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CD44 (CD44 molecule (Indian blood group))

Written2009-03Yin-Ping Sen, George W Yip
Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 4 Medical Drive, Block MD 10, Singapore 117597

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)CD44R
HGNC (Hugo) CD44
HGNC Alias symbIN
HGNC Alias namehematopoietic cell E- and L-selectin ligand
 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 8
HGNC Previous nameMIC4
HGNC Previous nameCD44 antigen (homing function and Indian blood group system)
LocusID (NCBI) 960
Atlas_Id 980
Location 11p13  [Link to chromosome band 11p13]
Location_base_pair Starts at 35139171 and ends at 35223319 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping CD44.png]
  CD44 gene is located at chromosome 11 on the short arm (p13).
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
CD44 (11p13)::CD44 (11p13)CD44 (11p13)::COX15 (10q24.2)CD44 (11p13)::FGFR2 (10q26.13)
CD44 (11p13)::PDHX (11p13)CD44 (11p13)::SERINC5 (5q14.1)CD44 (11p13)::SLC1A2 (11p13)
CD44 (11p13)::SLC4A2 (7q36.1)FGFR2 (10q26.13)::CD44 (11p13)LDLRAD3 (11p13)::CD44 (11p13)
NAA10 (Xq28)::CD44 (11p13)PIH1D1 (19q13.33)::CD44 (11p13)SON (21q22.11)::CD44 (11p13)
STPG1 (1p36.11)::CD44 (11p13)TMEM50B (21q22.11)::CD44 (11p13)


  (A) CD44 gene consists of 20 exons. Exons 1-5 and Exons 15-19 encode homologous N-terminal and C-terminal domains respectively. Exons 5a-14 (v1 to v10) generate CD44 variants through alternative splicing. (B) CD44s consists of the homologous domains but lacks the entire variable region. (C) CD44v6 is one example of a CD44 variant isoform which contains the variant Exon 6.
Description Consists of 20 exons spanning a length of 60 kb. The first five and the last five exons are constant; Exons 1-5 and Exons 15-19 encode the N-terminal (extracellular) and C-terminal (extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic) domains respectively, and share homologous domains among all the CD44 family members. The ten exons (Exons 5a-14) located between these regions are, however, subjected to alternative splicing, resulting in the generation of CD44 variants.


  CD44s consists of the basic domains (and structure) whereas CD44v has an additional longer stem, which contains the variant exon(s).
Description 742 amino acids.
Apart from alternative splicing, further diversity arises from post-translational modifications with N- and O-glycosylation and glycosaminoglycanation by heparan sulphate or chondroitin sulphate to generate multiple CD44 isoforms (at least 20 are known) of different molecular sizes (85-230 kDa).
Other post-translational modifications include cleavage by specific proteinases (possibly matrix metalloproteinases) in the extracellular matrix (ECM), (de)phosphorylation (activation of protein kinase C results in dephosphorylation of Ser-706, a constitutive phosphorylation site, and the phosphorylation of Ser-672).
N-terminal segment interacts with hyaluronan and other glycosaminoglycans, collagen, laminin and fibronectin. C-terminal segment interacts with ANK, ERM proteins (VIL2, RDX and MSN), and NF2.
Expression Standard CD44 (CD44s), which is the smallest CD44 molecule (85-95kDa), lacks the entire variable region. It is a single-chain molecule containing several domains: a distal extracellular domain (N-terminal containing the ligand-binding sites), a membrane-proximal region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain. High interspecies homology among CD44 isoforms is exhibited through these basic domains (with the exception of the membrane-proximal region). As CD44s is mostly expressed on cells of lymphohaematopoietic origin, it is also known as haematopoietic CD44 (CD44H).
The CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v) are identified by the presence of variant exon(s). These CD44 variant isoforms can be upregulated by T lymphocytes and other leukocytes after immunological activation. Their expression patterns are tissue specific: CD44 lacking v2-v10 is the most common form on haematopoietic cells while larger CD44 splice variants dominate on certain normal and neoplastic epithelia, activated lymphocytes and malignant lymphomas. A CD44 isoform consisting of the last three exon products of the variable region (CD44V8-10) is preferentially expressed on epithelial cells, hence it is also called epithelial CD44 or CD44E. In contrast, CD44V3-10, the longest CD44 isoform that expresses eight exons of the variable region, has been observed in keratinocytes.
Localisation Membrane; single-pass type I membrane protein.
Function CD44 is a multifunctional receptor which plays a role in cell adhesion (cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions), cell traffic, lymph node homing, presentation of chemokines and growth factors, transmission of growth signals and signals mediating haematopoiesis and apoptosis.
Ligand-binding: The principal ligand of CD44 is HA, an important component of the ECM. CD44 is involved in the uptake and intracellular degradation of HA. Other CD44 ligands include ECM components such as collagen, fibronectin, laminin, and chondroitin sulphate. ECM-unrelated ligands include mucosal addressin, serglycin, osteopontin, and the class II invariant chain.
CD44 expression in tumours: High levels of expression of CD44 have been observed in numerous cancer cell types. Some tumours, such as gliomas, express CD44s only. In contrast, other cancers, including gastrointestinal carcinoma, bladder cancer, uterine cervical cancer, breast carcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, express CD44 variants at higher levels. In addition, results from animal studies showed that introduction of CD44s- or CD44v-specific antibodies impeded CD44-ligand interaction and led to inhibition of local tumour growth and distant metastasis. These suggest that CD44 may confer a growth advantage on some tumours and could thus be a target for cancer therapy. In addition, CD44v may be a useful diagnostic marker for some cancers, or a prognostic marker.

