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DLX2 (distal-less homeobox 2)

Written2014-03Yorick Gitton, Giovanni Levi
Evolution des Regulations Endocriniennes, CNRS, UMR7221, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Abstract DLX2 belongs to the six-member family of DLX genes characterized by a homeobox related to that found in the insect Distal-less (Dll) gene. It was the first human homologue to be discovered (Selski et al., 1993; McGuinness et al., 1996). The six DLX genes are organized as three bigenic pairs with a tail-to-tail orientation (Zerucha et al., 2000) and located on chromosomes where HOX clusters are also found (DLX5/DLX6; 7q21.3, syntenic to the HOXA cluster), (DLX1/DLX2; 2q32 syntenic to the HOXD cluster; Simeone et al., 1994; Zerucha et al., 2000) and (DLX3/DLX4; 17q21.33 syntenic to the HOXB cluster). During embryonic development DLX genes are involved in the control of appendage and craniofacial morphogenesis and in the differentiation of reproductive organs; in the adult they play a role in bone homeostasis and in the maintenance of tissue integrity (Kraus and Lufkin, 2006).

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Alias_namesdistal-less homeo box 2
Alias_symbol (synonym)TES-1
Other aliasTES1
HGNC (Hugo) DLX2
LocusID (NCBI) 1746
Atlas_Id 52177
Location 2q31.1  [Link to chromosome band 2q31]
Location_base_pair Starts at 172099438 and ends at 172102750 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping DLX2.png]
Local_order Reverse strand of human chromosome 2, from 172964167 to 172967628 - see Figure 1 below. DLX2 forms a bigenic cluster with DLX1 at 2q31.
  Figure 1. Genomic context of the human DLX1/DLX2 bigenic locus.
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
PDK1 (2q31.1) / DLX2 (2q31.1)


Note DLX2 is in an inverted convergent orientation from DLX1, with both exons 3 separated by 10.7 kb where two enhancers have been identified and functionally characterized (Zerucha et al., 2000; Sumiyama et al., 2002; Ghanem et al., 2003; Park et al., 2004). While one regulatory element is enough and sufficient to drive proper and full expression of Dlx1/Dlx2 genes based upon mouse reporter assays, other, extragenic elements are involved in the dual regulation of Dlx1 and Dlx2.
The imprinting status of the DLX1/DLX2 locus has received much less attention than that of their DLX5/DLX6 paralogs (see their respective cards). However, an epigenetic mechanism linking Dlx2 function with neural stem cell maintenance has been demonstrated in adult mice (Lim et al., 2009). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays differentiating subventricular zone neural stem cells has shown that the Dlx2 locus is a direct bivalent target of the histone methyltransferase Mll1 (mixed-lineage leukemia 1). Whether such methylation process has a clinical relevance remains to be determined, as altered methylation of DLX2 has been observed in pathogenic conditions, including in primary cells from brain astrocytomas, where hypermethylation of DLX2 CpG island has been observed (Wu et al., 2010).
  Figure 2. The two known human DLX2 transcripts.
Transcription Transcription from DLX2 yields two splice variants which share the first two exons, the homeodomain and the N-terminal DLL domain (see Figure 2). The major, mature isoform encodes a 328 AA long transcription factor (34.2 kDa and pI 9.25). Sense isoforms have not been reported for this gene.


  Figure 3. Structure of the major DLX2 protein isoform. Note the N- and C-terminal poly-glycine stretches, and the N-terminal DLL-like domain.
Description The major DLX2 isoform is a 328 AA helix-turn-helix homeodomain transcription factor (34.2 kDa and pI 9.5). The ultraconserved homeobox domain spans exons 1 and 2 at 153-211. A second N-terminal DNA binding domain, specific to the DLX2/3/5 clade within the distal-less family, is encoded by exon 1 at AA 51-132. Local composition biases include three poly-glycine and one poly-histidine stretches, and a phosphorylation target serine at 232 (see Figure 3 below).
