5    4FA3    4FAL    4FAM    4H7C    4HMN    4WDT    4WDU    4WDW    4WDX    4WRH    4XVD    4XVE    4YVV    4YVX    4ZFC    5HNU   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1RY0    1RY8    1S1P    1S1R    1S2A    1S2C    1XF0    1ZQ5    2F38    2FGB    3R43    3R58    3R6I    3R7M    3R8G    3R8H    3R94    3UFY    3UG8    3UGR    3UWE    4DBS    4DBU    4DBW    4DZ5    4FA3    4FAL    4FAM    4H7C    4HMN    4WDT    4WDU    4WDW    4WDX    4WRH    4XVD    4XVE    4YVV    4YVX    4ZFC    5HNU   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1RY0    1RY8    1S1P    1S1R    1S2A    1S2C    1XF0    1ZQ5    2F38    2FGB    3R43    3R58    3R6I    3R7M    3R8G    3R8H    3R94    3UFY    3UG8    3UGR    3UWE    4DBS    4DBU    4DBW    4DZ5    4FA3    4FAL    4FAM    4H7C    4HMN    4WDT    4WDU    4WDW    4WDX    4WRH    4XVD    4XVE    4YVV    4YVX    4ZFC    5HNU   
SuperfamilyP42330
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000196139
Peptide AtlasP42330
HPRD04911
IPIIPI00291483   IPI01014057   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P42330
IntAct (EBI)P42330
FunCoupENSG00000196139
BioGRIDAKR1C3
STRING (EMBL)AKR1C3
ZODIACAKR1C3
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP42330
Ontology : AmiGOprotein import into nucleus, translocation  retinoid metabolic process  retinal dehydrogenase activity  alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity  aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity  retinol dehydrogenase activity  intracellular  nucleus  cytoplasm  cytosol  prostaglandin metabolic process  prostaglandin metabolic process  G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway  response to nutrient  steroid metabolic process  positive regulation of cell proliferation  positive regulation of cell proliferation  male gonad development  cellular response to starvation  positive regulation of cell death  farnesol catabolic process  oxidoreductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H, quinone or similar compound as acceptor  phenanthrene 9,10-monooxygenase activity  cyclooxygenase pathway  keratinocyte differentiation  cellular response to reactive oxygen species  dihydrotestosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase activity  prostaglandin H2 endoperoxidase reductase activity  prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity  progesterone metabolic process  retinol metabolic process  retinal metabolic process  multicellular organismal macromolecule metabolic process  daunorubicin metabolic process  doxorubicin metabolic process  geranylgeranyl reductase activity  ketoreductase activity  prostaglandin-F synthase activity  15-hydroxyprostaglandin-D dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity  androsterone dehydrogenase activity  testosterone dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity  testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity  ketosteroid monooxygenase activity  trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity  indanol dehydrogenase activity  delta4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase activity  regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway  positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling  NADP-retinol dehydrogenase activity  oxidation-reduction process  oxidation-reduction process  testosterone biosynthetic process  extracellular exosome  renal absorption  cellular response to cadmium ion  cellular response to calcium ion  cellular response to prostaglandin stimulus  cellular response to corticosteroid stimulus  cellular response to jasmonic acid stimulus  cellular response to prostaglandin D stimulus  negative regulation of retinoic acid biosynthetic process  regulation of testosterone biosynthetic process  positive regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process  positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  
Ontology : EGO-EBIprotein import into nucleus, translocation  retinoid metabolic process  retinal dehydrogenase activity  alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity  aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity  retinol dehydrogenase activity  intracellular  nucleus  cytoplasm  cytosol  prostaglandin metabolic process  prostaglandin metabolic process  G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway  response to nutrient  steroid metabolic process  positive regulation of cell proliferation  positive regulation of cell proliferation  male gonad development  cellular response to starvation  positive regulation of cell death  farnesol catabolic process  oxidoreductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H, quinone or similar compound as acceptor  phenanthrene 9,10-monooxygenase activity  cyclooxygenase pathway  keratinocyte differentiation  cellular response to reactive oxygen species  dihydrotestosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase activity  prostaglandin H2 endoperoxidase reductase activity  prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity  progesterone metabolic process  retinol metabolic process  retinal metabolic process  multicellular organismal macromolecule metabolic process  daunorubicin metabolic process  doxorubicin metabolic process  geranylgeranyl reductase activity  ketoreductase activity  prostaglandin-F synthase activity  15-hydroxyprostaglandin-D dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity  androsterone dehydrogenase activity  testosterone dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity  testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity  ketosteroid monooxygenase activity  trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity  indanol dehydrogenase activity  delta4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase activity  regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway  positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling  NADP-retinol dehydrogenase activity  oxidation-reduction process  oxidation-reduction process  testosterone biosynthetic process  extracellular exosome  renal absorption  cellular response to cadmium ion  cellular response to calcium ion  cellular response to prostaglandin stimulus  cellular response to corticosteroid stimulus  cellular response to jasmonic acid stimulus  cellular response to prostaglandin D stimulus  negative regulation of retinoic acid biosynthetic process  regulation of testosterone biosynthetic process  positive regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process  positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  
Pathways : KEGGSteroid hormone biosynthesis    Arachidonic acid metabolism    Ovarian steroidogenesis   
REACTOMEP42330 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-975634 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkAKR1C3
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkAKR1C3
Wikipedia pathwaysAKR1C3
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB8644
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000196139
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamAKR1C3
HOVERGENP42330
HOGENOMP42330
Homologs : HomoloGeneAKR1C3
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)AKR1C3
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerAKR1C3 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)AKR1C3
dbVarAKR1C3
ClinVarAKR1C3
1000_GenomesAKR1C3 
Exome Variant ServerAKR1C3
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)AKR1C3 (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP8644
Genomic Variants (DGV)AKR1C3 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERAKR1C3 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisAKR1C3 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalAKR1C3 
TCGA Data PortalAKR1C3 
Broad Tumor PortalAKR1C3
OASIS PortalAKR1C3 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICAKR1C3  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDAKR1C3
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch AKR1C3
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)AKR1C3
DoCM (Curated mutations)AKR1C3 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)AKR1C3 (select a term)
intoGenAKR1C3
NCG5 (London)AKR1C3
Cancer3DAKR1C3(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM603966   
Orphanet
MedgenAKR1C3
Genetic Testing Registry AKR1C3
NextProtP42330 [Medical]
TSGene8644
GENETestsAKR1C3
Target ValidationAKR1C3
Huge Navigator AKR1C3 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease8644
BioCentury BCIQAKR1C3
ClinGenAKR1C3
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD8644
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA24679
Clinical trialAKR1C3
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)AKR1C3 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed144 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineAKR1C3
EVEXAKR1C3
GoPubMedAKR1C3
iHOPAKR1C3
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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