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ERBB3 (v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (avian))

Identity

Other namesErbB-3
HER3
LCCS2
MDA-BF-1
c-erbB-3
c-erbB3
erbB3-S
p180-ErbB3
p45-sErbB3
p85-sErbB3
HGNC (Hugo) ERBB3
LocusID (NCBI) 2065
Location 12q13.2
Location_base_pair Starts at 56473892 and ends at 56479401 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]

DNA/RNA

 
  The alignment of ERBB3 mRNA to its genomic sequence.
Description The ERBB3 gene, which maps to human chromosome 12q13.2, is 23.2 kb in size and consists of 28 exons. The gene for the extracellular ligand binding domain of ErbB3 has 43-45% homology with EGFR and ERBB2 and 56-67% homology with ERBB4. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain sequences have 60-63% homology with those of the other ErbB receptors (Kraus et al., 1989).
Transcription The ERBB3 promoter region is GC rich (65%) and, like EGFR, does not contain a TATA box. A proximal promoter was observed within 600 bp flanking Exon1. AP2-1 (OB2-1) and Fox3a have been demonstrated to be functional transcriptional regulators at upstream start sites (Skinner and Hurst, 1993). A Sox10 regulated enhancer has been identified at chr12:54763065-54763421 in neural crest derived cells. The human ERBB3 gene is transcribed as a 6.2 kb message of 4080 nucleotides and 1342 codons specifying the full-length protein. There are four additional alternate transcripts of 1.6, 1.7, 2.1 and 2.3 kb generated by intron read through. At least three of these transcripts code for truncated, secreted soluble forms of ERBB3 (Lee and Maihle, 1998).
Pseudogene None reported.

Protein

 
  Linear schematic of ErbB3. Functional domains, including Signal Peptide (SP), the Ligand Binding Domain (LBD) with four subdomains (indicated by the red lines) transmembrane domain (TM), tyrosine kinase domain (TKD), and C-terminal signaling domain (SD).
Description The ERBB3 gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. The 6.2 kb transcript encodes a 148 kDa protein which is post-translationally glycosylated to yield a protein of 180 kDa (Kraus et al., 1989). The extracellular ligand-binding domain consists of four subdomains that change conformation in response to ligand. Domains I and III bind NRG with high affinity (Cho and Leahy, 2002). Due to substitutions in the kinase domain at aa 740, 759 and 834, ErbB3 lacks potent tyrosine kinase activity. However, recent data indicate that ErbB3 maintains some autophosphorylation activity (Shi et al., 2010). Heterodimerization with other ErbB family members, most notably ErbB2, is needed to convey biological signals through phosphorylation of downstream substrates, most notably AKT (Olayioye et al., 2000). In general, activation of these pathways leads to cell proliferation or differentiation. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. Each alternate transcript encodes a truncated form of the ligand-binding domain of ErbB3 and can compete for binding with ligand, resulting in growth inhibition (Lee et al., 2001).
ErbB3 is post translationally regulated by a variety of mechanisms. After ligand binding, it is phosphorylated on 14 tyrosine residues by other ErbB family members (Kim et al., 1998) and under some circumstance c-Src, Met and BRK. Protein levels are regulated by the E3 ligase Nrdp1 and the Nrdp1 regulator USP8. USP8 itself is regulated by AKT, suggesting a feedback mechanism for ErbB activity (Wu et al., 2004).
Expression ErbB3 is widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues. It is expressed in epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tracts as well as the skin and endocrine systems. It is highly expressed in neuronal tissue. Expression is relatively low in cells of the hematopoietic and immune systems (Kraus et al., 1989; Prigent et al., 1992).
Localisation ErbB3 is generally located in the plasma membrane. However, more recent studies indicate that ErbB3 is also localized to the nucleus (Offterdinger et al., 2002).
Function Activation and interactions
ErbB3 when localized at the plasma membrane binds different forms of neuregulin. The NRG family consists of a large group of isoforms, encoded by four genes with an EGF like C terminal portion and a variable N terminal region. Ligand binding leads to heterodimerization preferentially with ErbB2, but also other ErbB family members in secondary reactions (Pinkas-Kramarski et al., 1996). The transmembrane domain, which binds EBP1, is important for dimer stabilization (Jura et al., 2009). The cytoplasmic domain lacks potent tyrosine kinase activity. However, this domain has been shown to be an allosteric activator of the ErbB2 kinase domain (Zhang et al., 2006). The cytoplasmic tail of ErbB3 is phosphorylated by ErbB2 and is a signaling substrate. The 14 phosphorylated tyrosines in the C terminal signaling tail of ErbB3 can potentially dock numerous SH2/3 or PTB binding proteins involved in different biological pathways (Hynes and Lane, 2005).

