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DND1 (DND microRNA-mediated repression inhibitor 1)

Written2015-12Angabin Matin
University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030

Abstract DND1 is a RNA binding protein. Initially identified in the zebrafish, where knockdown of dnd in the early embryo resulted in loss of primordial germ cells (Weidinger et al., 2003). Mutations in Dnd1 in mice and rats, thought to result in expression of a truncated DND1 protein, are oncogenic and result in germ cell depletion as well as germ cell tumors (Youngren et al., 2005; Northrup et al., 2012). DND1 is required for the survival of primordial germ cells during early development. Primordial germ cells are the stem cells from which germ cell tumors arise (Stevens, 1967). Total deficiency of DND1 in mice results in early embryonic lethality (Zechel et al., 2013). In humans, mutations and deregulation of DND1 expression have been reported in testicular cancer as well as other types of cancers (Bhandari et al., 2012; Linger et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2010; Sijmons et al., 2010). One function of DND1 is as a translational regulator (Kedde et al., 2007).

Keywords translation regulation, miRNA, germ cell, germ cell tumor, DND1

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)MGC34750
HGNC (Hugo) DND1
HGNC Alias symbMGC34750
HGNC Previous namedead end homolog 1 (zebrafish)
LocusID (NCBI) 373863
Atlas_Id 50139
Location 5q31.3, located between bases 140,670,794-140,673,586 on the reverse strand of human Chr 5 (Ensembl).  [Link to chromosome band 5q31]
Location_base_pair Starts at 140670794 and ends at 140673576 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping DND1.png]
Local_order Flanking DND1 on the 5' end is WDR55 (WD repeat domain 55) located on the forward strand, followed by DND1 (on reverse strand) and at the 3'-end, HARS (histidyl-tRNA synthetase) (on the reverse strand).
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
WDR55 (5q31.3)::DND1 (5q31.3)


Transcription Unlike human DND1, mouse Dnd1 encodes two alternate spliced transcripts that differ at the N-terminus and which give rise to α and β-isoforms of DND1. DND1-α is expressed in early embryos and DND1-β in the germ cells of adult testis (Bhattacharya et al., 2007).


