Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

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ERBB3 (v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (avian))

Written2012-05Smita Awasthi, Anne W Hamburger
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, USA

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Other aliasErbB-3
LocusID (NCBI) 2065
Atlas_Id 40479
Location 12q13.2  [Link to chromosome band 12q13]
Location_base_pair Starts at and ends at bp from pter
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
ENTPD7 (10q24.2) / ERBB3 (12q13.2)ERBB3 (12q13.2) / CRADD (12q22)ERBB3 (12q13.2) / DOCK9 (13q32.3)
ERBB3 (12q13.2) / ENTPD7 (10q24.2)ERBB3 (12q13.2) / ERBB3 (12q13.2)ERBB3 (12q13.2) / FOXA1 (14q21.1)
ERBB3 (12q13.2) / MICAL3 (22q11.21)ERBB3 (12q13.2) / PDLIM5 (4q22.3)ERBB3 (12q13.2) / RREB1 (6p24.3)
ERBB3 (12q13.2) / TRIM37 (17q22)GLG1 (16q23.1) / ERBB3 (12q13.2)NEAT1 (11q13.1) / ERBB3 (12q13.2)


  The alignment of ERBB3 mRNA to its genomic sequence.
Description The ERBB3 gene, which maps to human chromosome 12q13.2, is 23.2 kb in size and consists of 28 exons. The gene for the extracellular ligand binding domain of ErbB3 has 43-45% homology with EGFR and ERBB2 and 56-67% homology with ERBB4. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain sequences have 60-63% homology with those of the other ErbB receptors (Kraus et al., 1989).
Transcription The ERBB3 promoter region is GC rich (65%) and, like EGFR, does not contain a TATA box. A proximal promoter was observed within 600 bp flanking Exon1. AP2-1 (OB2-1) and Fox3a have been demonstrated to be functional transcriptional regulators at upstream start sites (Skinner and Hurst, 1993). A Sox10 regulated enhancer has been identified at chr12:54763065-54763421 in neural crest derived cells. The human ERBB3 gene is transcribed as a 6.2 kb message of 4080 nucleotides and 1342 codons specifying the full-length protein. There are four additional alternate transcripts of 1.6, 1.7, 2.1 and 2.3 kb generated by intron read through. At least three of these transcripts code for truncated, secreted soluble forms of ERBB3 (Lee and Maihle, 1998).
Pseudogene None reported.


  Linear schematic of ErbB3. Functional domains, including Signal Peptide (SP), the Ligand Binding Domain (LBD) with four subdomains (indicated by the red lines) transmembrane domain (TM), tyrosine kinase domain (TKD), and C-terminal signaling domain (SD).
Description The ERBB3 gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The 6.2 kb transcript encodes a 148 kDa protein which is post-translationally glycosylated to yield a protein of 180 kDa (Kraus et al., 1989). The extracellular ligand-binding domain consists of four subdomains that change conformation in response to ligand. Domains I and III bind NRG with high affinity (Cho and Leahy, 2002). Due to substitutions in the kinase domain at aa 740, 759 and 834, ErbB3 lacks potent tyrosine kinase activity. However, recent data indicate that ErbB3 maintains some autophosphorylation activity (Shi et al., 2010). Heterodimerization with other ErbB family members, most notably ErbB2, is needed to convey biological signals through phosphorylation of downstream substrates, most notably AKT (Olayioye et al., 2000). In general, activation of these pathways leads to cell proliferation or differentiation. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. Each alternate transcript encodes a truncated form of the ligand-binding domain of ErbB3 and can compete for binding with ligand, resulting in growth inhibition (Lee et al., 2001).
ErbB3 is post translationally regulated by a variety of mechanisms. After ligand binding, it is phosphorylated on 14 tyrosine residues by other ErbB family members (Kim et al., 1998) and under some circumstance c-Src, Met and BRK. Protein levels are regulated by the E3 ligase Nrdp1 and the Nrdp1 regulator USP8. USP8 itself is regulated by AKT, suggesting a feedback mechanism for ErbB activity (Wu et al., 2004).
Expression ErbB3 is widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues. It is expressed in epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tracts as well as the skin and endocrine systems. It is highly expressed in neuronal tissue. Expression is relatively low in cells of the hematopoietic and immune systems (Kraus et al., 1989; Prigent et al., 1992).
Localisation ErbB3 is generally located in the plasma membrane. However, more recent studies indicate that ErbB3 is also localized to the nucleus (Offterdinger et al., 2002).
Function Activation and interactions
ErbB3 when localized at the plasma membrane binds different forms of neuregulin. The NRG family consists of a large group of isoforms, encoded by four genes with an EGF like C terminal portion and a variable N terminal region. Ligand binding leads to heterodimerization preferentially with ErbB2, but also other ErbB family members in secondary reactions (Pinkas-Kramarski et al., 1996). The transmembrane domain, which binds EBP1, is important for dimer stabilization (Jura et al., 2009). The cytoplasmic domain lacks potent tyrosine kinase activity. However, this domain has been shown to be an allosteric activator of the ErbB2 kinase domain (Zhang et al., 2006). The cytoplasmic tail of ErbB3 is phosphorylated by ErbB2 and is a signaling substrate. The 14 phosphorylated tyrosines in the C terminal signaling tail of ErbB3 can potentially dock numerous SH2/3 or PTB binding proteins involved in different biological pathways (Hynes and Lane, 2005).