Implicated in

Entity Breast cancer
Disease Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally, with more than 1.1 million women diagnosed each year. It is also the main cause of death from cancer in females worldwide.
Breast cancer can be of the non-invasive type in which the cancer cells are confined within the mammary ducts or lobes. The non invasive type can be further divided into ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular in situ subtypes. In invasive breast carcinoma, cancer cells invade into surrounding tissues and metastasise. Invasive breast cancer constitutes up 70 to 80% of cases of breast cancer, and includes invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma.
Prognosis Depends on tumour size and grade, presence of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, occurrence of nodal/regional metastasis, peritoneal vascular invasion and rate of tumour growth.
CD44+/CD24- breast cancer stem cells have been linked to tumourigenesis and may be associated with poor patient survival rate.
The various CD44 isoforms may play a part in breast cancer prognosis. The loss of CD44s is found to be associated with an increased risk of metastasis. CD44v3 and CD44v6 are positively correlated to breast cancer tumourigenesis and metastasis, and poor patient prognosis. CD44v7-8 has also been shown to be positively associated with poor overall patient survival rate.
Cytogenetics Chr11 is involved in the chromosomal abnormalities in breast cancer. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) profiles of Chr11 in breast cancer shows lack of changes on the short arm (11p) and frequent gains or losses on the long arm (11q). The distribution of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) regions on Chr11 that were consistently observed includes 11p15.5, 11q13 and 11q23.
Oncogenesis Different CD44 isoforms are associated with various stages of breast cancer progression. CD44s is downregulated in malignant breast cancer tissues compared against benign breast tissues. Nevertheless, CD44s has been reported to be essential for breast cancer invasion and metastasis to the liver. CD44 with variant exon 4 is upregulated in breast cancer and plays a role in cancer cell migration across endothelial monolayers. Soluble CD44v6 is elevated in cancerous tissues and positively correlated with larger tumour size and lymph node metastasis. Invasive cribiform breast tumours have been observed to have higher expression levels of both CD44v3 and v6, as well as reduced expression of CD44v4. In relation to hormonal receptors, a positive correlation has been reported between CD44v6 and breast carcinoma tissues with higher expression levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors. CD44s and CD44v9 expression levels are positively correlated with breast cancer tissues with elevated expression of estrogen receptors.
Entity Prostate cancer
Disease Prostate cancer is currently ranked the fifth most common cancer worldwide. It is usually diagnosed in older men aged 50 years old and above.
Prostate cancer pathological stages range from Stage I, in which the cancer is limited to the prostate gland and the cancer cannot be felt or seen, to Stage IV, in which cancer cells have metastasised to other parts of the body such as the bladder, rectum, lymph nodes or bones.
Prognosis Dependent on cancer staging, Gleason score, PSA level, patient's age and health, and the presence of recurrence.
CD44s and CD44v6 may have prognostic values in determining overall patient survival rate. Loss of CD44s expression has been found to aid in predicting cancer recurrence whereas reduced expression of CD44v6 has been positively correlated with tumour progression and reduced patient survival rate.
Cytogenetics Through cytogenetic methods such as CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Chr11p13 was reported to be deleted in sporadic prostate tumours. In addition, CD44 was found to be inactivated in both primary and metastatic prostate cancers.
Oncogenesis Compared against benign prostate tissues, significant downregulation of CD44s occurs in prostate cancer. The promoter region of CD44 consisting of a CpG island can undergo hypermethylation at the CpG dinucleotides, leading to transcriptional repression and downregulation of CD44s. On the other hand, CD44 variant isoforms such as CD44v6 and CD44v7-10 are overexpressed in prostate cancer. Increased CD44v6 expression is positively linked with prostate tumour stage and metastasis. Upregulation of CD44v7-10 occurs in both primary and metastatic prostate carcinoma. The variant isoforms make cancer cells bind preferentially to fibronectin rather than to hyaluronan. In addition, CD44 variants can activate matrix metalloproteinase-9, an important step in prostate cancer cell migration.
Entity Cervical cancer
Disease There are two major histopathological subtypes of cervical cancer. Most cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinoma where the tumour develops from squamous cells covering the surface of the exocervix. Adenocarcinoma, originating from mucus-producing cells of the endocervix, accounts for another 10-20% of cases.
Prognosis Depends on cancer stage, presence of metastasis, and the presence of recurrence.
A study showed that patients with early stage cervical cancer without involvement of pelvic lymph nodes but express CD44v6 expression have poor overall survival. Furthermore, patients with CD44v6 expression in metastatic tumours in the pelvic lymph nodes were found, more frequently, to have involvement of at least two pelvic lymph nodes and poorer patient survival rate.
Cytogenetics From an LOH study, it was observed that there were frequent losses of the short arm of Chr11 as well as fewer than expected normal Chr11.
Oncogenesis Exons v6 and v7-8 are promising indicators for identifying patients with increased risk of cervical cancer at an earlier stage. Both have prognostic values, as they are associated with poorer survival rate in patients diagnosed with Stage III cervical cancer.
Entity Colon cancer
Disease Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and is the fourth most frequent cause of death form cancer globally. Most colon cancers are adenocarcinomas.
Prognosis Depends on the tumour growth stage, presence of metastasis.
CD44v3, v5, v6, and v8-10 are possible prognostic indicators in colon cancer.
Cytogenetics Gain of Chr11 has been observed in a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, and may play a part in tumourigenesis and metastasis.
Oncogenesis CD44v isoforms are overexpressed in malignant colon cancer cells. Increased CD44v6 and CD44v8-10 expression were found to enhance HA binding, tumourigenicity and distant metastasis. Co-expression of CD44v3 and heparanase is also associated with metastasis. CD44v5 can serve as an early marker for colon cancer when detected on small dysplastic polyps. Elevated CD44 with Exon v6 is associated with tumour progression and metastasis, and indicates reduced survival probability.