  Human DND1 has 1 transcript (1605 bp) encoding a protein of 353 aa. Human DND1 has a RNA recognition motif (RRM), double strand RNA binding domain (DSRM), and the HRAAAMA motif (that is also found in mouse and rat DND1).
Description DND1 contains a RNA recognition motif (RRM) through which it interacts with mRNA (Northrup et al., 2012; Weidinger et al., 2003; Youngren et al., 2005). It also has a double strand RNA binding domain (DSRM) at the C-terminus end, the function of which has not been evaluated. DND1 has sequence similarity with A1cf, which is a RNA binding subunit of the Apobec1 cytidine deaminase that edits specific sites in specific mRNAs (Youngren et al., 2005). A conserved HRAAAMA motif is found in DND1 and in A1cf (Zechel et al., 2013) and the ATPase activity of zebrafish Dnd is ascribed to this motif (Liu and Collodi, 2010).
Expression Expressed in embryonic and adult germ cells, the gonads and in testicular germ cell tumors (Bhattacharya et al., 2007; Northrup et al., 2012; Weidinger et al., 2003; Youngren et al., 2005). Also expressed in other cell types such as skin and pancreas (Basu et al., 2011; Bhandari et al., 2012). Is expressed in the early embryo of Xenopus (Bauermeister et al., 2015; Mei et al., 2013).
Localisation ND1 localizes to the cytoplasm in perinuclear sites as well as in the nucleus of some cell types (Bhattacharya et al., 2008; Bhattacharya et al., 2007; Mickoleit et al., 2011; Slanchev et al., 2009). In the cytoplasm of male embryonic germ cells, DND1 co-localizes with NANOS2 in P-bodies (Suzuki et al., 2015).
The Xenopus Dnd protein has a germplasm localization signal and nuclear localization signal. In the fertilized embryo, Dnd moves from the cortex to the perinuclear region with germplasm and enters the nucleus. It is speculated that Dnd carries RNA into the nucleus to trigger germline specification (Taguchi et al., 2014).
Function DND1 is implicated in different aspects of translation regulation that impact embryonic and primordial germ cell development and cancer. The molecular function of DND1 has been delineated from studies in rodents, zebrafish and Xenopus.
(a) DND1 binds to the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of mRNAs to displace miRNA interaction with specific mRNAs (Kedde et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2010). For example, DND1 blocks access of specific miRNAs to their 3' target in CDKN1B (P27) and LATS2 mRNA. Human and mouse DND1 interacts with mRNAs that encode pluripotency factors (POU5F1 (OCT4), SOX2 , NANOG, LIN28), regulators of cell cycle (LATS2, TP53, p21 and p27) and apoptotic factors (BCL2L1 (BCLX) andBAX) (Cook et al., 2011; Zhu et al., 2011).
Zebrafish DND1 blocks miR-430 from huB, Nanos and TDRD7 3'-UTR and also regulates translation of geminin mRNA through binding to its 3? -UTR (Chen et al., 2010; Kedde et al., 2007; Mickoleit et al., 2011).
(b) DND1 interacts with apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 (APOBEC3) (Bhattacharya et al., 2008). Human APOBEC3G inhibits DND1 function. APOBEC3G blocks DND1 function to restore the translational inhibitory effect of miRNAs on the 3'-UTR of P27, LATS2 and GJA1 (CX43) (Ali et al., 2013).
Mouse c-JUN interacts with DND1 and co-localizes to the nuclei. DND1 and c-JUN caused increased transcriptional activity of activator protein 1 (Zhang et al., 2015).
(c) Mouse DND1 directly interacts with NANOS2 to load specific mRNAs into the CCR4-NOT (CNOT) deadenylase complex (Suzuki et al., 2015). This results in translational suppression of specific RNAs that are required during germ cell development and thus conditional deletion of DND1 disrupts male germ cell differentiation.
(d) Zebrafish DND1 protein possesses Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity that is required for primordial germ cell viability and formation. The ATPase region is mapped to the C terminus of DND1 (Liu and Collodi, 2010).
(e) DND1 transports mRNA transcripts from germ cell nuclei to germ cell granules (Slanchev et al., 2009).
(f) Deletion of DND1 in mice indicates it is essential for embryonic viability (Zechel et al., 2013). Repression or ablation of Dnd In Xenopus and zebrafish embryos results in loss of primordial germ cells and their failure to migrate into the developing gonads (Horvay et al., 2006; Weidinger et al., 2003).
(g) In the early embryo of Xenopus, Dnd is required to regionally anchor key regulators of the vegetal cortical microtubule assembly for axis specification. Dnd binds to 3'-UTR of trim36, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is essential for microtubule assembly. The microtubules translocate dorsal determinants. Lack of Dnd causes ventralization of frog embryos (Mei et al., 2013).
In turn, Xenopus Dnd mRNA is localized vegetally to the RNP complex by Celf, a component of the vegetal localization RNP complex (Bauermeister et al., 2015). Celf interacts with the late element (LE) of Dnd RNA. LE of Dnd mRNA also interacts with Elavl1 and Elav2 (Arthur et al., 2009).

