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DND1 (DND microRNA-mediated repression inhibitor 1)

Written2015-12Angabin Matin
University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 amatin@mdanderson.org

Abstract DND1 is a RNA binding protein. Initially identified in the zebrafish, where knockdown of dnd in the early embryo resulted in loss of primordial germ cells (Weidinger et al., 2003). Mutations in Dnd1 in mice and rats, thought to result in expression of a truncated DND1 protein, are oncogenic and result in germ cell depletion as well as germ cell tumors (Youngren et al., 2005; Northrup et al., 2012). DND1 is required for the survival of primordial germ cells during early development. Primordial germ cells are the stem cells from which germ cell tumors arise (Stevens, 1967). Total deficiency of DND1 in mice results in early embryonic lethality (Zechel et al., 2013). In humans, mutations and deregulation of DND1 expression have been reported in testicular cancer as well as other types of cancers (Bhandari et al., 2012; Linger et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2010; Sijmons et al., 2010). One function of DND1 is as a translational regulator (Kedde et al., 2007).

Keywords translation regulation, miRNA, germ cell, germ cell tumor, DND1

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesdead end homolog 1 (zebrafish)
Alias_symbol (synonym)MGC34750
RBMS4
Other alias
HGNC (Hugo) DND1
LocusID (NCBI) 373863
Atlas_Id 50139
Location 5q31.3, located between bases 140,670,794-140,673,586 on the reverse strand of human Chr 5 (Ensembl).  [Link to chromosome band 5q31]
Location_base_pair Starts at 140670796 and ends at 140673586 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping DND1.png]
Local_order Flanking DND1 on the 5' end is WDR55 (WD repeat domain 55) located on the forward strand, followed by DND1 (on reverse strand) and at the 3'-end, HARS (histidyl-tRNA synthetase) (on the reverse strand).
Fusion genes
(updated 2016)
WDR55 (5q31.3) / DND1 (5q31.3)

DNA/RNA

Transcription Unlike human DND1, mouse Dnd1 encodes two alternate spliced transcripts that differ at the N-terminus and which give rise to α and β-isoforms of DND1. DND1-α is expressed in early embryos and DND1-β in the germ cells of adult testis (Bhattacharya et al., 2007).