Signaling and cellular activity
In contrast to other ErbB proteins, ErbB3 is not transforming when overexpressed or constitutively activated (Alimandi et al., 1995). Once phosphorylated by other ErbB family members or Src, Met or BRK, ErbB-3 can then bind numerous other signaling proteins. Activation of the PI-3 kinase-AKT pathway is especially important as there are six docking sites for the p85 subunit of PI-3K in the ErbB3 cytoplasmic tail at Tyr 1035, 1178, 1203/1205, 1257 and 1270. AKT regulates many downstream signaling nodes, in particular the two mTOR containing complexes. ErbB3 can also activate the MAPK pathway via its interactions with Grb7 (Tyr 1180,1243) and SHC (1309) (Hynes and Lane, 2005). Thus, ErbB3 is important in biological processes such as translation, apoptosis, nutrient sensing, metabolic regulation, angiogenesis and cell cycle control. Increased expression or activity of ErbB3 has been associated with resistance to EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitors (Sergina et al., 2007) and hormonal therapies (Liu et al., 2007). ErbB3 when localized in the nucleus acts as a transcription factor to regulate Cyclin D1 and β-casein genes (Andrique et al., 2012).

ErbB3 knock-out mice die by E13.5 with defective heart valve formation, but normal heart trabeculation. The animals show a generalized neural crest defects and lack Schwann cell precursors (Erickson et al., 1997). Due to the importance of ErbB3 in breast cancer, the role of ErbB3 in mammary development has been well-studied. ErbB3 is required for ductal morphogenesis in the mouse mammary gland (Stern, 2003). ErbB3 has also been implicated in maintenance of the luminal epithelial subtype in the breast (Balko et al., 2012).

Homology The ErbB family has evolved from a single ligand-receptor combination in C. elegans (let-23 28% aa similarity) through Drosophila with one receptor (EGFR, 39% similarity) and four ligands to vertebrates, where four ErbB receptor bind multiple EGF-related ligands. The ERBB3 gene is conserved in chimpanzee (99% similarity), dog, cow, mouse (90%), rat, chicken, and zebrafish.


Germinal An A to G mutation is noted in intron 10 in Lethal Congential Contracture Syndrome 2 (LCCS2). LCCS2 is an autosomal recessive neurogenic form of a neonatally lethal arthrogryposis that is associated with atrophy of the anterior horn of the spinal cord (Narkis et al., 2004).
Somatic Mutations in ErbB3 have been rarely noted in cancer. One of the 2 mutations reported was a missense mutation in exon 21 (2537 G > T) (Ser846Ile) detected in a rectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (1% of the total colon cancer samples. The other mutation was a silent mutation in exon 21 (2484 T > C) (His828His) detected in an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (2% of the total 60 breast cancers) (Jeong et al., 2006).