Implicated in

Entity Germ cell tumors including and
Note The 5q31.3 region encompassing DND1 is frequently deleted in male TGCTs (al-Jehani et al., 1995; Faulkner et al., 2000; Peng et al., 1999). Two studies detected DND1 mutations upon sequencing the exons of DND1 in patients with TGCTs (Linger et al., 2008 ; Sijmons et al., 2010) although mutations in DND1 appear to be rare in human TGCTs.
In one study, DNA from 263 familial and sporadic TGCT patients were sequenced. A possible pathogenic missense mutation in exon 3 (c.A301C, p.Glu86Ala) was identified in one patient. This mutation resides within the functional, evolutionary conserved RNA recognition motif (Linger et al., 2008).
In another study, sequencing exons 1 to 4 of DND1 from peripheral blood lymphocytes in 272 men, with both sporadic and familial TGCT, detected one non familial mutation (c.C657G, p.Asp219Glu) in exon 4. The wild-type DND1 was not lost in the patient (Sijmons et al., 2010).
Analysis of the human DND promoter revealed 15 CpG sites. However, no significant differences in CpG methylation levels have been observed in DNA from blood of patients with TGCT cases compared to controls (Mirabello et al., 2012).
Oncogenesis The function DND1 in TGCT oncogenesis has been gleaned from studies in rodent models.
The Ter mutation is a single base substitution in exon 3 of Dnd1 that transforms an arginine residue to a premature stop codon (p.Arg178X) (Youngren et al., 2005). In the 129 mouse, the Ter mutation (in DND1) has been characterized as a modifier gene for amplifying the incidence of spontaneous TGCTs (Asada et al., 1994; Noguchi and Stevens, 1982). The 129-Ter mouse is a model for prepubertal type I testicular germ cell tumors (Oosterhuis and Looijenga, 2005). Neoplastic transformation of germ cells and tumorigenesis takes place during embryogenesis (Noguchi and Noguchi, 1985; Stevens, 1967). The germ cells in Ter male mice fail to enter mitotic arrest in G0 (Cook et al., 2011)
A complete loss-of-function of DND1 leads to early embryonic lethality. However, the loss-of-function Dnd1 allele does not cause TGCT (Zechel et al., 2013).
In Ter-WKY/Ztm rats, a point mutation in exon 4 of rat Dnd1 introduces a premature stop codon that likely results in expression of a C-terminus truncated DND1 protein. This results in congenital ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCTs) in females and TGCTs in males (Northrup et al., 2012). Thus DND1/Ter acts as a tumor suppressor in the rat.
Germ cells derived from rat Ter embryos are more easily transformed into pluripotent cells in culture compared to their wild type counterparts (Northrup et al., 2011).
Entity Skin tumorigenesis
Note RAS transformed human HaCaT cells show reduced expression of DND1, loss of DND1 mRNA and protein (Bhandari et al., 2012). In this cell type, DND1 blocks miR-21 from the 3'-UTR of the mRNA of the DNA repair gene MSH2. Thus, lower DND1 levels in RAS transformed HaCaT cells results in decreased MSH2 levels in the cell.
Entity Human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC)
Note Human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) cells and tumors up-regulate miR-24. In turn, miR-24 interacts with the 3'-UTR of DND1 mRNA to reduce expression of DND1. Thus miR-24-mediated decrease in DND1 expression leads to decreased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B/ P27) expression and enhanced proliferation and reduced apoptosis in TSCC cells (Liu et al., 2010).
Entity Colon tumorigenesis
Note The truncated DND1 mutant (Ter) significantly increases polyp number and burden in the Apc+/Min model of intestinal polyposis (Zechel et al., 2013).


