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CLIC1 (chloride intracellular channel 1)

Identity

Other namesG6
NCC27
HGNC (Hugo) CLIC1
LocusID (NCBI) 1192
Location 6p21.33
Location_base_pair Starts at 31698358 and ends at 31705095 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]

DNA/RNA

 
  Genomic organization of the CLIC1 gene on chromosome 6. There are 7 alternatively spliced and 2 unspliced variants of mRNA.
Description The CLIC1 gene was mapped on chromosome 6 (6p21.33). It covers 9.183 kb, from position 31707540 to 31698358 bp in the minus strand orientation (NCBI 37, August 2010) and contains 6 exons. The gene is also known as CLIC1, DADB-110M10.1, G6, NCC27 or LOC1192, skersla. It has been described as chloride intracellular channel protein 1, hRNCC, p64CLCP, RNCC protein, OTTHUMP00000029133, OTTHUMP00000029137, OTTHUMP00000174486, chloride channel ABP, nuclear chloride ion channel 27, nuclear chloride ion channel protein, regulatory nuclear chloride ion channel protein.
Transcription Ten separate gt-ag or gc-ag introns can be found within CLIC1. The mRNAs produced by its transcription: 7 alternatively spliced and 2 unspliced variants (see diagram above). These mRNAs appear to differ by truncation of the 5' end, truncation of the 3' end, overlapping exons with different boundaries, and splicing rather than retention of 3 introns. Research shows there are 2 non-overlapping alternative last exons, 4 probable alternative promoters, and 5 validated alternative polyadenylation sites. A translated product, an upstream open reading frame (uORF), reduces the efficacy of translation by initiating at an AUG upstream of the main open reading frame.
Pseudogene According to the NCBI and HGNC database, there is a pseudogene of CLIC1 within the human known as CLIC1P1 (chloride intracellular channel 1 pseudogene 1). CLIC1P1 was mapped to chromosome 12q24.31 (121352207-121352926). Two other pseudogenes of CLIC1, LOC401864 and LOC100420638, were also recorded in the NCBI database. LOC401864 and LOC100420638 were located on chromosome 16q24.1 (86468450-86469104) and 17 (63639278-63640303), respectively.