  Figure 4. NCBI/COBALT alignment of DLX homeoproteins. Note the disposition according to the DLX 1/4/6 versus DLX 2/3/5 clades. Indicated by a yellow box is the ultraconserved glutamine featured by most homeoproteins at position 50 of the homeodomain.
Expression DLX2 is a predominantly nuclear transcription factor, from the helix-turn-helix group. It transactivates target gene expression in heterodimeric association with other DLX and MSX transcription factors. Its consensus binding site is TTA(G/A)TTGA. Chromatin immunoprecitpitation assays have shown that during mouse forebrain development, Dlx2 (along with Dlx1) specifically binds an intergenic enhancer within the Dlx5/Dlx6 locus (see their respective cards), and transactivates their expression (Zerucha et al., 2000; Zhou et al., 2004). Interestingly, regulation of the Dlx5/Dlx6 locus in the developing retina occurs through transactivation by Dlx2 but not Dlx1.
Function A particularity of Dlx2 is its ability to cooperate with a nuclear non-coding RNA (sense and single-stranded, 440 b), Evf-2, transcribed from the Dlx5/Dlx6 locus, to form a stable complex which binds and transactivates both Dlx5/6 intergenic enhancers (Feng et al., 2006). While such an RNA/homeoprotein cooperativity has been demonstrated for other factors (Dubnau and Struhl, 1996), it has not been reported so far for other Dlx family members.
On the other hand, Dlx2 has been shown to autorepress its expression during mouse tooth formation when expressed alone, while autoactivating it when expressed in combination with PitX2 (Venugopalan et al., 2011). This observation lends support to the notion that the transcriptional activity of DLX factors often depends upon cooperative binding with other homeproteins, including from the PTX and MSX families (Zhang et al., 1997; Vieux-Rochas et al., 2013).
Homology With regards to other members of the DLX family, DLX2 belongs to the DLX2/3/5 clade based on sequence homology (see Figure 4). It shares an N-terminal DLL-like domain specific to this clade. The homeodomain sequence remains close to the other DLX proteins.

Implicated in

Entity Breast tumors and their metastases to bone and lung tissues
Note Neoplastic processes often result from combinatorial activity of developmental genes (Abate-Shen, 2002). Dysregulated expression of homeobox-containing genes of the distal-less family, arranged as three bigenic pairs in mammals (DLX1/2, DLX3/4 and DLX5/6; Kraus and Lufkin, 2006), has been reported to correlate with distinct oncogenic mechanisms. DLX2 is expressed and necessary but insufficient to initiate metabolic stress-induced necrosis within several solid human high-grade tumors (Lee et al., 2011). DLX2 is strongly expressed in human primary breast tumors, its expression is associated with better prognosis and fewer relapses (Morini et al., 2010). In contrast, DLX2 expression is lost by breast tumor-derived metastatic cells found in lung or bone tissues - a poor prognosis marker (Morini et al., 2010). The combined downregulation of DLX2 and upregulation of DLX5 might thus prove a valuable prognostic marker.
DLX2 has been observed to be one of several homeogenes whose CpG islands were hypermethylated in luminal breast cancer cells, at 1 kb from the transcription start site (Kamalakaran et al., 2011). This status has been found to correlate significantly with higher expression level of DLX2, which lends support to the notion that DLX2 may serve as a candidate prognosis marker in breast cancer (Morini et al., 2010).
Entity Solid tumors involving other organs
Note Induction of DLX2 expression has been further reported in other solid tumors, including promoting advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (Tang et al., 2013), promoting growth from lung, prostate and glioma tumors, and correlates with melanoma malignancy (Yilmaz et al., 2011; Yan et al., 2013). It appears that at least one member of each DLX bigenic pair (DLX2, DLX5 and DLX4 : see Hara et al., 2007) is closely implicated with solid tumorigenicty.
