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ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related)

Identity

Other namesFRP1
MEC1
SCKL
SCKL1
HGNC (Hugo) ATR
LocusID (NCBI) 545
Location 3q23
Location_base_pair Starts at 142168077 and ends at 142297668 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]
Local_order According to NCBI Map Viewer (ATR), genes (pseudogenes and hypothetical proteins have been excluded) flanking ATR in telomere to centromere direction on 3q23 are: SLC9A9 (solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 9), CHST2 (carbohydrate (N-acetylglucosamine-6-O) sulfotransferase 2), SR140 (U2-associated SR140 protein), PAQR9 (progestin and adipo Q receptor family member IX), PCOLCE2 (procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer 2), TRPC1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1), PLS1 (plastin I (I isoform)), ATR.
Note ATR is a serine/threonine kinase and belongs to the phosphoinositide 3- kinase related protein kinases (PIKKs), particularly to ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) subfamily. It functions to maintain genome integrity by stabilizing replication forks and by regulating cell cycle progression and DNA repair. ATR, in a complex with its regulatory partner ATRIP (ATR interacting protein), localises to stalled replication forks responding to a variety of types of replication stress and DNA damage. Recipients of ATR signalling are a plethora of substrates among them DNA damage protein sensors, mediators and effectors, DNA repair proteins, proteins of replisome and chromatin remodelling as well as centrosomal proteins. ATR function is essential for cell viability and disruptions of ATR signalling cause genomic instability. Mutations in ATR gene are rare and compatible with life only when hypomorphic or heterozygous. A clear link between disease and ATR gene mutation is the Seckel syndrome, while ATR has been proposed to serve as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in some types of cell deficiencies and its activation has been detected in most cancer chemotherapies.
See also the Deep Insight: Ataxia-Telangiectasia and variants.

DNA/RNA

Note The first human ATR cDNA full-length clone (originally named FRP1, FRAP-related protein 1) was isolated from a Jurkat T-cell cDNA library and identified by its significant homology to other members of the phosphatidylinositol kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family. Evidence for the existence of two alternative ATR transcripts, with differential tissue expression, in the non-catalytic domain has been reported, by using RT-PCR. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyadenylation signals are also exist. ATR gene has recently been annotated in the Ensembl database.
 
  Intron/Exon structure of the ATR gene (ENSG00000175054). There are two transcript isoforms of this gene, with 47 and 46 exons, respectively, spanning to an area of 129.59 kb. Exons are illustrated with vertical lines and boxes (A, B). Diagram in panel B represents only the exons' structure. Direction of transcription is shown by an arrow. The 6th exon that is missing from ATR isoform 2 is indicated with an asterisk (A) or with blue colour box (B). Untranslated regions are in light pink, while coding regions are in deep pink. Start of translation (ATG) and stop codon (TGA) are also indicated.
Description 47 exons spanning to 129.59 kb.
Transcription Two isoforms: isoform ATR-201 (ENST00000350721) (8248 bp) includes all 47 exons, while isoform ATR-202 (ENST00000383101) (8056 bp) does not include exon 6, deleting 192 nt (64 codons) from the mRNA. The translation start site is in exon 1.