Implicated in

Entity Breast cancer
Prognosis Increased expression of ErbB3 in breast cancer cells relative to normal epithelium is common. The increased expression is not due to genomic amplification (Gasparini et al., 1994). High ErbB3 expression has been correlated with both increased and poorer survival (Hamburger, 2008). The ErbB2/3 heterodimer is essential for proliferation of malignant mammary epithelial cells (Holbro et al., 2003). ErbB3 contributes to tamoxifen resistance (Liu et al., 2007) and activation of ErbB3 is also associated with resistance to ErbB directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors (Sergina et al., 2007).
Entity Ovarian cancer
Prognosis Genomic amplification of ErbB3 has been noted in ovarian cancer and ErbB3 overexpression is associated with poor survival (Wilken et al., 2012). Truncated ErbB3 transcripts that code for soluble truncated proteins have been observed in ovarian cancer cell lines. Such soluble forms can inhibit proliferation (Maihle 2001). These soluble forms may have potential as markers of disease progression.
Entity Prostate cancer
Prognosis Increased expression of ErbB3 has been noted in prostate cancer (Cheng et al., 2007; Koumakpayi et al., 2006). Activation of the ErbB2/3 heterodimer stabilizes Androgen Receptor contributing to hormone independent growth (Mellinghoff et al., 2004). NRG can activate the EBP1 Protein leading to decreased AR activity (Zhang and Hamburger, 2005). Nuclear localization of ErbB3 has been associated with both poorer and better prognoses. A secreted ErbB3 isoform has been shown to enhance bone metastasis (Chen et al., 2007).
Entity Pancreatic cancer
Prognosis ErbB3 mRNA and protein has consistently been observed to be increased and associated with poor outcome (Friess et al., 1995).
Entity Lung cancer
Prognosis Overexpression of ErbB3 generally correlates with poor prognosis (Yi et al., 1997). Several studies have indicated that ErbB3 affects clinical responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cell lines with wild type and high levels of ErbB3 respond better to EGFR inhibitors (Engelman et al., 2005). In addition, gefitinib resistant NCSLC cells can amplify MET which then phosphorylates and activates ErbB3 and AKT pathways (Engelman et al., 2007). ErbB3 has also been implicated in inhibition of apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines (Sithanandam et al., 2005).
Entity Schizophrenia
Prognosis The NRG1 gene was identified as a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and defects in the expression of ErbB3 were also shown to occur in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, currently the association between ErbB3 expression and schizophrenia is unclear (Corfas et al., 2004).
Entity Diabetes
Prognosis Genome-wide association studies have identified associations between type I diabetes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at chromosome 12q13 surrounding the ERBB3 gene. The most significant association was observed with a SNP in exon 27 of the ERBB3 gene and an intergenic SNP (Keene et al., 2012). In addition, ErbB3 has been demonstrated to modulate antigen presenting cell function and type I diabetes risk (Jing et al., 2011).