Entity Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Note Conversely, DLX2 expression is lost along with DLX3 and DLX4 in samples from patients afflicted by acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(4;11)(q21;q23) chromosomal abnormality (Ferrari et al., 2003). In the same paper it is also shown that Dlx genes participate to the regulatory cascade initiated by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-1, a recurring partner of translocations involving chromosome band 11q23 in human biphenotypic leukemias.
Entity Autism spectrum disorder
Note Autism has been recognized as a condition which may result from an imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory processes in the developing and mature brain. Dlx1 and Dlx2 control the specification, fate and metabolic function of a subset of neurons known to exert an inhibitory role in the brain. As part of a cascade of homeobox-containing genes controlling neuronal specification in the brain, the DLX1/2 locus has thus been examined for association with autism spectrum disorder. Extensive coverage of both coding and intergenic sequences among a large cohort of autistic probands has uncovered only a handful of non-synonymous variants - which nevertheless provides a strong set of functional candidates to assess whether disrupted DLX2 expression might play a role in autism (Hamilton et al., 2005). More recently, a large cohort study has pinpointed stronger candidate sites of polymorphism correlated with increased susceptibility to develop the neurologic condition (Liu et al., 2009) - however a direct functional impact remains to be evidenced. Interestingly, DLX2 was found to harbour trinucleotide repeats but as for its DLX6 paralog, family-based association analysis ruled out this polymorphism as a risk variant, in either autism or schizophrenia patients (Laroche et al., 2008).
Entity Dysmorphogenesis
Note Although mouse embryos invalidated for Dlx1 and/or Dlx2 display craniofacial abnormalities, a direct involvement of DLX1/DLX2 mutation in human malformations remains to be demonstrated. For instance, while synpolydactyly has been tightly linked to DLX2 (Sarfarazi et al., 1995), it is the lack of induction of its promoter by defective PITX2 which has been demonstrated to directly cause Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS, OMIM #180500) - an autosomal dominant condition featuring a wide range of tooth anomalies, maxillary hypoplasia, and eye malformation (Espinoza et al., 2002).


Deregulated homeobox gene expression in cancer: cause or consequence?
Abate-Shen C.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2002 Oct;2(10):777-85. (REVIEW)
PMID 12360280
RNA recognition and translational regulation by a homeodomain protein.
Dubnau J, Struhl G.
Nature. 1996 Feb 22;379(6567):694-9.
PMID 8602214
A molecular basis for differential developmental anomalies in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome.
Espinoza HM, Cox CJ, Semina EV, Amendt BA.
Hum Mol Genet. 2002 Apr 1;11(7):743-53.
PMID 11929847
The Evf-2 noncoding RNA is transcribed from the Dlx-5/6 ultraconserved region and functions as a Dlx-2 transcriptional coactivator.
Feng J, Bi C, Clark BS, Mady R, Shah P, Kohtz JD.
Genes Dev. 2006 Jun 1;20(11):1470-84. Epub 2006 May 16.
PMID 16705037
DLX genes as targets of ALL-1: DLX 2,3,4 down-regulation in t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
Ferrari N, Palmisano GL, Paleari L, Basso G, Mangioni M, Fidanza V, Albini A, Croce CM, Levi G, Brigati C.
J Leukoc Biol. 2003 Aug;74(2):302-5.
PMID 12885948
Regulatory roles of conserved intergenic domains in vertebrate Dlx bigene clusters.
Ghanem N, Jarinova O, Amores A, Long Q, Hatch G, Park BK, Rubenstein JL, Ekker M.
Genome Res. 2003 Apr;13(4):533-43.
PMID 12670995
Analysis of four DLX homeobox genes in autistic probands.
Hamilton SP, Woo JM, Carlson EJ, Ghanem N, Ekker M, Rubenstein JL.
BMC Genet. 2005 Nov 2;6:52.
PMID 16266434
A homeobox gene related to Drosophila distal-less promotes ovarian tumorigenicity by inducing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2.
Hara F, Samuel S, Liu J, Rosen D, Langley RR, Naora H.