Protein

 
Description CLIC1, also known as NCC27, is a member of the CLIC family. The family is defined by a C-terminal core segment of 230 amino acids, which has significant structural homology with glutathione-S-transferase (Harrop et al., 2001), and contains seven members, including CLIC1, CLIC2, CLIC3, CLIC4, CLIC5, p64, and parchorin. CLIC1 functions as a chloride channel, much like other CLIC family members, and possesses the biological activities needed to regulate the cell volume and acidity of intracellular organelles. CLIC1 exists in cells as an integral membrane protein as well as a soluble cytoplasm protein. These phenomena indicate that CLIC1 might cycle between membrane-inserted and soluble forms (Tulk et al., 2002).
Expression CLIC1 can be expressed in various cell types. Expression is prominent in the heart, placenta, liver, kidney and pancreas (Berryman and Bretscher, 2000). To find the protein expression of various cell types and normal/cancer tissues, please refer to the database, The Human Protein Atlas.
Localisation The protein localizes in the nucleus, nucleus membrane, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Protein generally exists in the nucleus including the nuclear membrane and smaller amounts exist in the cytoplasm as well as the plasma membrane (Valenzuela et al., 1997; Berryman and Bretscher, 2000; Harrop et al., 2001). The Human Protein Atlas database reveals that CLIC1 has weak to strong immunofluorescence staining in various cell types in cytoplasm.
Function 1. Ion channels
The CLIC family of proteins exhibits chloride channel activity when reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Due to its ability to spontaneously insert into preformed membranes, CLIC1 appears to cycle between membrane protein and soluble cytoplasmic protein forms, and sometimes functions as an anion-selective channel (chloride ion channels) (Tulk et al., 2000; Tulk et al., 2002; Berryman and Bretscher, 2000). Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including cell volume, stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH. In previous studies, CLIC1 ion channels were shown to be strongly and reversibly inhibited by cytosolic F-actin in the absence of other proteins. This effect can be reversed using cytochalasin, which disrupts F-actin. This represents a new possibility for which CLIC1 and other actin-regulated membrane CLICs could be used to modify solute transport at key stages during cellular events such as apoptosis, cell movement, cell-volume regulation, as well as cell and organelle division and fusion (Singh et al., 2007; Fanucchi et al., 2008; Stoychev et al., 2009). In an oxidized state, the crystal structure of CLIC1 drastically changes as a large hydrophobic surface is exposed, and forms a dimer interface. The oxidized CLIC1 dimer maintains its ability to form chloride ion channels in artificial bilayers and vesicles, whereas a reducing environment would inhibit the formation of ion channels by CLIC1 (Littler et al., 2004). Research suggest that oxidation of monomeric CLIC1, in the presence of membranes, promotes its insertion into the bilayer more effectively than the oxidized CLIC1 dimer (Goodchild et al., 2009). The crystal structure of CLIC1 classifies it as a member of the glutathione S-transferase superfamily. This detail helps explain why CLICs can exist in a water-soluble state, and also insert into membranes to form ion channels (Dulhunty et al., 2000; Cromer et al., 2002). As an ion channel, CLIC1 is likely to consist of a tetrameric assembly of subunits, and despite its size and unusual properties, there are indications of its ability to form an ion channel in the absence of any other ancillary proteins (Warton et al., 2002). The structure of CLIC1 with glutathione reveals that glutathione occupies the redox-active site, which is adjacent to an open, elongated slot lined with basic residues. Integration of CLIC1 into the membrane would require major structural changes, most likely within the N-domain (residues 1-90), with its transmembrane helix arising from residues near the redox-active site. The structure indicates that CLIC1 is likely to be controlled by redox-dependent processes (Harrop et al., 2001). In addition, CLIC1 translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane after microglial activation where it promotes chloride conductance. The charge generated by the active NADPH oxidase is balanced by the resulting anionic current. Removing the excess charge supports superoxide generation by the enzyme. CLIC1 exhibits an ability to act as both a second messenger and an executer (Averaimo et al., 2010).
2. Inflammation
At the cellular level, Alzheimer's disease is characterized as the accumulation of Aβ in neuritic plaques which have been infiltrated by astrocytes and reactive microglia. A decrease in the expression of CLIC1 could reverse this inflammation if the decrease was used to prevent pro-inflammatory TNF-a and neurotoxic products caused by Aβ-stimulated microglial cells (Novarino et al., 2004).
3. Apoptosis
A specific blocker may be used to reduce CLIC1 chloride conductance, and thereby prevent neural apoptosis in neurons co-cultured with Aβ-treated microglia. In doing so, the cellular process of apoptosis could be controlled, giving hope to possibly control diseases caused by the apoptosis of particular cells (Novarino et al., 2004).
4. Motility
CLIC1 overexpression can promote cell motility and invasion of gallbladder carcinoma cells (GBC-SD18L), whereas interference of CLIC1's RNA can significantly decrease the cell motility and invasive potency of GBC-SD18L in vitro (Wang et al., 2009). Additionally, by simply reducing the CLIC1 expression, the migration ability of endothelial cells can be reduced accordingly (Tung and Kitajewski, 2010).
5. Cell cycle regulation
Cl- ion channel blockers, known to block CLIC1, were shown to inhibit Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells in the G2/M stage of the cell cycle. This is the stage in which the ion channel is selectively expressed on the plasma membrane. The prevention of CLIC1-mediated changes in cell volume may prevent cells from completing mitosis, thereby preventing the cells from physically dividing and/or the dissolution of the nuclear envelope. To the same effect, disruption of the CLIC1 function in ionic Cl- regulation may prevent other downstream events, in which case cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms prevent the cell from completing mitosis (Valenzuela et al., 2000).
Homology CLIC1, CLIC2, CLIC3, CLIC5 and CLIC6.