Protein

 
  Human DND1 has 1 transcript (1605 bp) encoding a protein of 353 aa. Human DND1 has a RNA recognition motif (RRM), double strand RNA binding domain (DSRM), and the HRAAAMA motif (that is also found in mouse and rat DND1).
Description DND1 contains a RNA recognition motif (RRM) through which it interacts with mRNA (Northrup et al., 2012; Weidinger et al., 2003; Youngren et al., 2005). It also has a double strand RNA binding domain (DSRM) at the C-terminus end, the function of which has not been evaluated. DND1 has sequence similarity with A1cf, which is a RNA binding subunit of the Apobec1 cytidine deaminase that edits specific sites in specific mRNAs (Youngren et al., 2005). A conserved HRAAAMA motif is found in DND1 and in A1cf (Zechel et al., 2013) and the ATPase activity of zebrafish Dnd is ascribed to this motif (Liu and Collodi, 2010).
Expression Expressed in embryonic and adult germ cells, the gonads and in testicular germ cell tumors (Bhattacharya et al., 2007; Northrup et al., 2012; Weidinger et al., 2003; Youngren et al., 2005). Also expressed in other cell types such as skin and pancreas (Basu et al., 2011; Bhandari et al., 2012). Is expressed in the early embryo of Xenopus (Bauermeister et al., 2015; Mei et al., 2013).
Localisation ND1 localizes to the cytoplasm in perinuclear sites as well as in the nucleus of some cell types (Bhattacharya et al., 2008; Bhattacharya et al., 2007; Mickoleit et al., 2011; Slanchev et al., 2009). In the cytoplasm of male embryonic germ cells, DND1 co-localizes with NANOS2 in P-bodies (Suzuki et al., 2015).
The Xenopus Dnd protein has a germplasm localization signal and nuclear localization signal. In the fertilized embryo, Dnd moves from the cortex to the perinuclear region with germplasm and enters the nucleus. It is speculated that Dnd carries RNA into the nucleus to trigger germline specification (Taguchi et al., 2014).
Function DND1 is implicated in different aspects of translation regulation that impact embryonic and primordial germ cell development and cancer. The molecular function of DND1 has been delineated from studies in rodents, zebrafish and Xenopus.
(a) DND1 binds to the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of mRNAs to displace miRNA interaction with specific mRNAs (Kedde et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2010). For example, DND1 blocks access of specific miRNAs to their 3' target in CDKN1B (P27) and LATS2 mRNA. Human and mouse DND1 interacts with mRNAs that encode pluripotency factors (POU5F1 (OCT4), SOX2 , NANOG, LIN28), regulators of cell cycle (LATS2, TP53, p21 and p27) and apoptotic factors (BCL2L1 (BCLX) andBAX) (Cook et al., 2011; Zhu et al., 2011).
Zebrafish DND1 blocks miR-430 from huB, Nanos and TDRD7 3'-UTR and also regulates translation of geminin mRNA through binding to its 3? -UTR (Chen et al., 2010; Kedde et al., 2007; Mickoleit et al., 2011).
(b) DND1 interacts with apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 (APOBEC3) (Bhattacharya et al., 2008). Human APOBEC3G inhibits DND1 function. APOBEC3G blocks DND1 function to restore the translational inhibitory effect of miRNAs on the 3'-UTR of P27, LATS2 and GJA1 (CX43) (Ali et al., 2013).
Mouse c-JUN interacts with DND1 and co-localizes to the nuclei. DND1 and c-JUN caused increased transcriptional activity of activator protein 1 (Zhang et al., 2015).
(c) Mouse DND1 directly interacts with NANOS2 to load specific mRNAs into the CCR4-NOT (CNOT) deadenylase complex (Suzuki et al., 2015). This results in translational suppression of specific RNAs that are required during germ cell development and thus conditional deletion of DND1 disrupts male germ cell differentiation.
(d) Zebrafish DND1 protein possesses Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity that is required for primordial germ cell viability and formation. The ATPase region is mapped to the C terminus of DND1 (Liu and Collodi, 2010).
(e) DND1 transports mRNA transcripts from germ cell nuclei to germ cell granules (Slanchev et al., 2009).
(f) Deletion of DND1 in mice indicates it is essential for embryonic viability (Zechel et al., 2013). Repression or ablation of Dnd In Xenopus and zebrafish embryos results in loss of primordial germ cells and their failure to migrate into the developing gonads (Horvay et al., 2006; Weidinger et al., 2003).
(g) In the early embryo of Xenopus, Dnd is required to regionally anchor key regulators of the vegetal cortical microtubule assembly for axis specification. Dnd binds to 3'-UTR of trim36, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is essential for microtubule assembly. The microtubules translocate dorsal determinants. Lack of Dnd causes ventralization of frog embryos (Mei et al., 2013).
In turn, Xenopus Dnd mRNA is localized vegetally to the RNP complex by Celf, a component of the vegetal localization RNP complex (Bauermeister et al., 2015). Celf interacts with the late element (LE) of Dnd RNA. LE of Dnd mRNA also interacts with Elavl1 and Elav2 (Arthur et al., 2009).