Entity Rectum cancer
Disease The most common form of rectal cancer is adenocarcinoma, which develops from the mucosa. The malignant tumour can metastasise to lymph nodes and other parts of the body.
Prognosis CD44v6 is a promising prognostic factor which may help in predicting overall survival rate.
Oncogenesis In Stage III cancer, CD44v6 is positively linked to locoregional recurrence.
Entity Brain cancer
Disease Brain cancers can generally be classified into primary brain tumours and secondary brain tumours. Primary brain tumours occur when the tumour begins in the brain tissue and the most common type are gliomas. Secondary brain tumours occur when cancer cells spread from another part of the body to the brain. It is more common than primary brain tumours.
Prognosis Depends on the type of brain tumour, size and location of the tumour, grade and stage of the cancer.
Cytogenetics From trypsin-Giemsa staining and multicolour FISH, chromosomal aberrations were found on Chr11p in medulloblastoma, a subtype of brain cancer which occurs mainly in children.
Oncogenesis In primary brain cancers, CD44 isoforms composed of single-variant Exons v3, v4, v6 or v9 were observed to be weakly expressed. In metastatic brain tumours, CD44 isoforms including those with multiple variant exons were overexpressed. However, it was observed that brain cancer cells that metastasise to the spine were negative for CD44v. Other studies showed that CD44v5/v6 was homogenously expressed in brain cancer tissues whereas CD44v7-10 expression was upregulated in a fraction of brain tumour cells.
Entity Pancreatic cancer
Disease About 95% of pancreatic cancer cases begin in the pancreatic. A rare type of pancreatic cancer is pancreatic islet cell cancer where the tumour occurs in the cells that make insulin and other hormones.
Prognosis Depends on cancer stage, whether the cancer is surgically removable, presence of recurrence, and patient's general health.
CD44v2 and v6 may be useful markers of poor prognosis as their expressions were correlated with decreased overall patient survival.
Cytogenetics Gain of Chr11q has been observed in CGH.
Oncogenesis CD44s, CD44v3, CD44v4 and CD44v6 are expressed at moderate levels in pancreatic tumour cell lines. CD44v7 is expressed at low levels, whereas CD44v7/8 and CD44v10 are expressed in very low amounts. Additionally, CD44v2 is observed only in tumour cells and is associated with vessel invasion.
Entity Lung cancer
Disease Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The two main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). NSCLC is further subdivided into squamous cell lung carcinoma which originate near central bronchi, adenocarcinoma (originating from peripheral lung tissues) and large cell lung carcinoma (found near the surface or outer edges of the lung).
Prognosis Depends on cancer stage, type of lung cancer, presence of metastasis, presence of recurrence, and general health of the patient.
In NSCLC, high expression of CD44v6 was associated with poor prognosis. In adenocarcinoma and large cell lung carcinoma, downregulation of CD44s, CD44v3 and v6 were\linked to poor patient survival rate.
Cytogenetics In SCLC, Chr11 has a frequent breakpoint at 11p11-12 and is often a recipient of translocated material on the short arm. Other translocations and deletions have also been observed on the long arm.
Oncogenesis CD44v6 expression is positively linked to metastasis in NSCLC. However, the variant 6 isoform and CD44v3 are negatively correlated with invasion in lung adenocarcinoma. Additionally, both CD44v3 and v6 mRNAs are not always translated into functional proteins due to post-translational disruption in cancer cells.
Entity Liver cancer
Disease Liver cancer is ranked among the top ten cancer types worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer. Other forms include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and fibrolamellar carcinoma.
Prognosis In poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma, CD44 isoforms such as CD44s, v5, v6, v7-8 and v10 are upregulated and associated with poorer overall patient survival rate.
Oncogenesis Upregulated CD44v6 expression is coupled with the presence of vascular invasion.
Entity Stomach cancer
Disease The most common form of gastric cancer is adenocarcinoma, where the tumour arises from the gastric glands. The malignant cells can invade through the stomach wall and spread to nearby organs and lymph nodes.
Prognosis CD44v6 and sCD44v6 are positively correlated with tumour progression in the diffuse type of gastric cancer and lower patient survival rate.
Cytogenetics Chr11 is involved in chromosomal abnormalities in gastric carcinoma and correlated with poor prognosis. It was observed in a CGH study that the 11p11.2-14 region, containing the CD44 gene at Chr11p13, was highly amplified.
Oncogenesis Serum concentration of soluble CD44 variant 6 isoform is correlated with the depth of invasion and presence of metastatic tumour cells as well as cancer stage in patients with diffuse type gastric cancer. Thus, sCD44v6 may be a valuable prognostic indicator.
The ratio of CD44E to CD44H expression in gastric cancer tissues was also observed to be significantly higher than in non-cancerous tissues. Patients with elevated E/H ratio have reduced survival rates.
CD44v3 showed no association with cancer spread or patient survival.
Entity Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)
Disease NHL is the most common cancer of the lymphatic system with at least 61 subtypes. It is generally divided into B-cell lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma. NHL may occur in lymph nodes, specialised lymphatic organs (such as the spleen) or lymphatic tissues (such as those in the stomach), and is able to spread via the lymphatic vessels and blood stream.
Prognosis The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is a useful method in determining survival outcome of patients with fast-growing lymphomas. The index consists of five factors: the patient's age, lymphoma stage, presence of metastasis, patient's performance status, and serum level of lactate dehydrogenase.
Expressions of serum soluble CD44 at diagnosis as well as CD44 with Exon variant 6 are correlated with lower patient survival rate.
Oncogenesis CD44 with variant Exons 6-10 are elevated in NHL. In vivo studies have indicated that CD44 containing directly-spliced Exon 10 is more highly associated with local tumour development and distant metastasis compared against larger Exon 10-containing variants (for example, CD44ex10-14 and CD44ex7-14) and CD44H.