APOBEC3 inhibits DEAD-END function to regulate microRNA activity
Ali S, Karki N, Bhattacharya C, Zhu R, MacDuff DA, Stenglein MD, Schumacher AJ, Demorest ZL, Harris RS, Matin A, Aggarwal S
BMC Mol Biol 2013 Jul 26;14:16
PMID 23890083
Participation of Xenopus Elr-type proteins in vegetal mRNA localization during oogenesis
Arthur PK, Claussen M, Koch S, Tarbashevich K, Jahn O, Pieler T
J Biol Chem 2009 Jul 24;284(30):19982-92
PMID 19458392
A mutation in the Ter gene causing increased susceptibility to testicular teratomas maps to mouse chromosome 18
Asada Y, Varnum DS, Frankel WN, Nadeau JH
Nat Genet 1994 Apr;6(4):363-8
PMID 8054975
MicroRNA-375 and MicroRNA-221: Potential Noncoding RNAs Associated with Antiproliferative Activity of Benzyl Isothiocyanate in Pancreatic Cancer
Basu A, Alder H, Khiyami A, Leahy P, Croce CM, Haldar S
Genes Cancer 2011 Feb;2(2):108-19
PMID 21779484
A novel role for Celf1 in vegetal RNA localization during Xenopus oogenesis
Bauermeister D, Clauen M, Pieler T
Dev Biol 2015 Sep 15;405(2):214-24
PMID 26164657
The Grainyhead transcription factor Grhl3/Get1 suppresses miR-21 expression and tumorigenesis in skin: modulation of the miR-21 target MSH2 by RNA-binding protein DND1
Bhandari A, Gordon W, Dizon D, Hopkin AS, Gordon E, Yu Z, Andersen B
Oncogene 2013 Mar 21;32(12):1497-507
PMID 22614019
The mouse dead-end gene isoform alpha is necessary for germ cell and embryonic viability
Bhattacharya C, Aggarwal S, Zhu R, Kumar M, Zhao M, Meistrich ML, Matin A
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 Mar 30;355(1):194-9
PMID 17291453
Zebrafish Dnd protein binds to 3'UTR of geminin mRNA and regulates its expression
Chen S, Zeng M, Sun H, Deng W, Lu Y, Tao D, Liu Y, Zhang S, Ma Y
BMB Rep 2010 Jun;43(6):438-44
PMID 20587335
Regulation of male germ cell cycle arrest and differentiation by DND1 is modulated by genetic background
Cook MS, Munger SC, Nadeau JH, Capel B
Development 2011 Jan;138(1):23-32
PMID 21115610
Allelic losses in carcinoma in situ and testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and adults: evidence suggestive of the linear progression model
Faulkner SW, Leigh DA, Oosterhuis JW, Roelofs H, Looijenga LH, Friedlander ML
Br J Cancer 2000 Sep;83(6):729-36
PMID 10952776
Xenopus Dead end mRNA is a localized maternal determinant that serves a conserved function in germ cell development
Horvay K, Claussen M, Katzer M, Landgrebe J, Pieler T
Dev Biol 2006 Mar 1;291(1):1-11
PMID 16448642
RNA-binding protein Dnd1 inhibits microRNA access to target mRNA
Kedde M, Strasser MJ, Boldajipour B, Oude Vrielink JA, Slanchev K, le Sage C, Nagel R, Voorhoeve PM, van Duijse J, Ørom UA, Lund AH, Perrakis A, Raz E, Agami R
Cell 2007 Dec 28;131(7):1273-86
PMID 18155131
Analysis of the DND1 gene in men with sporadic and familial testicular germ cell tumors
Linger R, Dudakia D, Huddart R, Tucker K, Friedlander M, Phillips KA, Hogg D, Jewett MA, Lohynska R, Daugaard G, Richard S, Chompret A, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Bonaïti-Pellié C, Heidenreich A, Albers P, Olah E, Geczi L, Bodrogi I, Daly PA, Guilford P, Fosså SD, Heimdal K, Tjulandin SA, Liubchenko L, Stoll H, Weber W, Einhorn L, McMaster M, Korde L, Greene MH, Nathanson KL, Cortessis V, Easton DF, Bishop DT, Stratton MR, Rapley EA
Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2008 Mar;47(3):247-52
PMID 18069663
Zebrafish dead end possesses ATPase activity that is required for primordial germ cell development
Liu W, Collodi P
FASEB J 2010 Aug;24(8):2641-50
PMID 20371629
MicroRNA-24 targeting RNA-binding protein DND1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma
Liu X, Wang A, Heidbreder CE, Jiang L, Yu J, Kolokythas A, Huang L, Dai Y, Zhou X
FEBS Lett 2010 Sep 24;584(18):4115-20
PMID 20816961
Maternal Dead-End1 is required for vegetal cortical microtubule assembly during Xenopus axis specification
Mei W, Jin Z, Lai F, Schwend T, Houston DW, King ML, Yang J