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Germ cell tumors including Testicular Germ Cell Tumors (TGCTs or testicular cancer) and Ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCTs)
Note The 5q31.3 region encompassing DND1 is frequently deleted in male TGCTs (al-Jehani et al., 1995; Faulkner et al., 2000; Peng et al., 1999). Two studies detected DND1 mutations upon sequencing the exons of DND1 in patients with TGCTs (Linger et al., 2008 ; Sijmons et al., 2010) although mutations in DND1 appear to be rare in human TGCTs.
In one study, DNA from 263 familial and sporadic TGCT patients were sequenced. A possible pathogenic missense mutation in exon 3 (c.A301C, p.Glu86Ala) was identified in one patient. This mutation resides within the functional, evolutionary conserved RNA recognition motif (Linger et al., 2008).
In another study, sequencing exons 1 to 4 of DND1 from peripheral blood lymphocytes in 272 men, with both sporadic and familial TGCT, detected one non familial mutation (c.C657G, p.Asp219Glu) in exon 4. The wild-type DND1 was not lost in the patient (Sijmons et al., 2010).
Analysis of the human DND promoter revealed 15 CpG sites. However, no significant differences in CpG methylation levels have been observed in DNA from blood of patients with TGCT cases compared to controls (Mirabello et al., 2012).
Oncogenesis The function DND1 in TGCT oncogenesis has been gleaned from studies in rodent models.
The Ter mutation is a single base substitution in exon 3 of Dnd1 that transforms an arginine residue to a premature stop codon (p.Arg178X) (Youngren et al., 2005). In the 129 mouse, the Ter mutation (in DND1) has been characterized as a modifier gene for amplifying the incidence of spontaneous TGCTs (Asada et al., 1994; Noguchi and Stevens, 1982). The 129-Ter mouse is a model for prepubertal type I testicular germ cell tumors (Oosterhuis and Looijenga, 2005). Neoplastic transformation of germ cells and tumorigenesis takes place during embryogenesis (Noguchi and Noguchi, 1985; Stevens, 1967). The germ cells in Ter male mice fail to enter mitotic arrest in G0 (Cook et al., 2011)
A complete loss-of-function of DND1 leads to early embryonic lethality. However, the loss-of-function Dnd1 allele does not cause TGCT (Zechel et al., 2013).
In Ter-WKY/Ztm rats, a point mutation in exon 4 of rat Dnd1 introduces a premature stop codon that likely results in expression of a C-terminus truncated DND1 protein. This results in congenital ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCTs) in females and TGCTs in males (Northrup et al., 2012). Thus DND1/Ter acts as a tumor suppressor in the rat.
Germ cells derived from rat Ter embryos are more easily transformed into pluripotent cells in culture compared to their wild type counterparts (Northrup et al., 2011).
  
  
Entity Skin tumorigenesis
Note RAS transformed human HaCaT cells show reduced expression of DND1, loss of DND1 mRNA and protein (Bhandari et al., 2012). In this cell type, DND1 blocks miR-21 from the 3'-UTR of the mRNA of the DNA repair gene MSH2. Thus, lower DND1 levels in RAS transformed HaCaT cells results in decreased MSH2 levels in the cell.
  
  
Entity Human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC)
Note Human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) cells and tumors up-regulate miR-24. In turn, miR-24 interacts with the 3'-UTR of DND1 mRNA to reduce expression of DND1. Thus miR-24-mediated decrease in DND1 expression leads to decreased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B/ P27) expression and enhanced proliferation and reduced apoptosis in TSCC cells (Liu et al., 2010).
  
  
Entity Colon tumorigenesis
Note The truncated DND1 mutant (Ter) significantly increases polyp number and burden in the Apc+/Min model of intestinal polyposis (Zechel et al., 2013).
  

Bibliography

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A mutation in the Ter gene causing increased susceptibility to testicular teratomas maps to mouse chromosome 18
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MicroRNA-375 and MicroRNA-221: Potential Noncoding RNAs Associated with Antiproliferative Activity of Benzyl Isothiocyanate in Pancreatic Cancer
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The mouse dead-end gene isoform alpha is necessary for germ cell and embryonic viability
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Zebrafish Dnd protein binds to 3'UTR of geminin mRNA and regulates its expression
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Regulation of male germ cell cycle arrest and differentiation by DND1 is modulated by genetic background
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Development 2011 Jan;138(1):23-32
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Allelic losses in carcinoma in situ and testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and adults: evidence suggestive of the linear progression model
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Br J Cancer 2000 Sep;83(6):729-36
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Xenopus Dead end mRNA is a localized maternal determinant that serves a conserved function in germ cell development
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Dev Biol 2006 Mar 1;291(1):1-11
PMID 16448642
 
RNA-binding protein Dnd1 inhibits microRNA access to target mRNA
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PMID 18155131
 
Analysis of the DND1 gene in men with sporadic and familial testicular germ cell tumors
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Zebrafish dead end possesses ATPase activity that is required for primordial germ cell development
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FASEB J 2010 Aug;24(8):2641-50
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MicroRNA-24 targeting RNA-binding protein DND1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma
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FEBS Lett 2010 Sep 24;584(18):4115-20
PMID 20816961
 
Maternal Dead-End1 is required for vegetal cortical microtubule assembly during Xenopus axis specification
Mei W, Jin Z, Lai F, Schwend T, Houston DW, King ML, Yang J
Development 2013 Jun;140(11):2334-44
PMID 23615278
 