Implicated in

Entity Gastric carcinoma
Note The CLIC1 gene expression in tumor tissues was 1.95 times that of adjacent noncancerous mucosa. These elevated levels are attributed to lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, perineural invasion, and pathological staging. Also, the 5-year survival rate of the low CLIC1 expression group was 1.72 times that of the high expression group. Results represent CLIC1's potential as an effective prognostic marker for gastric cancer (Chen et al., 2006).
  
Entity Hepatocellular carcinoma
Note An observed overexpression of CLIC1 (60% or 27/45) in high proportions of 45 patient HCC tumors indicates that CLIC1 is also a potential marker for HCC (Huang et al., 2003).
  
Entity Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Note The plasma levels of CLIC1 among NPC patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls, as presented by sandwich ELISA. 75% of NPC tissue specimens showed positive CLIC1 staining by IHC. NPC was successfully discriminated from the benign healthy control group with a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 77%. Results indicate that CLIC1 is a potential plasma tumor marker for NPC (Chang et al., 2009).
  
Entity Laryngeal cancer
Note Suppressing of the CLIC1 gene allows for the acquisition of a radio-resistant phenotype of laryngeal cancer cells via inhibition of ROS production. This indicates that CLIC1 is an important candidate molecule for radiotherapy in radio-resistant laryngeal cells (Kim et al., 2010).
  
Entity Lung adenocarcinoma
Note Among 103 paraffin sections of lung adenocarcinoma tissue samples, the CLIC1 expression was strongly positive in 49 cases (47.6%). This gene expression significantly correlates with the T staging of tumors (p = 0.029). Univariate analysis indicated that the patient's ECOG score, T staging, N staging, TNM staging, and CLIC1 expression correlated with prognosis (p = 0.031, 0.001, 0.011, 0.013, and <0.001, respectively). Multivariate statistical analysis shows that age, T staging, and CLIC1 expression are all independent factors for predicting the 5-year survival rate of patients (p = 0.026, 0.004, and <0.001, respectively). CLIC1 may be closely associated with the occurrence and development of lung adenocarcinoma, making it an effective prognostic marker (Wang et al., 2011).
  
Entity Psoriasis
Note CLIC1 is one of several genes that can act as genomic classifiers in response to treatment of psoriasis with Alefacept. (Suárez-Fariñas et al., 2010).
  
Entity Alzheimer's disease
Note Research suggests that the blockade of CLIC1 stimulates Aβ phagocytosis in mononuclear phagocytes while inhibiting the induction of iNOS. Results point to CLIC1 as a possible therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease (Paradisi et al., 2008).
  