Signaling and cellular activity
In contrast to other ErbB proteins, ErbB3 is not transforming when overexpressed or constitutively activated (Alimandi et al., 1995). Once phosphorylated by other ErbB family members or Src, Met or BRK, ErbB-3 can then bind numerous other signaling proteins. Activation of the PI-3 kinase-AKT pathway is especially important as there are six docking sites for the p85 subunit of PI-3K in the ErbB3 cytoplasmic tail at Tyr 1035, 1178, 1203/1205, 1257 and 1270. AKT regulates many downstream signaling nodes, in particular the two mTOR containing complexes. ErbB3 can also activate the MAPK pathway via its interactions with Grb7 (Tyr 1180,1243) and SHC (1309) (Hynes and Lane, 2005). Thus, ErbB3 is important in biological processes such as translation, apoptosis, nutrient sensing, metabolic regulation, angiogenesis and cell cycle control. Increased expression or activity of ErbB3 has been associated with resistance to EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitors (Sergina et al., 2007) and hormonal therapies (Liu et al., 2007). ErbB3 when localized in the nucleus acts as a transcription factor to regulate Cyclin D1 and β-casein genes (Andrique et al., 2012).

Physiological
ErbB3 knock-out mice die by E13.5 with defective heart valve formation, but normal heart trabeculation. The animals show a generalized neural crest defects and lack Schwann cell precursors (Erickson et al., 1997). Due to the importance of ErbB3 in breast cancer, the role of ErbB3 in mammary development has been well-studied. ErbB3 is required for ductal morphogenesis in the mouse mammary gland (Stern, 2003). ErbB3 has also been implicated in maintenance of the luminal epithelial subtype in the breast (Balko et al., 2012).

Homology The ErbB family has evolved from a single ligand-receptor combination in C. elegans (let-23 28% aa similarity) through Drosophila with one receptor (EGFR, 39% similarity) and four ligands to vertebrates, where four ErbB receptor bind multiple EGF-related ligands. The ERBB3 gene is conserved in chimpanzee (99% similarity), dog, cow, mouse (90%), rat, chicken, and zebrafish.

Mutations

Germinal An A to G mutation is noted in intron 10 in Lethal Congential Contracture Syndrome 2 (LCCS2). LCCS2 is an autosomal recessive neurogenic form of a neonatally lethal arthrogryposis that is associated with atrophy of the anterior horn of the spinal cord (Narkis et al., 2004).
Somatic Mutations in ErbB3 have been rarely noted in cancer. One of the 2 mutations reported was a missense mutation in exon 21 (2537 G > T) (Ser846Ile) detected in a rectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (1% of the total colon cancer samples. The other mutation was a silent mutation in exon 21 (2484 T > C) (His828His) detected in an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (2% of the total 60 breast cancers) (Jeong et al., 2006).

Implicated in

Entity Breast cancer
Prognosis Increased expression of ErbB3 in breast cancer cells relative to normal epithelium is common. The increased expression is not due to genomic amplification (Gasparini et al., 1994). High ErbB3 expression has been correlated with both increased and poorer survival (Hamburger, 2008). The ErbB2/3 heterodimer is essential for proliferation of malignant mammary epithelial cells (Holbro et al., 2003). ErbB3 contributes to tamoxifen resistance (Liu et al., 2007) and activation of ErbB3 is also associated with resistance to ErbB directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors (Sergina et al., 2007).
  