Development 2013 Jun;140(11):2334-44
PMID 23615278
Regulation of hub mRNA stability and translation by miR430 and the dead end protein promotes preferential expression in zebrafish primordial germ cells
Mickoleit M, Banisch TU, Raz E
Dev Dyn 2011 Mar;240(3):695-703
PMID 21337467
Promoter methylation of candidate genes associated with familial testicular cancer
Mirabello L, Kratz CP, Savage SA, Greene MH
Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet 2012;3(3):213-27
PMID 23050052
A recessive mutation (ter) causing germ cell deficiency and a high incidence of congenital testicular teratomas in 129/Sv-ter mice
Noguchi T, Noguchi M
J Natl Cancer Inst 1985 Aug;75(2):385-92
PMID 3860691
Primordial germ cell proliferation in fetal testes in mouse strains with high and low incidences of congenital testicular teratomas
Noguchi T, Stevens LC
J Natl Cancer Inst 1982 Oct;69(4):907-13
PMID 6956766
The ter mutation in the rat Dnd1 gene initiates gonadal teratomas and infertility in both genders
Northrup E, Zschemisch NH, Eisenblätter R, Glage S, Wedekind D, Cuppen E, Dorsch M, Hedrich HJ
PLoS One 2012;7(5):e38001
PMID 22655094
Testicular germ-cell tumours in a broader perspective
Oosterhuis JW, Looijenga LH
Nat Rev Cancer 2005 Mar;5(3):210-22
PMID 15738984
Chromosomal deletions occur in restricted regions of 5q in testicular germ cell cancer
Peng HQ, Liu L, Goss PE, Bailey D, Hogg D
Oncogene 1999 May 27;18(21):3277-83
PMID 10359533
Screening for germline DND1 mutations in testicular cancer patients
Sijmons RH, Vos YJ, Herkert JC, Bos KK, Lutke Holzik MF, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, Hofstra RM, Hoekstra HJ
Fam Cancer 2010 Sep;9(3):439-42
PMID 20411342
Control of Dead end localization and activity--implications for the function of the protein in antagonizing miRNA function
Slanchev K, Stebler J, Goudarzi M, Cojocaru V, Weidinger G, Raz E
Mech Dev 2009 Mar-Apr;126(3-4):270-7
PMID 19013519
Origin of testicular teratomas from primordial germ cells in mice
Stevens LC
J Natl Cancer Inst 1967 Apr;38(4):549-52
PMID 6025005
Dead end1 is an essential partner of NANOS2 for selective binding of target RNAs in male germ cell development
Suzuki A, Niimi Y, Shinmyozu K, Zhou Z, Kiso M, Saga Y
EMBO Rep 2016 Jan;17(1):37-46
PMID 26589352
Intracellular localizations of the Dead End protein in Xenopus primordial germ cells
Taguchi A, Watanabe K, Orii H
Int J Dev Biol 2014;58(10-12):793-8
PMID 26154321
dead end, a novel vertebrate germ plasm component, is required for zebrafish primordial germ cell migration and survival
Weidinger G, Stebler J, Slanchev K, Dumstrei K, Wise C, Lovell-Badge R, Thisse C, Thisse B, Raz E
Curr Biol 2003 Aug 19;13(16):1429-34
PMID 12932328
The Ter mutation in the dead end gene causes germ cell loss and testicular germ cell tumours
Youngren KK, Coveney D, Peng X, Bhattacharya C, Schmidt LS, Nickerson ML, Lamb BT, Deng JM, Behringer RR, Capel B, Rubin EM, Nadeau JH, Matin A
Nature 2005 May 19;435(7040):360-4
PMID 15902260
Contrasting effects of Deadend1 (Dnd1) gain and loss of function mutations on allelic inheritance, testicular cancer, and intestinal polyposis
Zechel JL, Doerner SK, Lager A, Tesar PJ, Heaney JD, Nadeau JH
BMC Genet 2013 Jun 17;14:54
PMID 23773267
Mouse dead end 1-β interacts with c-Jun and stimulates activator protein 1 transactivation
Zhang Y, Su YL, Li LS, Yang Z, Chen S, Xiong J, Fu XH, Peng XN
Mol Med Rep 2015 Mar;11(3):1701-7
PMID 25405725
Transcripts that associate with the RNA binding protein, DEAD-END (DND1), in embryonic stem (ES) cells
Zhu R, Iacovino M, Mahen E, Kyba M, Matin A
BMC Mol Biol 2011 Aug 18;12:37
PMID 21851623
Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome arms 5q, 11p, 11q, 13q, and 16p in human testicular germ cell tumors
al-Jehani RM, Povey S, Delhanty JD, Parrington JM
Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1995 Aug;13(4):249-56
PMID 7547632