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)CLIC1   2062
Cards
AtlasCLIC1ID50543ch6p21
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)CLIC1  1192  chloride intracellular channel 1
GeneCards (Weizmann)CLIC1
Ensembl (Hinxton)ENSG00000213719 [Gene_View]  chr6:31698358-31705095 [Contig_View]  CLIC1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000213719
cBioPortalCLIC1
AceView (NCBI)CLIC1
Genatlas (Paris)CLIC1
WikiGenes1192
SOURCE (Princeton)NM_001287593 NM_001287594 NM_001288
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath (UCSC)CLIC1  -  6p21.33   chr6:31698358-31705095 -  6p21.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblCLIC1 - 6p21.3 [CytoView]
Mapping of homologs : NCBICLIC1 [Mapview]
OMIM602872   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AF034607 AF109197 AI192421 AK129773 AK223379
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001287593 NM_001287594 NM_001288
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)AC_000138 NC_000006 NC_018917 NT_007592 NT_113891 NT_167245 NT_167246 NT_167247 NT_167248 NT_167249 NW_001838980 NW_004929326
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)CLIC1
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.414565 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.414565
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0026477
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000213719
Gene ExpressionCLIC1 [ NCBI-GEO ]     CLIC1 [ SEEK ]   CLIC1 [ MEM ]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtO00299 (Uniprot)
NextProtO00299  [Medical]
With graphics : InterProO00299
Splice isoforms : SwissVarO00299 (Swissvar)
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)GST_CTER (PS50405)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Glutathione-S-Trfase_C-like [organisation]   Glutathione_S-Trfase_N [organisation]   Int_Cl_channel [organisation]   Thioredoxin-like_fold [organisation]  
Related proteins : CluSTrO00299
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)GST_N_2 (PF13409)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam13409   
DMDM Disease mutations1192
Blocks (Seattle)O00299
PDB (SRS)1K0M    1K0N    1K0O    1RK4    3O3T    3P8W    3P90    3QR6    3SWL    3TGZ    3UVH    4IQA    4JZQ    4K0G    4K0N   
PDB (PDBSum)1K0M    1K0N    1K0O    1RK4    3O3T    3P8W    3P90    3QR6    3SWL    3TGZ    3UVH    4IQA    4JZQ    4K0G    4K0N   
PDB (IMB)1K0M    1K0N    1K0O    1RK4    3O3T    3P8W    3P90    3QR6    3SWL    3TGZ    3UVH    4IQA    4JZQ    4K0G    4K0N   
PDB (RSDB)1K0M    1K0N    1K0O    1RK4    3O3T    3P8W    3P90    3QR6    3SWL    3TGZ    3UVH    4IQA    4JZQ    4K0G    4K0N   
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000213719 [gene] [tissue] [antibody] [cell] [cancer]
Peptide AtlasO00299
HPRD04188
IPIIPI00010896   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)O00299
IntAct (EBI)O00299
FunCoupENSG00000213719
BioGRIDCLIC1
InParanoidO00299
Interologous Interaction database O00299
IntegromeDBCLIC1
STRING (EMBL)CLIC1
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOvoltage-gated chloride channel activity  chloride channel activity  protein binding  extracellular space  nucleus  nuclear envelope  cytoplasm  mitochondrion  plasma membrane  brush border  chloride transport  signal transduction  membrane  nuclear membrane  chloride channel complex  regulation of ion transmembrane transport  regulation of anion transport  positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation  perinuclear region of cytoplasm  regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential  extracellular vesicular exosome  blood microparticle  chloride transmembrane transport  chloride transmembrane transport  
Ontology : EGO-EBIvoltage-gated chloride channel activity  chloride channel activity  protein binding  extracellular space  nucleus  nuclear envelope  cytoplasm  mitochondrion  plasma membrane  brush border  chloride transport  signal transduction  membrane  nuclear membrane  chloride channel complex  regulation of ion transmembrane transport  regulation of anion transport  positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation  perinuclear region of cytoplasm  regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential  extracellular vesicular exosome  blood microparticle  chloride transmembrane transport  chloride transmembrane transport  
Protein Interaction DatabaseCLIC1
Wikipedia pathwaysCLIC1
Gene fusion - rearrangments
Polymorphisms : SNP, mutations, diseases
SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)CLIC1
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease1192
SNP (GeneSNP Utah)CLIC1
SNP : HGBaseCLIC1
Genetic variants : HAPMAPCLIC1
Exome VariantCLIC1
1000_GenomesCLIC1 
ICGC programENSG00000213719 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICCLIC1 
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisCLIC1 
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDCLIC1
Genomic VariantsCLIC1  CLIC1 [DGVbeta]
dbVarCLIC1
ClinVarCLIC1
Pred. of missensesPolyPhen-2  SIFT(SG)  SIFT(JCVI)  Align-GVGD  MutAssessor  Mutanalyser  
Pred. splicesGeneSplicer  Human Splicing Finder  MaxEntScan  
Diseases
OMIM602872   
MedgenCLIC1
GENETestsCLIC1
Disease Genetic AssociationCLIC1
Huge Navigator CLIC1 [HugePedia]  CLIC1 [HugeCancerGEM]
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneCLIC1
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)CLIC1
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamCLIC1
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD1192
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA26588
Clinical trialCLIC1
Cancer Resource (Charite)ENSG00000213719
Other databases
Probes
Litterature
PubMed79 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
CoreMineCLIC1
iHOPCLIC1
OncoSearchCLIC1