Am J Pathol. 2007 May;170(5):1594-606.
PMID 17456765
DNA methylation patterns in luminal breast cancers differ from non-luminal subtypes and can identify relapse risk independent of other clinical variables.
Kamalakaran S, Varadan V, Giercksky Russnes HE, Levy D, Kendall J, Janevski A, Riggs M, Banerjee N, Synnestvedt M, Schlichting E, Karesen R, Shama Prasada K, Rotti H, Rao R, Rao L, Eric Tang MH, Satyamoorthy K, Lucito R, Wigler M, Dimitrova N, Naume B, Borresen-Dale AL, Hicks JB.
Mol Oncol. 2011 Feb;5(1):77-92. doi: 10.1016/j.molonc.2010.11.002. Epub 2010 Dec 2.
PMID 21169070
Dlx homeobox gene control of mammalian limb and craniofacial development.
Kraus P, Lufkin T.
Am J Med Genet A. 2006 Jul 1;140(13):1366-74. (REVIEW)
PMID 16688724
Polymorphisms of coding trinucleotide repeats of homeogenes in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders.
Laroche F, Ramoz N, Leroy S, Fortin C, Rousselot-Paillet B, Philippe A, Colleaux L, Bresson JL, Mogenet A, Golse B, Mouren-Simeoni MC, Gorwood P, Galli T, Simonneau M, Krebs MO, Robel L.
Psychiatr Genet. 2008 Dec;18(6):295-301. doi: 10.1097/YPG.0b013e3283060fa5.
PMID 19018235
Homeobox gene Dlx-2 is implicated in metabolic stress-induced necrosis.
Lee SY, Jeon HM, Kim CH, Ju MK, Bae HS, Park HG, Lim SC, Han SI, Kang HS.
Mol Cancer. 2011 Sep 14;10:113. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-10-113.
PMID 21917150
Chromatin remodelling factor Mll1 is essential for neurogenesis from postnatal neural stem cells.
Lim DA, Huang YC, Swigut T, Mirick AL, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Wysocka J, Ernst P, Alvarez-Buylla A.
Nature. 2009 Mar 26;458(7237):529-33. doi: 10.1038/nature07726. Epub 2009 Feb 11.
PMID 19212323
The DLX1and DLX2 genes and susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders.
Liu X, Novosedlik N, Wang A, Hudson ML, Cohen IL, Chudley AE, Forster-Gibson CJ, Lewis SM, Holden JJ.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2009 Feb;17(2):228-35. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2008.148. Epub 2008 Aug 27.
PMID 18728693
Sequence, organization, and transcription of the Dlx-1 and Dlx-2 locus.
McGuinness T, Porteus MH, Smiga S, Bulfone A, Kingsley C, Qiu M, Liu JK, Long JE, Xu D, Rubenstein JL.
Genomics. 1996 Aug 1;35(3):473-85.
PMID 8812481
Mutually exclusive expression of DLX2 and DLX5/6 is associated with the metastatic potential of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
Morini M, Astigiano S, Gitton Y, Emionite L, Mirisola V, Levi G, Barbieri O.
BMC Cancer. 2010 Nov 25;10:649. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-649.
PMID 21108812
Intergenic enhancers with distinct activities regulate Dlx gene expression in the mesenchyme of the branchial arches.
Park BK, Sperber SM, Choudhury A, Ghanem N, Hatch GT, Sharpe PT, Thomas BL, Ekker M.
Dev Biol. 2004 Apr 15;268(2):532-45.
PMID 15063187
Localization of the syndactyly type II (synpolydactyly) locus to 2q31 region and identification of tight linkage to HOXD8 intragenic marker.
Sarfarazi M, Akarsu AN, Sayli BS.
Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Aug;4(8):1453-8.
PMID 7581388
The human brain homeogene, DLX-2: cDNA sequence and alignment with the murine homologue.
Selski DJ, Thomas NE, Coleman PD, Rogers KE.
Gene. 1993 Oct 15;132(2):301-3.