Cooperative signaling of ErbB3 and ErbB2 in neoplastic transformation and human mammary carcinomas.
Alimandi M, Romano A, Curia MC, Muraro R, Fedi P, Aaronson SA, Di Fiore PP, Kraus MH.
Oncogene. 1995 May 4;10(9):1813-21.
PMID 7538656
ErbB3(80 kDa), a nuclear variant of the ErbB3 receptor, binds to the Cyclin D1 promoter to activate cell proliferation but is negatively controlled by p14ARF.
Andrique L, Fauvin D, El Maassarani M, Colasson H, Vannier B, Seite P.
Cell Signal. 2012 May;24(5):1074-85. Epub 2012 Jan 11.
PMID 22261253
The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB3 maintains the balance between luminal and basal breast epithelium.
Balko JM, Miller TW, Morrison MM, Hutchinson K, Young C, Rinehart C, Sanchez V, Jee D, Polyak K, Prat A, Perou CM, Arteaga CL, Cook RS.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jan 3;109(1):221-6. Epub 2011 Dec 16.
PMID 22178756
A secreted isoform of ErbB3 promotes osteonectin expression in bone and enhances the invasiveness of prostate cancer cells.
Chen N, Ye XC, Chu K, Navone NM, Sage EH, Yu-Lee LY, Logothetis CJ, Lin SH.
Cancer Res. 2007 Jul 15;67(14):6544-8.
PMID 17638862
Bone microenvironment and androgen status modulate subcellular localization of ErbB3 in prostate cancer cells.
Cheng CJ, Ye XC, Vakar-Lopez F, Kim J, Tu SM, Chen DT, Navone NM, Yu-Lee LY, Lin SH, Hu MC.
Mol Cancer Res. 2007 Jul;5(7):675-84.
PMID 17634423
Structure of the extracellular region of HER3 reveals an interdomain tether.
Cho HS, Leahy DJ.
Science. 2002 Aug 23;297(5585):1330-3. Epub 2002 Aug 1.
PMID 12154198
Neuregulin 1-erbB signaling and the molecular/cellular basis of schizophrenia.
Corfas G, Roy K, Buxbaum JD.
Nat Neurosci. 2004 Jun;7(6):575-80.
PMID 15162166
MET amplification leads to gefitinib resistance in lung cancer by activating ERBB3 signaling.
Engelman JA, Zejnullahu K, Mitsudomi T, Song Y, Hyland C, Park JO, Lindeman N, Gale CM, Zhao X, Christensen J, Kosaka T, Holmes AJ, Rogers AM, Cappuzzo F, Mok T, Lee C, Johnson BE, Cantley LC, Janne PA.
Science. 2007 May 18;316(5827):1039-43. Epub 2007 Apr 26.
PMID 17463250
ErbB3 is required for normal cerebellar and cardiac development: a comparison with ErbB2-and heregulin-deficient mice.
Erickson SL, O'Shea KS, Ghaboosi N, Loverro L, Frantz G, Bauer M, Lu LH, Moore MW.
Development. 1997 Dec;124(24):4999-5011.
PMID 9362461
Enhanced erbB-3 expression in human pancreatic cancer correlates with tumor progression.
Friess H, Yamanaka Y, Kobrin MS, Do DA, Buchler MW, Korc M.
Clin Cancer Res. 1995 Nov;1(11):1413-20.
PMID 9815839
c-erbB-3 and c-erbB-2 protein expression in node-negative breast carcinoma--an immunocytochemical study.
Gasparini G, Gullick WJ, Maluta S, Dalla Palma P, Caffo O, Leonardi E, Boracchi P, Pozza F, Lemoine NR, Bevilacqua P.
Eur J Cancer. 1994;30A(1):16-22.
PMID 7908213
The role of ErbB3 and its binding partners in breast cancer progression and resistance to hormone and tyrosine kinase directed therapies.
Hamburger AW.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2008 Jun;13(2):225-33. Epub 2008 Apr 19. (REVIEW)
PMID 18425425
The ErbB2/ErbB3 heterodimer functions as an oncogenic unit: ErbB2 requires ErbB3 to drive breast tumor cell proliferation.
Holbro T, Beerli RR, Maurer F, Koziczak M, Barbas CF 3rd, Hynes NE.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 22;100(15):8933-8. Epub 2003 Jul 9.
PMID 12853564
ERBB receptors and cancer: the complexity of targeted inhibitors.
Hynes NE, Lane HA.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2005 May;5(5):341-54. (REVIEW)
PMID 15864276
ERBB3 kinase domain mutations are rare in lung, breast and colon carcinomas.
Jeong EG, Soung YH, Lee JW, Lee SH, Nam SW, Lee JY, Yoo NJ, Lee SH.
Int J Cancer. 2006 Dec 15;119(12):2986-7.
PMID 16998794
Structural analysis of the catalytically inactive kinase domain of the human EGF receptor 3.
Jura N, Shan Y, Cao X, Shaw DE, Kuriyan J.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Dec 22;106(51):21608-13. Epub 2009 Dec 9.
PMID 20007378
Evidence for two independent associations with type 1 diabetes at the 12q13 locus.
Keene KL, Quinlan AR, Hou X, Hall IM, Mychaleckyj JC, Onengut-Gumuscu S, Concannon P.
Genes Immun. 2012 Jan;13(1):66-70. doi: 10.1038/gene.2011.56. Epub 2011 Aug 18.
PMID 21850031
Signal transduction by epidermal growth factor and heregulin via the kinase-deficient ErbB3 protein.
Kim HH, Vijapurkar U, Hellyer NJ, Bravo D, Koland JG.
Biochem J. 1998 Aug 15;334 ( Pt 1):189-95.
PMID 9693119
Expression and nuclear localization of ErbB3 in prostate cancer.
Koumakpayi IH, Diallo JS, Le Page C, Lessard L, Gleave M, Begin LR, Mes-Masson AM, Saad F.
Clin Cancer Res. 2006 May 1;12(9):2730-7.
PMID 16675564
Isolation and characterization of ERBB3, a third member of the ERBB/epidermal growth factor receptor family: evidence for overexpression in a subset of human mammary tumors.
Kraus MH, Issing W, Miki T, Popescu NC, Aaronson SA.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Dec;86(23):9193-7.