Protein

Note ATR and ATM function in an overlapping, but non-redundant fashion, phosphorylating many of the same substrates. However, and in contrast to ATM, ATR's function is essential for cell viability. ATR-deficiency at the organismal level affects normal development, tissue homeostasis, and ageing.
Description Isoform ATR-201 (ENSP00000343741): 2644 amino acids (predicted MW 301365.74 Da).
Isoform ATR-202 (ENSP00000372581): 2580 aa (predicted MW 294218.33 Da).
Biochemical studies of ATR protein do not distinguish between the two different isoforms.
ATR protein contains a PI3/4 kinase catalytic domain, 1 FAT domain, 1 FATC domain, 1 UME domain, and 2 HEAT repeats.
Expression Isoform 1 has ubiquitous expression with highest levels in testis. Isoform 2 has more specific expression (has found in pancreas, liver and placenta while is not detected in heart, testis and ovary).
Forced expression of ATR inhibits MyoD function, leading to loss of differentiation, as well as induces cell-cycle abnormalities (increased aneuploidy and elimination of IR-induced G1 arrest). Limited expression of ATR or overexpression of kinase dead forms of this protein increases cell sensitivity to a variety of DNA damage agents and replication inhibitors, such as ionizing radiation (IR), cis-platinum, hydroxy urea (HU), methylmethanesulfonate (MMS) and ultra violet (UV) irradiation, leading to significant losses in checkpoint control and cell viability. Loss of ATR results in DNA fragile site expression, a specific type of genomic instability.
Localisation In the nucleus, where it is recruited to chromatin during S-phase and redistributes to distinct foci upon DNA damage, stalling of replication forks with replication inhibitors or hypoxia. ATR has also been found in PML (promyetocytic leukaemia protein) nuclear bodies of some types of cells.
Kinase dead forms of ATR do not relocalize in response to IR and block nuclear translocation of RPA complex in a cell cycle-dependent manner.
Function ATR essential maintains genome integrity by serving multiple roles in the cellular response to DNA damage and endogenous replication stress. It signals to regulate the firing of replication origins, the repair of damaged replication forks and to prevent the premature mitotic entry. Moreover, it critically functions directly at the sites of stalled forks by stabilizing components of the replisome to ensure completion of replication during recovery of stalled forks.

ATR-mediated activation of S-phase checkpoint
ATR is activated during every S-phase and in response to many different types of damage, including double strand breaks (DSB), base adducts, crosslinks and replication stress. The structural requirement for ATR activation is a RPA-coated single-stranded DNA with a 5' double stranded primer junction. ATR recognition of the above DNA structure depends upon a protein co-factor, ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein), that regulates ATR localization and activation. The activity of ATR-ATRIP complex is directly stimulated by TOPBP1 (DNA topoisomerase II binding protein 1), which recruitment to DNA is facilitated by the 9-1-1 (Rad9-Rad1-Hus1) checkpoint clamp.
Activated ATR signals to coordinate cell cycle transitions and repair through the phosphorylation of numerous of substrates including RAD17, p53, TopBP1 (via a feed-forward signalling loop that amplifies ATR-mediated signals), the mediator protein CEP164 and the downstream effector Chk1 (checkpoint kinase 1), which is the best characterized target of the ATR activity. Recombination proteins BRCA1 (breast cancer susceptibility gene 1), WRN (Werner's syndrome helicase), and BLM (Bloom's syndrome helicase) are ATR sunstrates as well. ATR also phosphorylates the Fanconi-anemia protein FANCD2 to regulate inter-strand crosslink repair as well as the nucleotide excision repair protein XPA to regulate its intracellular localization. Moreover, ATR interacts with the mismatch repair protein MSH2 (mutS homolog 2) to form a signalling module and regulate the phosphorylation of Chk1 and SMC1 (structure maintenance of chromosome 1). Upon replication stress ATR also phosphorylates the Ser-139 of H2AX/H2AFX, while is associated with the tyrosine kinase oncogene BCR-ABL after genotoxic stress.

ATR-mediated stabilization of replication forks
ATR has a crucial role in the maintenance of functional replication forks independent of its function in the activation of Rad53 (yeast homolog of checkpoint kinase 2). Among substrates of ATR on the replication forks are the proteins RPA1, RPA2, MCM2-7 (minichromosome maintenance 2-7) complex, MCM10, PCNA, replication factor C, Tim (Timeless)-Tipin complex, SMARCAL1 (HARP)-a SNF2 ATP-dependent annealing helicase, and several polymerases, such as Pol alpha and Pol epsilon. Furthermore, a key target of ATR-ATRIP complex is Claspin, and is important both for S-phase checkpoint activation (via regulation of Chk1 phosphorylation) but also for replication forks stabilization (via interactions with Pol epsilon) even in normal cycling cells. ATR is found also associated with two components of the nucleosome remodelling and deacetylating complex, the chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) and the histone-deacetylase-2 (HDAC2).
ATR also functions to stabilize fragile sites. In effect of all the above, the ATR's essential function for cell viability may be to respond to abundant sources of replication stress in normal cycling cells as well as after exposure to DNA damage agents.