PMID 7901126
Cloning and characterization of two members of the vertebrate Dlx gene family.
Simeone A, Acampora D, Pannese M, D'Esposito M, Stornaiuolo A, Gulisano M, Mallamaci A, Kastury K, Druck T, Huebner K, et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Mar 15;91(6):2250-4.
PMID 7907794
Genomic structure and functional control of the Dlx3-7 bigene cluster.
Sumiyama K, Irvine SQ, Stock DW, Weiss KM, Kawasaki K, Shimizu N, Shashikant CS, Miller W, Ruddle FH.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jan 22;99(2):780-5. Epub 2002 Jan 15.
PMID 11792834
Increased expression of DLX2 correlates with advanced stage of gastric adenocarcinoma.
Tang P, Huang H, Chang J, Zhao GF, Lu ML, Wang Y.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013 May 7;19(17):2697-703. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i17.2697.
PMID 23674878
Hierarchical interactions of homeodomain and forkhead transcription factors in regulating odontogenic gene expression.
Venugopalan SR, Li X, Amen MA, Florez S, Gutierrez D, Cao H, Wang J, Amendt BA.
J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 17;286(24):21372-83. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.252031. Epub 2011 Apr 19.
PMID 21504905
BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development.
Vieux-Rochas M, Bouhali K, Mantero S, Garaffo G, Provero P, Astigiano S, Barbieri O, Caratozzolo MF, Tullo A, Guerrini L, Lallemand Y, Robert B, Levi G, Merlo GR.
PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e51700. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051700. Epub 2013 Jan 29.
PMID 23382810
CpG island hypermethylation in human astrocytomas.
Wu X, Rauch TA, Zhong X, Bennett WP, Latif F, Krex D, Pfeifer GP.
Cancer Res. 2010 Apr 1;70(7):2718-27. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3631. Epub 2010 Mar 16.
PMID 20233874
Upregulation of DLX2 confers a poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients by inducing a proliferative phenotype.
Yan ZH, Bao ZS, Yan W, Liu YW, Zhang CB, Wang HJ, Feng Y, Wang YZ, Zhang W, You G, Zhang QG, Jiang T.
Curr Mol Med. 2013 Mar;13(3):438-45.
PMID 23331016
Transcription factor Dlx2 protects from TGFb-induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Yilmaz M, Maass D, Tiwari N, Waldmeier L, Schmidt P, Lehembre F, Christofori G.
EMBO J. 2011 Sep 6;30(21):4489-99. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2011.319.
PMID 21897365
A highly conserved enhancer in the Dlx5/Dlx6 intergenic region is the site of cross-regulatory interactions between Dlx genes in the embryonic forebrain.
Zerucha T, Stuhmer T, Hatch G, Park BK, Long Q, Yu G, Gambarotta A, Schultz JR, Rubenstein JL, Ekker M.
J Neurosci. 2000 Jan 15;20(2):709-21.
PMID 10632600
Heterodimerization of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins results in functional antagonism.
Zhang H, Hu G, Wang H, Sciavolino P, Iler N, Shen MM, Abate-Shen C.
Mol Cell Biol. 1997 May;17(5):2920-32.
PMID 9111364
Identification of a direct Dlx homeodomain target in the developing mouse forebrain and retina by optimization of chromatin immunoprecipitation.
Zhou QP, Le TN, Qiu X, Spencer V, de Melo J, Du G, Plews M, Fonseca M, Sun JM, Davie JR, Eisenstat DD.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2004 Feb 9;32(3):884-92. Print 2004.
