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FANCD2 (Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2)

Written1998-04Jean-Loup Huret
Genetics, Dept Medical Information, University of Poitiers, CHU Poitiers Hospital, F-86021 Poitiers, France
Updated2002-06Jean-Loup Huret
Genetics, Dept Medical Information, University of Poitiers, CHU Poitiers Hospital, F-86021 Poitiers, France

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Other aliasFAD
LocusID (NCBI) 2177
Atlas_Id 103
Location 3p25.3  [Link to chromosome band 3p25]
Location_base_pair Starts at and ends at bp from pter
Local_order not far from XPC, in 3p25
  Probe(s) - Courtesy Mariano Rocchi, Resources for Molecular Cytogenetics
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
BRK1 (3p25.3) / FANCD2 (3p25.3)FANCD2 (3p25.3) / CMTM6 (3p22.3)FANCD2 (3p25.3) / MTMR14 (3p25.3)
PCNX1 (14q24.2) / FANCD2 (3p25.3)RAD18 (3p25.3) / FANCD2 (3p25.3)


Description 44 exons; 4356 bp open reading frame; the first exon is non-coding.


Description 1452 amino acids; 155 kDa (FANCD2-S isoform, for short), and 162 kDa (FANCD2-L isoform, for long) by ubiquitin addition
Expression weak
Localisation nucleus
Function the FA complex is comprised of : FANCA, FANCC, FANCE, FANCF, and FANCG; this complex is only found in the nucleus.
  • FANCA and FANCG form a complex in the cytoplasm, through a N-term FANCA (involving the nuclear localization signal) - FANCG interaction; FANCC join the complex; phosphorylation of FANCA would induce its translocation into the nucleus.This FA complex translocates into the nucleus, where FANCE and FANCF are present; FANCE and FANCF join the complex. The FA complex subsequently interacts with FANCD2 by monoubiquitination of FANCD2 during S phase or following DNA damage. Activated (ubiquinated ) FANCD2 (i.e. FANCD2-L), downstream in the FA pathway, will then interact with other proteins involved in DNA repair, possibly BRCA1; after DNA repair, FANCD2 return to the non-ubiquinated form (FANCD2-S).
  • FANCD2co-localizes with BRCA1 in DNA damaged-induced loci and in the synaptonemal complex of meotic chromosomes as well.
  • Homology significant homologies can be found with proteins from various species

    Implicated in

    Entity Fanconi anaemia (FA); FANCD2 is implicated in the FA complementation group D, a heterogeneous group, with at least 2 genes: FANCD2, and a yet undiscovered FANCD1. FA complementation group D represents about 1% of FA cases. In FA complementation group D patients, the FA complex is normal, in contrast with results found in group A, B (with a yet unknown gene), C, E, F, and G patients.
    Disease Fanconi anaemia is a chromosome instability syndrome/cancer prone disease (at risk of leukaemia and squamous cell carcinoma)
    Prognosis Fanconi anaemia's prognosis is poor; mean survival is 20 years: patients die of bone marrow failure (infections, haemorrhages), leukaemia, or solid cancer.
  • It has recently been shown that significant phenotypic differences were found between the various complementation groups. Patients from the rare groups FA-D, FA-E, and FA-F had somatic abnormalities more frequently.
  • Cytogenetics Spontaneously enhanced chromatid-type aberrations (breaks, gaps, interchanges; increased rate of breaks compared to control, when induced by specific clastogens known as DNA cross-linking agents (e.g. mitomycin C, diepoxybutane).