Regulation of hub mRNA stability and translation by miR430 and the dead end protein promotes preferential expression in zebrafish primordial germ cells
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Promoter methylation of candidate genes associated with familial testicular cancer
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J Natl Cancer Inst 1985 Aug;75(2):385-92
PMID 3860691
 
Primordial germ cell proliferation in fetal testes in mouse strains with high and low incidences of congenital testicular teratomas
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The ter mutation in the rat Dnd1 gene initiates gonadal teratomas and infertility in both genders
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Youngren KK, Coveney D, Peng X, Bhattacharya C, Schmidt LS, Nickerson ML, Lamb BT, Deng JM, Behringer RR, Capel B, Rubin EM, Nadeau JH, Matin A
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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Matin A
DND1 (DND microRNA-mediated repression inhibitor 1);
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. in press
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/DND1ID50139ch5q31.html


Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  Prostate tumors: an overview


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)DND1   23799
Cards
AtlasDND1ID50139ch5q31
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)DND1  373863  DND microRNA-mediated repression inhibitor 1
AliasesRBMS4
GeneCards (Weizmann)DND1
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000256453 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000256453 [Gene_View]  chr5:140670796-140673586 [Contig_View]  DND1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000256453
TCGA cBioPortalDND1
AceView (NCBI)DND1
Genatlas (Paris)DND1
WikiGenes373863
SOURCE (Princeton)DND1
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)DND1
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)DND1  -     chr5:140670796-140673586 -  5q31.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)DND1  -     5q31.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblDND1 - 5q31.3 [CytoView hg19]  DND1 - 5q31.3 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIDND1 [Mapview hg19]  DND1 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM609385   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AY321065 BC033496 DQ892455 DQ895667 EU176217
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_194249
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)DND1
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.591262 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.591262
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000256453
Gene ExpressionDND1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   DND1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   DND1 [ SEEK ]   DND1 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)DND1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)373863
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)DND1
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ8IYX4   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ8IYX4  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ8IYX4
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ8IYX4
PhosPhoSitePlusQ8IYX4
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)RRM (PS50102)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Nucleotide-bd_a/b_plait    RRM_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)RRM_1 (PF00076)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00076   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)RRM (SM00360)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)DND1
DMDM Disease mutations373863
Blocks (Seattle)DND1
SuperfamilyQ8IYX4
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000256453
Peptide AtlasQ8IYX4
HPRD13240
IPIIPI00217910   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q8IYX4
IntAct (EBI)Q8IYX4
FunCoupENSG00000256453
BioGRIDDND1
STRING (EMBL)DND1
ZODIACDND1
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOQ8IYX4
Ontology : AmiGOnucleus  cytoplasm  multicellular organism development  germ cell development  AU-rich element binding  miRNA binding  negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA  
Ontology : EGO-EBInucleus  cytoplasm  multicellular organism development  germ cell development  AU-rich element binding  miRNA binding  negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA  
NDEx NetworkDND1
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkDND1
Wikipedia pathwaysDND1
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB373863
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000256453
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamDND1
HOVERGENQ8IYX4
HOGENOMQ8IYX4
Homologs : HomoloGeneDND1
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)DND1
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanWDR55/DND1 [5q31.3/5q31.3]  [t(5;5)(q31;q31)]  
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerDND1 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)DND1
dbVarDND1
ClinVarDND1
1000_GenomesDND1 
Exome Variant ServerDND1
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)DND1 (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP373863
Genomic Variants (DGV)DND1 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERDND1 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisDND1 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalDND1 
TCGA Data PortalDND1 
Broad Tumor PortalDND1
OASIS PortalDND1 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICDND1  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDDND1
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch DND1
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)DND1
DoCM (Curated mutations)DND1 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)DND1 (select a term)
intoGenDND1
NCG5 (London)DND1
Cancer3DDND1(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM609385   
Orphanet
MedgenDND1
Genetic Testing Registry DND1
NextProtQ8IYX4 [Medical]
TSGene373863
GENETestsDND1
Target ValidationDND1
Huge Navigator DND1 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease373863
BioCentury BCIQDND1
ClinGenDND1
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD373863
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA134931157
Clinical trialDND1
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)DND1 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed18 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineDND1
EVEXDND1
GoPubMedDND1
iHOPDND1
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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