ATR implication in centrosomal function via:
(a) Direct interaction with NBS1 (Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1) and BRCA1 pathway.
(b) Signalling to Chk1 and control of centrosome overduplication after DNA damage.
(c) Direct phosphorylation and delocalization from centrosome of CEP63 in the presence of chromosomal breaks.

Homology According to HomoloGene (NCBI), homologs of the human ATR gene (NP_001175.2, 2644 aa) are the followings:
- Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) XP_516792.2, 2646 aa
- Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) XP_534295.2, 2644 aa
- Cattle (Bos taurus) XP_581054.3, 2644 aa
- Rat (Rattus norvegicus) XP_001062084.1, 2166 aa
- Zebrafish (Danio rerio) XP_696163.3, 2638 aa

Mutations

Somatic Single nucleotide substitutions have been described in various types of carcinomas at total frequency 2%, mostly in heterozygous form. In particular, missense mutations have been found in the PI3/4 kinase catalytic domain and in FAT domain of breast and lung cancers respectively. Coding silent mutations have also been detected in carcinomas of stomach, breast, skin and central nervous system.

Implicated in

Entity ATR haploinsufficiency in mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient cancers
Note Homozygous null mutations of ATR have not been reported in human cancers even in late-stage malignant cells and it is unlikely to exist given that mutations in both alleles of ATR gene lead to cell lethality. However, ATR gene has a potential increased susceptibility to somatic mutations in tumors with defective MMR, due to the presence of an A10 mononucleotide repeat in the exon 10 protein coding region. In particular, clinical reports have demonstrated that ATR is heterozygously mutated in certain types of tumors with mismatch repair deficiencies, including malignancies of the colon, the stomach and the endometrium. Although, it is not well understood how these mutations could contribute to the tumorigenic process, lines of evidence suggest that ATR serves as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in mismatch repair-deficient cells. Disruption of a single ATR allele gene in MLH1-deficient background significantly increases fragile site expression, chromosomal amplifications and rearrangements. The above chromosomal instability accompanied by hypersensitivity to genotoxic stress agents, such as hydroxyurea. Furthermore, mice with ATR+/- MLH1-/- genotype are more prone to early tumor development compared with ATR+/- or MLH1-/- counterparts. More recently has been reported that the combined ATR haploinsufficiency and MMR-deficiency that lead to chromosomal instability in colon cancer cells are also enhance the sensitivity of these cells to chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil, a standard treatment for colorectal cancers. The mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. However, some findings suggest that MMR-deficient cells with partial reduced ATR activity are more prone to formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Additionally, partial inhibition of ATR has been reported to be significant for treatment of patients with high-microsatellite instability (MSI, a class of genomic instability clinically distinct from chromosome instability that is the result of mutations in MMR machinery) colorectal tumors increasing the disease-free survival time.
Prognosis Recent works have demonstrated that high-MSI endometrioid endometrial cancers harboring ATR mutations have worse survival compared to ATR wild-type high-MSI tumors, suggesting that the last ones might also have an improved prognosis compared to microsatellite stable (MSS) endometrial tumors. However, the prognostic significance of ATR mutations in MMR deficient cancers remains to be clarified.
Cytogenetics ATR partial knockdown in colon cancer cell lines with defective MMR leads to the formation of chromosomal breaks and gaps, chromosome bridges and micronuclei, as well as to the formation of supernumerary centrosomes.
  