    Breaks at telomeres and TRF2-independent end fusions in Fanconi anemia.
    Callén E, Samper E, Ramírez MJ, Creus A, Marcos R, Ortega JJ, Olivé T, Badell I, Blasco MA, Surrallés J
    Human molecular genetics. 2002 ; 11 (4) : 439-444.
    PMID 11854176
    Molecular biology of Fanconi anemia: implications for diagnosis and therapy.
    D'Andrea AD, Grompe M
    Blood. 1997 ; 90 (5) : 1725-1736.
    PMID 9292505
    Association of complementation group and mutation type with clinical outcome in fanconi anemia. European Fanconi Anemia Research Group.
    Faivre L, Guardiola P, Lewis C, Dokal I, Ebell W, Zatterale A, Altay C, Poole J, Stones D, Kwee ML, van Weel-Sipman M, Havenga C, Morgan N, de Winter J, Digweed M, Savoia A, Pronk J, de Ravel T, Jansen S, Joenje H, Gluckman E, Mathew CG
    Blood. 2000 ; 96 (13) : 4064-4070.
    PMID 11110674
    Interaction of the Fanconi anemia proteins and BRCA1 in a common pathway.
    Garcia-Higuera I, Taniguchi T, Ganesan S, Meyn MS, Timmers C, Hejna J, Grompe M, D'Andrea AD
    Molecular cell. 2001 ; 7 (2) : 249-262.
    PMID 11239454
    Fanconi anemia and DNA repair.
    Grompe M, D'Andrea A
    Human molecular genetics. 2001 ; 10 (20) : 2253-2259.
    PMID 11673408
    Localization of the Fanconi anemia complementation group D gene to a 200-kb region on chromosome 3p25.3.
    Hejna JA, Timmers CD, Reifsteck C, Bruun DA, Lucas LW, Jakobs PM, Toth-Fejel S, Unsworth N, Clemens SL, Garcia DK, Naylor SL, Thayer MJ, Olson SB, Grompe M, Moses RE
    American journal of human genetics. 2000 ; 66 (5) : 1540-1551.
    PMID 10762542
    Direct interactions of the five known Fanconi anaemia proteins suggest a common functional pathway.
    Medhurst AL, Huber PA, Waisfisz Q, de Winter JP, Mathew CG
    Human molecular genetics. 2001 ; 10 (4) : 423-429.
    PMID 11157805
    Fanconi anemia proteins localize to chromatin and the nuclear matrix in a DNA damage- and cell cycle-regulated manner.
    Qiao F, Moss A, Kupfer GM
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 2001 ; 276 (26) : 23391-23396.
    PMID 11297559
    Positional cloning of a novel Fanconi anemia gene, FANCD2.
    Timmers C, Taniguchi T, Hejna J, Reifsteck C, Lucas L, Bruun D, Thayer M, Cox B, Olson S, D'Andrea AD, Moses R, Grompe M
    Molecular cell. 2001 ; 7 (2) : 241-248.
    PMID 11239453
    Microcell mediated chromosome transfer maps the Fanconi anaemia group D gene to chromosome 3p.
    Whitney M, Thayer M, Reifsteck C, Olson S, Smith L, Jakobs PM, Leach R, Naylor S, Joenje H, Grompe M
    Nature genetics. 1995 ; 11 (3) : 341-343.
    PMID 7581463
    The Chinese hamster FANCG/XRCC9 mutant NM3 fails to express the monoubiquitinated form of the FANCD2 protein, is hypersensitive to a range of DNA damaging agents and exhibits a normal level of spontaneous sister chromatid exchange.
    Wilson JB, Johnson MA, Stuckert AP, Trueman KL, May S, Bryant PE, Meyn RE, D'Andrea AD, Jones NJ
    Carcinogenesis. 2001 ; 22 (12) : 1939-1946.
    PMID 11751423
    Current knowledge on the pathophysiology of Fanconi anemia: from genes to phenotypes.
    Yamashita T, Nakahata T
    International journal of hematology. 2001 ; 74 (1) : 33-41.
    PMID 11530803
    Targeted disruption of the murine Fanconi anemia gene, Fancg/Xrcc9.
    Yang Y, Kuang Y, Montes De Oca R, Hays T, Moreau L, Lu N, Seed B, D'Andrea AD
    Blood. 2001 ; 98 (12) : 3435-3440.
    PMID 11719385


    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Huret, JL
    FANCD2 (Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2)
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2002;6(4):277-278.
    Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
    On line version :
    History of this paper:
    Huret, JL. FAD (Fanconi anaemia group D). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 1998;2(3):83-83.

    Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 2 ]
      BRK1/FANCD2 (3p25)
    FANCD2/MTMR14 (3p25)

    Other Cancer prone implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
      Fanconi anemia

    External links

    Genomic and cartography
    Gene and transcription
    RefSeq transcript (Entrez)
    RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
    SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
    BioGPS (Tissue expression)2177
    Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
    Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
    Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
    Protein Interaction databases
    Ontologies - Pathways
    Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
    canSAR (ICR) (select the gene name)
    Other databaseFanconi anemia mutation database
    REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

    © Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    indexed on : Thu Oct 18 17:35:56 CEST 2018

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