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PMID 12399124
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Tacyildiz N, Cavdar AO, Yavuz G, Gozdas,oglu S, Unal E, Ertem U, Duru F, Ikinciogullari A, Babacan E, Kuzu I, Cin S.
Pediatr Int. 2001 Aug;43(4):354-60.
PMID 11472578
CD44s is useful in the differentiation of benign and malignant papillary lesions of the breast.
Tse GM, Tan PH, Ma TK, Gilks CB, Poon CS, Law BK.
J Clin Pathol. 2005 Nov;58(11):1185-8.
PMID 16254109
Diagnostic application of CD44 variant expression in pancreatic juice for detection of pancreatic neoplasm.
Tsukuda H, Matsumura Y, Inoue T, Kobayashi Y, Ookawa K, Aoki T, Nebiki H, Yamazaki O, Kondo H, Kakizoe T.
Anticancer Res. 2001 May-Jun;21(3C):2175-83.
PMID 11501843
Prognostic value of cell cycle proteins p27(kip1) and MIB-1, and the cell adhesion protein CD44s in surgically treated patients with prostate cancer.
Vis AN, Noordzij MA, Fitoz K, Wildhagen MF, Schroder FH, van der Kwast TH.
J Urol. 2000 Dec;164(6):2156-61.
PMID 11061947
Expression of a CD44 variant and VEGF-C and the implications for lymphatic metastasis and long-term prognosis of human breast cancer.
Watanabe O, Kinoshita J, Shimizu T, Imamura H, Hirano A, Okabe T, Aiba M, Ogawa K.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Mar;24(1):75-82.
PMID 15943035
Cytogenetics of small cell carcinoma of the lung.
Wurster-Hill DH, Cannizzaro LA, Pettengill OS, Sorenson GD, Cate CC, Maurer LH.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1984 Dec;13(4):303-30.
PMID 6095990
CD44V6 in gastric carcinoma: a marker of tumor progression.
Xin Y, Grace A, Gallagher MM, Curran BT, Leader MB, Kay EW.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2001 Jun;9(2):138-42.
PMID 11396631
A directly spliced exon 10-containing CD44 variant promotes the metastasis and homotypic aggregation of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Yakushijin Y, Steckel J, Kharbanda S, Hasserjian R, Neuberg D, Jiang W, Anderson I, Shipp MA.
Blood. 1998 Jun 1;91(11):4282-91.
PMID 9596677
CD44 variant exon 6 expressions in colon cancer assessed by quantitative analysis using real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
Yamada Y, Itano N, Narimatsu H, Kudo T, Hirohashi S, Ochiai A, Tohnai I, Ueda M, Kimata K.
Oncol Rep. 2003 Nov-Dec;10(6):1919-24.
PMID 14534719
Expression of variant CD44 in colorectal cancer and its relationship to liver metastasis.
Yamaguchi A.
Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 1998 Jul;99(7):409-14. (REVIEW)
PMID 9742519
CD44v4 is a major E-selectin ligand that mediates breast cancer cell transendothelial migration.
Zen K, Liu DQ, Guo YL, Wang C, Shan J, Fang M, Zhang CY, Liu Y.
PLoS ONE. 2008 Mar 19;3(3):e1826.
PMID 18350162
Relationship of the expression of CD44v6 and paxillin to the prognosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Zuo W, Li H.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2003 Jul;34(3):484-5.
PMID 12910696