Bibliography

Molecular cloning and expression of a chloride ion channel of cell nuclei.
Valenzuela SM, Martin DK, Por SB, Robbins JM, Warton K, Bootcov MR, Schofield PR, Campbell TJ, Breit SN.
J Biol Chem. 1997 May 9;272(19):12575-82.
PMID 9139710
 
Identification of a novel member of the chloride intracellular channel gene family (CLIC5) that associates with the actin cytoskeleton of placental microvilli.
Berryman M, Bretscher A.
Mol Biol Cell. 2000 May;11(5):1509-21.
PMID 10793131
 
Functional characterization of the NCC27 nuclear protein in stable transfected CHO-K1 cells.
Tonini R, Ferroni A, Valenzuela SM, Warton K, Campbell TJ, Breit SN, Mazzanti M.
FASEB J. 2000 Jun;14(9):1171-8.
PMID 10834939
 
CLIC-1 functions as a chloride channel when expressed and purified from bacteria.
Tulk BM, Schlesinger PH, Kapadia SA, Edwards JC.
J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 1;275(35):26986-93.
PMID 10874038
 
The nuclear chloride ion channel NCC27 is involved in regulation of the cell cycle.
Valenzuela SM, Mazzanti M, Tonini R, Qiu MR, Warton K, Musgrove EA, Campbell TJ, Breit SN.
J Physiol. 2000 Dec 15;529 Pt 3:541-52.
PMID 11195932
 
Crystal structure of a soluble form of the intracellular chloride ion channel CLIC1 (NCC27) at 1.4-A resolution.
Harrop SJ, DeMaere MZ, Fairlie WD, Reztsova T, Valenzuela SM, Mazzanti M, Tonini R, Qiu MR, Jankova L, Warton K, Bauskin AR, Wu WM, Pankhurst S, Campbell TJ, Breit SN, Curmi PM.
J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 30;276(48):44993-5000. Epub 2001 Sep 10.
PMID 11551966
 
From glutathione transferase to pore in a CLIC.
Cromer BA, Morton CJ, Board PG, Parker MW.
Eur Biophys J. 2002 Sep;31(5):356-64. Epub 2002 May 23. (REVIEW)
PMID 12202911
 
CLIC1 inserts from the aqueous phase into phospholipid membranes, where it functions as an anion channel.
Tulk BM, Kapadia S, Edwards JC.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002 May;282(5):C1103-12.
PMID 11940526
 
Recombinant CLIC1 (NCC27) assembles in lipid bilayers via a pH-dependent two-state process to form chloride ion channels with identical characteristics to those observed in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing CLIC1.
Warton K, Tonini R, Fairlie WD, Matthews JM, Valenzuela SM, Qiu MR, Wu WM, Pankhurst S, Bauskin AR, Harrop SJ, Campbell TJ, Curmi PM, Breit SN, Mazzanti M.
J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 19;277(29):26003-11. Epub 2002 Apr 26.
PMID 11978800
 
Diverse cellular transformation capability of overexpressed genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Huang JS, Chao CC, Su TL, Yeh SH, Chen DS, Chen CT, Chen PJ, Jou YS.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):950-8.
PMID 14985104
 
The intracellular chloride ion channel protein CLIC1 undergoes a redox-controlled structural transition.
Littler DR, Harrop SJ, Fairlie WD, Brown LJ, Pankhurst GJ, Pankhurst S, DeMaere MZ, Campbell TJ, Bauskin AR, Tonini R, Mazzanti M, Breit SN, Curmi PM.
J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 5;279(10):9298-305. Epub 2003 Nov 12.
PMID 14613939
 
Involvement of the intracellular ion channel CLIC1 in microglia-mediated beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity.
Novarino G, Fabrizi C, Tonini R, Denti MA, Malchiodi-Albedi F, Lauro GM, Sacchetti B, Paradisi S, Ferroni A, Curmi PM, Breit SN, Mazzanti M.
J Neurosci. 2004 Jun 9;24(23):5322-30.
PMID 15190104
 