Entity ATR-mutated Seckel syndrome (ATR-SS)
Note Seckel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by severe intrauterine growth retardation, profound microcephaly, dwarfism, mental retardation and isolated skeletal abnormalities. At least four distinct Seckel syndrome-causative genomic loci (Skl 1-4) have been identified but only two genetic defects are known in this disorder. Both of them impacting on ATR-dependent DNA damage signalling. The first identified defect was in ATR gene itself, concerning a hypomorphic single synonymous mutation (A>G 2101) that caused aberrant splicing of ATR. Pericentrin (PCNT), a core structural component of centrosomes, has also been identified as Seckel syndrome-causative gene.
Cytogenetics Cells from ATR-SS patients exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA replication fork stalling (measured as nuclear fragmentation and micronucleus formation), impaired phosphorylation of ATR substrates, defective G2/M arrest and supernumerous mitotic centrosomes.
Impaired ATR signalling is also characteristic of cells derived from other disorders with microcephaly and growth delay such as pericentrin-mutated Seckel syndrome (PCNT-SS), primary autosomal recessive microcephaly (MCPH) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome.
  

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)ATR   882
Cards
AtlasATRID728ch3q23
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)ATR  545  ATR serine/threonine kinase
GeneCards (Weizmann)ATR
Ensembl (Hinxton)ENSG00000175054 [Gene_View]  chr3:142168077-142297668 [Contig_View]  ATR [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000175054
AceView (NCBI)ATR
Genatlas (Paris)ATR
WikiGenes545
SOURCE (Princeton)NM_001184
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath (UCSC)ATR  -  3q23   chr3:142168077-142297668 -  3q23   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblATR - 3q23 [CytoView]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIATR [Mapview]
OMIM210600   601215   614564   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB208847 AK307402 BC172404 BE859077 DC346860
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001184
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)AC_000135 NC_000003 NC_018914 NG_008951 NT_005612 NW_001838884 NW_004929311
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)ATR
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.271791 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.271791
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0022122
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000175054
Gene ExpressionATR [ NCBI-GEO ]     ATR [ SEEK ]   ATR [ MEM ]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ13535 (Uniprot)
NextProtQ13535  [Medical]
With graphics : InterProQ13535
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ13535 (Swissvar)
Catalytic activity : Enzyme2.7.11.1 [ Enzyme-Expasy ]   2.7.11.12.7.11.1 [ IntEnz-EBI ]   2.7.11.1 [ BRENDA ]   2.7.11.1 [ KEGG ]   
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)FAT (PS51189)    FATC (PS51190)    HEAT_REPEAT (PS50077)    PI3_4_KINASE_2 (PS00916)    PI3_4_KINASE_3 (PS50290)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)ARM-like    ARM-type_fold    FATC    HEAT_type_2    Kinase-like_dom    PI3/4_kinase_cat_dom    PI3/4_kinase_CS    PIK-rel_kinase_FAT    PIK_FAT    TPR-like_helical    UME   
Related proteins : CluSTrQ13535
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)FAT (PF02259)    FATC (PF02260)    PI3_PI4_kinase (PF00454)    UME (PF08064)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam02259    pfam02260    pfam00454    pfam08064   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)PI3Kc (SM00146)  UME (SM00802)  
DMDM Disease mutations545
Blocks (Seattle)Q13535
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000175054
Peptide AtlasQ13535
HPRD08369
IPIIPI00412298   IPI00554573   IPI00926461   IPI00965802   IPI00964655   IPI00966727   IPI00967022   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q13535
IntAct (EBI)Q13535
FunCoupENSG00000175054
BioGRIDATR
IntegromeDBATR
STRING (EMBL)ATR
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOQ13535
Ontology : AmiGODNA damage checkpoint  XY body  DNA binding  protein kinase activity  protein serine/threonine kinase activity  protein binding  ATP binding  nucleoplasm  chromosome  DNA replication  DNA repair  cellular response to DNA damage stimulus  cell cycle  multicellular organismal development  negative regulation of DNA replication  PML body  peptidyl-serine phosphorylation  MutLalpha complex binding  MutSalpha complex binding  cellular response to UV  response to drug  regulation of protein binding  positive regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator  protein autophosphorylation  cellular response to gamma radiation  replicative senescence  
Ontology : EGO-EBIDNA damage checkpoint  XY body  DNA binding  protein kinase activity  protein serine/threonine kinase activity  protein binding  ATP binding  nucleoplasm  chromosome  DNA replication  DNA repair  cellular response to DNA damage stimulus  cell cycle  multicellular organismal development  negative regulation of DNA replication  PML body  peptidyl-serine phosphorylation  MutLalpha complex binding  MutSalpha complex binding  cellular response to UV  response to drug  regulation of protein binding  positive regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator  protein autophosphorylation  cellular response to gamma radiation  replicative senescence  
Pathways : BIOCARTACell Cycle: G2/M Checkpoint [Genes]    Regulation of cell cycle progression by Plk3 [Genes]    Role of BRCA1, BRCA2 and ATR in Cancer Susceptibility [Genes]    Cell Cycle: G1/S Check Point [Genes]   
Pathways : KEGGFanconi anemia pathway    Cell cycle    p53 signaling pathway    HTLV-I infection   
REACTOMEQ13535 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysREACT_115566 Cell Cycle [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysREACT_216 DNA Repair [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysREACT_111183 Meiosis [pathway]
Protein Interaction DatabaseATR
Wikipedia pathwaysATR
Gene fusion - rearrangments
Polymorphisms : SNP, mutations, diseases
SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)ATR
SNP (GeneSNP Utah)ATR
SNP : HGBaseATR
Genetic variants : HAPMAPATR
1000_GenomesATR 
ICGC programENSG00000175054 
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisATR 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICATR 
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Mendelian genes
DECIPHER (Syndromes)3:142168077-142297668
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDATR
OMIM210600    601215    614564   
MedgenATR
GENETestsATR
Disease Genetic AssociationATR
Huge Navigator ATR [HugePedia]  ATR [HugeCancerGEM]
Genomic VariantsATR  ATR [DGVbeta]
Exome VariantATR
dbVarATR
ClinVarATR
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease545
DGIdb (Curated mutations)ATR
DGIdb (Drug Gene Interaction db)ATR
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneATR
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)ATR
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamATR
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD545
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA74
Clinical trialATR
Cancer Resource (Charite)ENSG00000175054
Other databases
Probes
Litterature
PubMed352 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
CoreMineATR
GoPubMedATR
iHOPATR