Entity Ovarian cancer
Prognosis Genomic amplification of ErbB3 has been noted in ovarian cancer and ErbB3 overexpression is associated with poor survival (Wilken et al., 2012). Truncated ErbB3 transcripts that code for soluble truncated proteins have been observed in ovarian cancer cell lines. Such soluble forms can inhibit proliferation (Maihle 2001). These soluble forms may have potential as markers of disease progression.
  
Entity Prostate cancer
Prognosis Increased expression of ErbB3 has been noted in prostate cancer (Cheng et al., 2007; Koumakpayi et al., 2006). Activation of the ErbB2/3 heterodimer stabilizes Androgen Receptor contributing to hormone independent growth (Mellinghoff et al., 2004). NRG can activate the EBP1 Protein leading to decreased AR activity (Zhang and Hamburger, 2005). Nuclear localization of ErbB3 has been associated with both poorer and better prognoses. A secreted ErbB3 isoform has been shown to enhance bone metastasis (Chen et al., 2007).
  
Entity Pancreatic cancer
Prognosis ErbB3 mRNA and protein has consistently been observed to be increased and associated with poor outcome (Friess et al., 1995).
  
Entity Lung cancer
Prognosis Overexpression of ErbB3 generally correlates with poor prognosis (Yi et al., 1997). Several studies have indicated that ErbB3 affects clinical responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cell lines with wild type and high levels of ErbB3 respond better to EGFR inhibitors (Engelman et al., 2005). In addition, gefitinib resistant NCSLC cells can amplify MET which then phosphorylates and activates ErbB3 and AKT pathways (Engelman et al., 2007). ErbB3 has also been implicated in inhibition of apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines (Sithanandam et al., 2005).
  
Entity Schizophrenia
Prognosis The NRG1 gene was identified as a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and defects in the expression of ErbB3 were also shown to occur in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, currently the association between ErbB3 expression and schizophrenia is unclear (Corfas et al., 2004).
  
Entity Diabetes
Prognosis Genome-wide association studies have identified associations between type I diabetes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at chromosome 12q13 surrounding the ERBB3 gene. The most significant association was observed with a SNP in exon 27 of the ERBB3 gene and an intergenic SNP (Keene et al., 2012). In addition, ErbB3 has been demonstrated to modulate antigen presenting cell function and type I diabetes risk (Jing et al., 2011).
  