This paper should be referenced as such :
Sen, YP ; Yip, GW
CD44 (CD44 molecule (Indian blood group))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(2):95-102.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

Other Leukemias implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 2 ]
  Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML)
t(11;14)(p13;q32) IGH::CD44

External links

HGNC (Hugo)CD44   1681
LRG (Locus Reference Genomic)LRG_815
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)CD44    CD44 molecule (Indian blood group)
HUTCH-I; IN; LHR; MC56; MDU2; MDU3; MIC4; Pgp1
GeneCards (Weizmann)CD44
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000026508 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000026508 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000026508 [Sequence]  chr11:35139171-35223319 [Contig_View]  CD44 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000026508
TCGA cBioPortalCD44
AceView (NCBI)CD44
Genatlas (Paris)CD44
SOURCE (Princeton)CD44
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)CD44
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)CD44  -     chr11:35139171-35223319 +  11p13   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)CD44  -     11p13   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathCD44 - 11p13 [CytoView hg19]  CD44 - 11p13 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBICD44 [Mapview hg19]  
OMIM107269   609027   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB073901 AF086543 AF098641 AJ251595 AK123567
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_000610 NM_001001389 NM_001001390 NM_001001391 NM_001001392 NM_001202555 NM_001202556 NM_001202557
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)CD44
Gene ExpressionCD44 [ NCBI-GEO ]   CD44 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   CD44 [ SEEK ]   CD44 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)CD44 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of CD44 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)960
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)CD44
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000026508-CD44 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Conserved Domain (NCBI)CD44
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000026508-CD44 [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
Ontologies - Pathways
PubMed499 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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indexed on : Fri Oct 8 21:14:27 CEST 2021

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