Overexpression of CLIC1 in human gastric carcinoma and its clinicopathological significance.
Chen CD, Wang CS, Huang YH, Chien KY, Liang Y, Chen WJ, Lin KH.
Proteomics. 2007 Jan;7(1):155-67.
PMID 17154271
 
Functional reconstitution of mammalian 'chloride intracellular channels' CLIC1, CLIC4 and CLIC5 reveals differential regulation by cytoskeletal actin.
Singh H, Cousin MA, Ashley RH.
FEBS J. 2007 Dec;274(24):6306-16. Epub 2007 Nov 19.
PMID 18028448
 
Formation of an unfolding intermediate state of soluble chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC1 at acidic pH.
Fanucchi S, Adamson RJ, Dirr HW.
Biochemistry. 2008 Nov 4;47(44):11674-81. Epub 2008 Oct 14.
PMID 18850721
 
Cell secretome analysis using hollow fiber culture system leads to the discovery of CLIC1 protein as a novel plasma marker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Chang YH, Wu CC, Chang KP, Yu JS, Chang YC, Liao PC.
J Proteome Res. 2009 Dec;8(12):5465-74.
PMID 19845400
 
Oxidation promotes insertion of the CLIC1 chloride intracellular channel into the membrane.
Goodchild SC, Howell MW, Cordina NM, Littler DR, Breit SN, Curmi PM, Brown LJ.
Eur Biophys J. 2009 Dec;39(1):129-38. Epub 2009 Apr 23.
PMID 19387633
 
Structural dynamics of soluble chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC1 examined by amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.
Stoychev SH, Nathaniel C, Fanucchi S, Brock M, Li S, Asmus K, Woods VL Jr, Dirr HW.
Biochemistry. 2009 Sep 8;48(35):8413-21.
PMID 19650640
 
Identification of metastasis-associated proteins involved in gallbladder carcinoma metastasis by proteomic analysis and functional exploration of chloride intracellular channel 1.
Wang JW, Peng SY, Li JT, Wang Y, Zhang ZP, Cheng Y, Cheng DQ, Weng WH, Wu XS, Fei XZ, Quan ZW, Li JY, Li SG, Liu YB.
Cancer Lett. 2009 Aug 18;281(1):71-81. Epub 2009 Mar 18.
PMID 19299076
 
Chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1): Sensor and effector during oxidative stress.
Averaimo S, Milton RH, Duchen MR, Mazzanti M.
FEBS Lett. 2010 May 17;584(10):2076-84. Epub 2010 Apr 10. (REVIEW)
PMID 20385134
 
Chloride intracellular channel 1 identified using proteomic analysis plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of HEp-2 cells via reactive oxygen species production.
Kim JS, Chang JW, Yun HS, Yang KM, Hong EH, Kim DH, Um HD, Lee KH, Lee SJ, Hwang SG.
Proteomics. 2010 Jul;10(14):2589-604.
PMID 20461716
 
Personalized medicine in psoriasis: developing a genomic classifier to predict histological response to Alefacept.
Suarez-Farinas M, Shah KR, Haider AS, Krueger JG, Lowes MA.
BMC Dermatol. 2010 Feb 12;10:1.
PMID 20152045
 
Chloride intracellular channel 1 functions in endothelial cell growth and migration.
Tung JJ, Kitajewski J.
J Angiogenes Res. 2010 Nov 1;2:23.
PMID 21040583
 
The expression and clinical significance of CLIC1 and HSP27 in lung adenocarcinoma.
Wang W, Xu X, Wang W, Shao W, Li L, Yin W, Xiu L, Mo M, Zhao J, He Q, He J.
Tumour Biol. 2011 Dec;32(6):1199-208. Epub 2011 Aug 20.
PMID 21858536
 
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Contributor(s)

Written11-2011Pao-Chi Liao, Ying-Hwa Chang
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (PCL); Institute of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (YHC)

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Liao PC, Chang YH
CLIC1 (chloride intracellular channel 1);
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. November 2011
Free online version   Free pdf version   [Bibliographic record ]
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/CLIC1ID50543ch6p21.html

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