PMID 2687875
A naturally occurring secreted human ErbB3 receptor isoform inhibits heregulin-stimulated activation of ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4.
Lee H, Akita RW, Sliwkowski MX, Maihle NJ.
Cancer Res. 2001 Jun 1;61(11):4467-73.
PMID 11389077
Isolation and characterization of four alternate c-erbB3 transcripts expressed in ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines and normal human tissues.
Lee H, Maihle NJ.
Oncogene. 1998 Jun 25;16(25):3243-52.
PMID 9681822
Downregulation of erbB3 abrogates erbB2-mediated tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells.
Liu B, Ordonez-Ercan D, Fan Z, Edgerton SM, Yang X, Thor AD.
Int J Cancer. 2007 May 1;120(9):1874-82.
PMID 17266042
HER2/neu kinase-dependent modulation of androgen receptor function through effects on DNA binding and stability.
Mellinghoff IK, Vivanco I, Kwon A, Tran C, Wongvipat J, Sawyers CL.
Cancer Cell. 2004 Nov;6(5):517-27.
PMID 15542435
Homozygosity mapping of lethal congenital contractural syndrome type 2 (LCCS2) to a 6 cM interval on chromosome 12q13.
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Am J Med Genet A. 2004 Oct 15;130A(3):272-6.
PMID 15378541
c-erbB-3: a nuclear protein in mammary epithelial cells.
Offterdinger M, Schofer C, Weipoltshammer K, Grunt TW.
J Cell Biol. 2002 Jun 10;157(6):929-39. Epub 2002 Jun 3.
PMID 12045181
The ErbB signaling network: receptor heterodimerization in development and cancer.
Olayioye MA, Neve RM, Lane HA, Hynes NE.
EMBO J. 2000 Jul 3;19(13):3159-67. (REVIEW)
PMID 10880430
Neu differentiation factor/neuregulin isoforms activate distinct receptor combinations.
Pinkas-Kramarski R, Shelly M, Glathe S, Ratzkin BJ, Yarden Y.
J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 9;271(32):19029-32.
PMID 8702572
Expression of the c-erbB-3 protein in normal human adult and fetal tissues.
Prigent SA, Lemoine NR, Hughes CM, Plowman GD, Selden C, Gullick WJ.
Oncogene. 1992 Jul;7(7):1273-8.
PMID 1377811
Escape from HER-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy by the kinase-inactive HER3.
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Nature. 2007 Jan 25;445(7126):437-41. Epub 2007 Jan 7.
PMID 17206155
ErbB3/HER3 intracellular domain is competent to bind ATP and catalyze autophosphorylation.
Shi F, Telesco SE, Liu Y, Radhakrishnan R, Lemmon MA.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 27;107(17):7692-7. Epub 2010 Mar 29.
PMID 20351256
Inactivation of ErbB3 by siRNA promotes apoptosis and attenuates growth and invasiveness of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549.
Sithanandam G, Fornwald LW, Fields J, Anderson LM.
Oncogene. 2005 Mar 10;24(11):1847-59.
PMID 15688028
Transcriptional regulation of the c-erbB-3 gene in human breast carcinoma cell lines.
Skinner A, Hurst HC.
Oncogene. 1993 Dec;8(12):3393-401.
PMID 8247542
ErbBs in mammary development.
Stern DF.
Exp Cell Res. 2003 Mar 10;284(1):89-98. (REVIEW)
PMID 12648468
Genetically dependent ERBB3 expression modulates antigen presenting cell function and type 1 diabetes risk.
Wang H, Jin Y, Reddy MV, Podolsky R, Liu S, Yang P, Bode B, Reed JC, Steed RD, Anderson SW, Steed L, Hopkins D, Huang Y, She JX.
PLoS One. 2010 Jul 26;5(7):e11789.
PMID 20668683
EGFR/HER-targeted therapeutics in ovarian cancer.
Wilken JA, Badri T, Cross S, Raji R, Santin AD, Schwartz P, Branscum AJ, Baron AT, Sakhitab AI, Maihle NJ.
Future Med Chem. 2012 Mar;4(4):447-69. (REVIEW)
PMID 22416774
Stabilization of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1 by the deubiquitinating enzyme USP8.
Wu X, Yen L, Irwin L, Sweeney C, Carraway KL 3rd.
Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Sep;24(17):7748-57.
PMID 15314180
High c-erbB-3 protein expression is associated with shorter survival in advanced non-small cell lung carcinomas.
Yi ES, Harclerode D, Gondo M, Stephenson M, Brown RW, Younes M, Cagle PT.
Mod Pathol. 1997 Feb;10(2):142-8.
PMID 9127320
An allosteric mechanism for activation of the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor.
Zhang X, Gureasko J, Shen K, Cole PA, Kuriyan J.
Cell. 2006 Jun 16;125(6):1137-49.
PMID 16777603
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Zhang Y, Hamburger AW.
Br J Cancer. 2005 Jan 17;92(1):140-6.
PMID 15583694


This paper should be referenced as such :
Awasthi, S ; Hamburger, AW
ERBB3 (v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (avian))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2012;16(12):871-875.
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Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 3 ]
  Colon: Colorectal adenocarcinoma
t(12;12)(q13;q22) ERBB3/CRADD
t(12;14)(q13;q21) ERBB3/FOXA1

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SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
BioGPS (Tissue expression)2065
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
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