Bibliography

cDNA cloning and gene mapping of a candidate human cell cycle checkpoint protein.
Cimprich KA, Shin TB, Keith CT, Schreiber SL.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 2;93(7):2850-5.
PMID 8610130
 
Overexpression of a kinase-inactive ATR protein causes sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and defects in cell cycle checkpoints.
Cliby WA, Roberts CJ, Cimprich KA, Stringer CM, Lamb JR, Schreiber SL, Friend SH.
EMBO J. 1998 Jan 2;17(1):159-69.
PMID 9427750
 
Duplication of ATR inhibits MyoD, induces aneuploidy and eliminates radiation-induced G1 arrest.
Smith L, Liu SJ, Goodrich L, Jacobson D, Degnin C, Bentley N, Carr A, Flaggs G, Keegan K, Hoekstra M, Thayer MJ.
Nat Genet. 1998 May;19(1):39-46.
PMID 9590286
 
Protein kinase mutants of human ATR increase sensitivity to UV and ionizing radiation and abrogate cell cycle checkpoint control.
Wright JA, Keegan KS, Herendeen DR, Bentley NJ, Carr AM, Hoekstra MF, Concannon P.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jun 23;95(13):7445-50.
PMID 9636169
 
ATR is a caffeine-sensitive, DNA-activated protein kinase with a substrate specificity distinct from DNA-PK.
Hall-Jackson CA, Cross DA, Morrice N, Smythe C.
Oncogene. 1999 Nov 18;18(48):6707-13.
PMID 10597277
 
Substrate specificities and identification of putative substrates of ATM kinase family members.
Kim ST, Lim DS, Canman CE, Kastan MB.
J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 31;274(53):37538-43.
PMID 10608806
 