This paper should be referenced as such :
Angabin Matin
DND1 (DND microRNA-mediated repression inhibitor 1)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2016;20(8):458-461.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

External links


HGNC (Hugo)DND1   23799
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)DND1    DND microRNA-mediated repression inhibitor 1
GeneCards (Weizmann)DND1
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000256453 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000256453 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000256453 [Sequence]  chr5:140670794-140673576 [Contig_View]  DND1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000256453
TCGA cBioPortalDND1
AceView (NCBI)DND1
Genatlas (Paris)DND1
SOURCE (Princeton)DND1
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)DND1
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)DND1  -     chr5:140670794-140673576 -  5q31.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)DND1  -     5q31.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathDND1 - 5q31.3 [CytoView hg19]  DND1 - 5q31.3 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBIDND1 [Mapview hg19]  
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AY321065 BC033496
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_194249
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)DND1
Gene ExpressionDND1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   DND1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   DND1 [ SEEK ]   DND1 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)DND1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of DND1 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)373863
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)DND1
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000256453-DND1 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ8IYX4   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ8IYX4  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ8IYX4
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)RRM (PS50102)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)DND1_RRM1    Nucleotide-bd_a/b_plait_sf    RBD_domain_sf    RRM_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)RRM_1 (PF00076)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00076   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)RRM (SM00360)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)DND1
AlphaFold pdb e-kbQ8IYX4   
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000256453-DND1 [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)Q8IYX4
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGORNA binding  mRNA binding  mRNA 3'-UTR binding  protein binding  nucleus  nucleus  nucleoplasm  cytoplasm  cytoplasm  mitochondrion  multicellular organism development  germ cell development  miRNA binding  mRNA stabilization  negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA  negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA  3'-UTR-mediated mRNA destabilization  
Ontology : EGO-EBIRNA binding  mRNA binding  mRNA 3'-UTR binding  protein binding  nucleus  nucleus  nucleoplasm  cytoplasm  cytoplasm  mitochondrion  multicellular organism development  germ cell development  miRNA binding  mRNA stabilization  negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA  negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA  3'-UTR-mediated mRNA destabilization  
NDEx NetworkDND1
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkDND1
Wikipedia pathwaysDND1
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000256453
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamDND1
Homologs : HomoloGeneDND1
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)DND1
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanWDR55::DND1 [5q31.3/5q31.3]  
Fusion : QuiverDND1
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerDND1 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)DND1
Exome Variant ServerDND1
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000256453
Varsome BrowserDND1
ACMGDND1 variants
Genomic Variants (DGV)DND1 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERDND1 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisDND1 
ICGC Data PortalDND1 
TCGA Data PortalDND1 
Broad Tumor PortalDND1
OASIS PortalDND1 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICDND1  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC3DDND1
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDDND1
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)[gene] [transcripts] [variants]
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)DND1
DoCM (Curated mutations)DND1
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)DND1
NCG (London)DND1
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Genetic Testing Registry DND1
NextProtQ8IYX4 [Medical]
Target ValidationDND1
Huge Navigator DND1 [HugePedia]
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Protein Interactions : CTDDND1
Pharm GKB GenePA134931157
Clinical trialDND1
DataMed IndexDND1
PubMed26 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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