PMID 14769946


This paper should be referenced as such :
Y Gitton, G Levi
DLX2 (distal-less homeobox 2)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2014;18(11):805-809.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version :

External links

HGNC (Hugo)DLX2   2915
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)DLX2  1746  distal-less homeobox 2
AliasesTES-1; TES1
GeneCards (Weizmann)DLX2
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000115844 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000115844 [Gene_View]  chr2:172099438-172102750 [Contig_View]  DLX2 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000115844
TCGA cBioPortalDLX2
AceView (NCBI)DLX2
Genatlas (Paris)DLX2
SOURCE (Princeton)DLX2
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)DLX2
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)DLX2  -     chr2:172099438-172102750 -  2q31.1   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)DLX2  -     2q31.1   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblDLX2 - 2q31.1 [CytoView hg19]  DLX2 - 2q31.1 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIDLX2 [Mapview hg19]  DLX2 [Mapview hg38]
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AA912071 AB208823 AK291367 AK297503 AK316129
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_004405
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)DLX2
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.419 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.419
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000115844
Gene ExpressionDLX2 [ NCBI-GEO ]   DLX2 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   DLX2 [ SEEK ]   DLX2 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)DLX2 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevestigatorExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)1746
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)DLX2
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000115844-DLX2 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ07687   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ07687  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ07687
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ07687
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)HOMEOBOX_1 (PS00027)    HOMEOBOX_2 (PS50071)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Distal-less_N    Homeobox-like    Homeobox_CS    Homeobox_dom    Homeobox_metazoa    HTH_motif   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)DLL_N (PF12413)    Homeobox (PF00046)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam12413    pfam00046   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)HOX (SM00389)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)DLX2
DMDM Disease mutations1746
Blocks (Seattle)DLX2
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000115844-DLX2 [tissue]
Peptide AtlasQ07687
IPIIPI00018974   IPI00556089   IPI00910860   
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)Q07687
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOnegative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding  transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding  chromatin binding  DNA binding transcription factor activity  single-stranded RNA binding  protein binding  nucleus  transcription by RNA polymerase II  brain development  proximal/distal pattern formation  subpallium development  hippocampus development  olfactory bulb development  regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in forebrain neuron fate commitment  cerebral cortex GABAergic interneuron fate commitment  odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth  positive regulation of cell differentiation  negative regulation of Notch signaling pathway  positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  negative regulation of photoreceptor cell differentiation  embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis  negative regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation  branching morphogenesis of a nerve  cartilage development  positive regulation of amacrine cell differentiation  
Ontology : EGO-EBInegative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding  transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding  chromatin binding  DNA binding transcription factor activity  single-stranded RNA binding  protein binding  nucleus  transcription by RNA polymerase II  brain development  proximal/distal pattern formation  subpallium development  hippocampus development  olfactory bulb development  regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in forebrain neuron fate commitment  cerebral cortex GABAergic interneuron fate commitment  odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth  positive regulation of cell differentiation  negative regulation of Notch signaling pathway  positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  negative regulation of photoreceptor cell differentiation  embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis  negative regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation  branching morphogenesis of a nerve  cartilage development  positive regulation of amacrine cell differentiation  
NDEx NetworkDLX2
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkDLX2
Wikipedia pathwaysDLX2
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000115844
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamDLX2
Homologs : HomoloGeneDLX2
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)DLX2
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : QuiverDLX2
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerDLX2 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)DLX2
Exome Variant ServerDLX2
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000115844
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000115844
Genetic variants : HAPMAP1746
Genomic Variants (DGV)DLX2 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERDLX2 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisDLX2 
ICGC Data PortalDLX2 
TCGA Data PortalDLX2 
Broad Tumor PortalDLX2
OASIS PortalDLX2 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICDLX2  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDDLX2
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch DLX2
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)DLX2
DoCM (Curated mutations)DLX2 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)DLX2 (select a term)
NCG5 (London)DLX2
Cancer3DDLX2(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Genetic Testing Registry DLX2
NextProtQ07687 [Medical]
Target ValidationDLX2
Huge Navigator DLX2 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease1746
BioCentury BCIQDLX2
ClinGenDLX2 (curated)
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD1746
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA27370
Clinical trialDLX2
canSAR (ICR)DLX2 (select the gene name)
PubMed35 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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