Molecular association between ATR and two components of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylating complex, HDAC2 and CHD4.
Schmidt DR, Schreiber SL.
Biochemistry. 1999 Nov 2;38(44):14711-7.
PMID 10545197
 
A role for ATR in the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of p53.
Tibbetts RS, Brumbaugh KM, Williams JM, Sarkaria JN, Cliby WA, Shieh SY, Taya Y, Prives C, Abraham RT.
Genes Dev. 1999 Jan 15;13(2):152-7.
PMID 9925639
 
ATR disruption leads to chromosomal fragmentation and early embryonic lethality.
Brown EJ, Baltimore D.
Genes Dev. 2000 Feb 15;14(4):397-402.
PMID 10691732
 
Chk1 is an essential kinase that is regulated by Atr and required for the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint.
Liu Q, Guntuku S, Cui XS, Matsuoka S, Cortez D, Tamai K, Luo G, Carattini-Rivera S, DeMayo F, Bradley A, Donehower LA, Elledge SJ.
Genes Dev. 2000 Jun 15;14(12):1448-59.
PMID 10859164
 
Functional interactions between BRCA1 and the checkpoint kinase ATR during genotoxic stress.
Tibbetts RS, Cortez D, Brumbaugh KM, Scully R, Livingston D, Elledge SJ, Abraham RT.
Genes Dev. 2000 Dec 1;14(23):2989-3002.
PMID 11114888
 
ATR/ATM-mediated phosphorylation of human Rad17 is required for genotoxic stress responses.
Bao S, Tibbetts RS, Brumbaugh KM, Fang Y, Richardson DA, Ali A, Chen SM, Abraham RT, Wang XF.
Nature. 2001 Jun 21;411(6840):969-74.
PMID 11418864
 
ATR and ATRIP: partners in checkpoint signaling.
Cortez D, Guntuku S, Qin J, Elledge SJ.
Science. 2001 Nov 23;294(5547):1713-6.
PMID 11721054
 
Evidence for alternate splicing within the mRNA transcript encoding the DNA damage response kinase ATR.
Mannino JL, Kim W, Wernick M, Nguyen SV, Braquet R, Adamson AW, Den Z, Batzer MA, Collins CC, Brown KD.
Gene. 2001 Jul 11;272(1-2):35-43.
PMID 11470508
 
Somatic mutations in the DNA damage-response genes ATR and CHK1 in sporadic stomach tumors with microsatellite instability.
Menoyo A, Alazzouzi H, Espin E, Armengol M, Yamamoto H, Schwartz S Jr.
Cancer Res. 2001 Nov 1;61(21):7727-30.
PMID 11691784
 
Histone H2AX is phosphorylated in an ATR-dependent manner in response to replicational stress.
Ward IM, Chen J.
J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 21;276(51):47759-62. Epub 2001 Oct 22.
PMID 11673449
 
ATR regulates fragile site stability.
Casper AM, Nghiem P, Arlt MF, Glover TW.
Cell. 2002 Dec 13;111(6):779-89.
PMID 12526805
 
Hypoxia links ATR and p53 through replication arrest.
Hammond EM, Denko NC, Dorie MJ, Abraham RT, Giaccia AJ.
Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Mar;22(6):1834-43.
PMID 11865061
 
Preferential binding of ATR protein to UV-damaged DNA.
Unsal-Kacmaz K, Makhov AM, Griffith JD, Sancar A.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 May 14;99(10):6673-8.
PMID 12011431
 
ATR kinase activity regulates the intranuclear translocation of ATR and RPA following ionizing radiation.
Barr SM, Leung CG, Chang EE, Cimprich KA.
Curr Biol. 2003 Jun 17;13(12):1047-51.
PMID 12814551
 
Human claspin is required for replication checkpoint control.
Chini CC, Chen J.
J Biol Chem. 2003 Aug 8;278(32):30057-62. Epub 2003 May 24.
PMID 12766152
 