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)ERBB3   3431
Cards
AtlasERBB3ID40479ch12q13
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)ERBB3  2065  v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3
GeneCards (Weizmann)ERBB3
Ensembl (Hinxton)ENSG00000065361 [Gene_View]  chr12:56473892-56479401 [Contig_View]  ERBB3 [Vega]
AceView (NCBI)ERBB3
Genatlas (Paris)ERBB3
WikiGenes2065
SOURCE (Princeton)NM_001005915 NM_001982
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath (UCSC)ERBB3  -  12q13.2   chr12:56473892-56479401 +  12q13   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblERBB3 - 12q13 [CytoView]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIERBB3 [Mapview]
OMIM190151   607598   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AA524528 AK124710 AK125028 AK291681 AK294719
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001005915 NM_001982
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)AC_000144 NC_000012 NC_018923 NG_011529 NT_029419 NW_001838059 NW_004929384
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)ERBB3
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.622058 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.622058
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0006740
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000065361
Gene ExpressionERBB3 [ NCBI-GEO ]     ERBB3 [ SEEK ]   ERBB3 [ MEM ]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP21860 (Uniprot)
NextProtP21860  [Medical]
With graphics : InterProP21860
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP21860 (Swissvar)
Catalytic activity : Enzyme2.7.10.1 [ Enzyme-Expasy ]   2.7.10.12.7.10.1 [ IntEnz-EBI ]   2.7.10.1 [ BRENDA ]   2.7.10.1 [ KEGG ]   
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP (PS00107)    PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM (PS50011)    PROTEIN_KINASE_TYR (PS00109)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)EGF_rcpt_L    Furin-like_Cys-rich_dom    Furin_repeat    Growth_fac_rcpt_N_dom    Kinase-like_dom    Prot_kinase_dom    Ser-Thr/Tyr_kinase_cat_dom    Tyr_kinase_cat_dom    Tyr_kinase_EGF/ERB/XmrK_rcpt   
Related proteins : CluSTrP21860
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Furin-like (PF00757)    Pkinase_Tyr (PF07714)    Recep_L_domain (PF01030)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00757    pfam07714    pfam01030   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)FU (SM00261)  TyrKc (SM00219)  
DMDM Disease mutations2065
Blocks (Seattle)P21860
PDB (SRS)1M6B    2L9U    3KEX    3LMG    3P11    4LEO   
PDB (PDBSum)1M6B    2L9U    3KEX    3LMG    3P11    4LEO   
PDB (IMB)1M6B    2L9U    3KEX    3LMG    3P11    4LEO   
PDB (RSDB)1M6B    2L9U    3KEX    3LMG    3P11    4LEO   
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000065361
Peptide AtlasP21860
HPRD01820
IPIIPI00298285   IPI00219206   IPI01022989   IPI01010940   IPI00794366   IPI00871990   IPI00815836   IPI00816069   IPI00815996   IPI00815859   IPI01020888   IPI01022842   IPI01021674   IPI01021522   IPI01021339   IPI01021200   IPI01022305   IPI01022162   IPI01022138   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P21860
IntAct (EBI)P21860
FunCoupENSG00000065361
BioGRIDERBB3
InParanoidP21860
Interologous Interaction database P21860
IntegromeDBERBB3
STRING (EMBL)ERBB3
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOendocardial cushion development  protein tyrosine kinase activity  transmembrane signaling receptor activity  protein binding  ATP binding  extracellular space  plasma membrane  integral to plasma membrane  negative regulation of cell adhesion  signal transduction  transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway  epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway  peripheral nervous system development  heart development  fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway  negative regulation of signal transduction  Schwann cell differentiation  phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade  positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade  basolateral plasma membrane  apical plasma membrane  lateral plasma membrane  growth factor binding  growth factor binding  cranial nerve development  protein tyrosine kinase activator activity  Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway  wound healing  regulation of cell proliferation  protein homodimerization activity  receptor complex  negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  innate immune response  protein heterodimerization activity  protein heterodimerization activity  neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway  phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling  negative regulation of secretion  neuron apoptotic process  positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity  extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand  
Ontology : EGO-EBIendocardial cushion development  protein tyrosine kinase activity  transmembrane signaling receptor activity  protein binding  ATP binding  extracellular space  plasma membrane  integral to plasma membrane  negative regulation of cell adhesion  signal transduction  transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway  epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway  peripheral nervous system development  heart development  fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway  negative regulation of signal transduction  Schwann cell differentiation  phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade  positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade  basolateral plasma membrane  apical plasma membrane  lateral plasma membrane  growth factor binding  growth factor binding  cranial nerve development  protein tyrosine kinase activator activity  Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway  wound healing  regulation of cell proliferation  protein homodimerization activity  receptor complex  negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  innate immune response  protein heterodimerization activity  protein heterodimerization activity  neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway  phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling  negative regulation of secretion  neuron apoptotic process  positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity  extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand  
Pathways : BIOCARTANeuroregulin receptor degredation protein-1 Controls ErbB3 receptor recycling [Genes]    Role of ERBB2 in Signal Transduction and Oncology [Genes]   
Pathways : KEGGErbB signaling pathway    Calcium signaling pathway    Endocytosis    Proteoglycans in cancer    MicroRNAs in cancer   
REACTOMEERBB3
Protein Interaction DatabaseERBB3
Wikipedia pathwaysERBB3
Gene fusion - rearrangments
Polymorphisms : SNP, mutations, diseases
SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)ERBB3
SNP (GeneSNP Utah)ERBB3
SNP : HGBaseERBB3
Genetic variants : HAPMAPERBB3
1000_GenomesERBB3 
ICGC programENSG00000065361 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICERBB3 
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisERBB3 
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDERBB3
OMIM190151    607598   
GENETestsERBB3
Disease Genetic AssociationERBB3
Huge Navigator ERBB3 [HugePedia]  ERBB3 [HugeCancerGEM]
Genomic VariantsERBB3  ERBB3 [DGVbeta]
Exome VariantERBB3
dbVarERBB3
ClinVarERBB3
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease2065
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneERBB3
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)ERBB3
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamERBB3
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD2065
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA27846
Clinical trialERBB3
Cancer Resource (Charite)ENSG00000065361
Other databases
Probes
Litterature
PubMed259 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
CoreMineERBB3
iHOPERBB3