A splicing mutation affecting expression of ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) results in Seckel syndrome.
O'Driscoll M, Ruiz-Perez VL, Woods CG, Jeggo PA, Goodship JA.
Nat Genet. 2003 Apr;33(4):497-501. Epub 2003 Mar 17.
PMID 12640452
 
MSH2 and ATR form a signaling module and regulate two branches of the damage response to DNA methylation.
Wang Y, Qin J.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 23;100(26):15387-92. Epub 2003 Dec 3.
PMID 14657349
 
Sensing DNA damage through ATRIP recognition of RPA-ssDNA complexes.
Zou L, Elledge SJ.
Science. 2003 Jun 6;300(5625):1542-8.
PMID 12791985
 
Seckel syndrome exhibits cellular features demonstrating defects in the ATR-signalling pathway.
Alderton GK, Joenje H, Varon R, Borglum AD, Jeggo PA, O'Driscoll M.
Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Dec 15;13(24):3127-38. Epub 2004 Oct 20.
PMID 15496423
 
ATR couples FANCD2 monoubiquitination to the DNA-damage response.
Andreassen PR, D'Andrea AD, Taniguchi T.
Genes Dev. 2004 Aug 15;18(16):1958-63.
PMID 15314022
 
Minichromosome maintenance proteins are direct targets of the ATM and ATR checkpoint kinases.
Cortez D, Glick G, Elledge SJ.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 6;101(27):10078-83. Epub 2004 Jun 21.
PMID 15210935
 
Recruitment of the cell cycle checkpoint kinase ATR to chromatin during S-phase.
Dart DA, Adams KE, Akerman I, Lakin ND.
J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 16;279(16):16433-40. Epub 2004 Feb 9.
PMID 14871897
 
BCR/ABL translocates to the nucleus and disrupts an ATR-dependent intra-S phase checkpoint.
Dierov J, Dierova R, Carroll M.
Cancer Cell. 2004 Mar;5(3):275-85.
PMID 15050919
 
ATR functions as a gene dosage-dependent tumor suppressor on a mismatch repair-deficient background.
Fang Y, Tsao CC, Goodman BK, Furumai R, Tirado CA, Abraham RT, Wang XF.
EMBO J. 2004 Aug 4;23(15):3164-74. Epub 2004 Jul 29.
PMID 15282542
 
Quaternary structure of ATR and effects of ATRIP and replication protein A on its DNA binding and kinase activities.
Unsal-Kacmaz K, Sancar A.
Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Feb;24(3):1292-300.
PMID 14729973
 
UV-induced ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) activation requires replication stress.
Ward IM, Minn K, Chen J.
J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 12;279(11):9677-80. Epub 2004 Jan 23.
PMID 14742437
 
Functional uncoupling of MCM helicase and DNA polymerase activities activates the ATR-dependent checkpoint.
Byun TS, Pacek M, Yee MC, Walter JC, Cimprich KA.
Genes Dev. 2005 May 1;19(9):1040-52. Epub 2005 Apr 15.
PMID 15833913
 
Conserved modes of recruitment of ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs to sites of DNA damage.
Falck J, Coates J, Jackson SP.
Nature. 2005 Mar 31;434(7033):605-11. Epub 2005 Mar 2.
PMID 15758953
 
Heterozygous ATR mutations in mismatch repair-deficient cancer cells have functional significance.
Lewis KA, Mullany S, Thomas B, Chien J, Loewen R, Shridhar V, Cliby WA.
Cancer Res. 2005 Aug 15;65(16):7091-5.
PMID 16103057
 
Regulation of mitotic entry by microcephalin and its overlap with ATR signalling.
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Contributor(s)

Written05-2010Mary E Gagou, Mark Meuth
Institute for Cancer Studies, The University of Sheffield, Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield, S10 2RX, UK

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Gagou, ME ; Meuth, M
ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2011;15(2):-.
Free online version   Free pdf version   [Bibliographic record ]
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/ATRID728ch3q23.html

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