Bibliography

Isolation and characterization of ERBB3, a third member of the ERBB/epidermal growth factor receptor family: evidence for overexpression in a subset of human mammary tumors.
Kraus MH, Issing W, Miki T, Popescu NC, Aaronson SA.
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PMID 2687875
 
Expression of the c-erbB-3 protein in normal human adult and fetal tissues.
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PMID 1377811
 
Transcriptional regulation of the c-erbB-3 gene in human breast carcinoma cell lines.
Skinner A, Hurst HC.
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PMID 8247542
 
c-erbB-3 and c-erbB-2 protein expression in node-negative breast carcinoma--an immunocytochemical study.
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Cooperative signaling of ErbB3 and ErbB2 in neoplastic transformation and human mammary carcinomas.
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PMID 7538656
 
Enhanced erbB-3 expression in human pancreatic cancer correlates with tumor progression.
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PMID 9815839
 
Neu differentiation factor/neuregulin isoforms activate distinct receptor combinations.
Pinkas-Kramarski R, Shelly M, Glathe S, Ratzkin BJ, Yarden Y.
J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 9;271(32):19029-32.
PMID 8702572
 
ErbB3 is required for normal cerebellar and cardiac development: a comparison with ErbB2-and heregulin-deficient mice.
Erickson SL, O'Shea KS, Ghaboosi N, Loverro L, Frantz G, Bauer M, Lu LH, Moore MW.
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PMID 9362461
 
High c-erbB-3 protein expression is associated with shorter survival in advanced non-small cell lung carcinomas.
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PMID 9127320
 
Signal transduction by epidermal growth factor and heregulin via the kinase-deficient ErbB3 protein.
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PMID 9693119
 
Isolation and characterization of four alternate c-erbB3 transcripts expressed in ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines and normal human tissues.
Lee H, Maihle NJ.
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PMID 9681822
 
The ErbB signaling network: receptor heterodimerization in development and cancer.
Olayioye MA, Neve RM, Lane HA, Hynes NE.
EMBO J. 2000 Jul 3;19(13):3159-67. (REVIEW)
PMID 10880430
 
A naturally occurring secreted human ErbB3 receptor isoform inhibits heregulin-stimulated activation of ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4.
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Cancer Res. 2001 Jun 1;61(11):4467-73.
PMID 11389077
 
Structure of the extracellular region of HER3 reveals an interdomain tether.
Cho HS, Leahy DJ.
Science. 2002 Aug 23;297(5585):1330-3. Epub 2002 Aug 1.
PMID 12154198
 
c-erbB-3: a nuclear protein in mammary epithelial cells.
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PMID 12045181
 
The ErbB2/ErbB3 heterodimer functions as an oncogenic unit: ErbB2 requires ErbB3 to drive breast tumor cell proliferation.
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 22;100(15):8933-8. Epub 2003 Jul 9.
PMID 12853564
 
ErbBs in mammary development.
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Exp Cell Res. 2003 Mar 10;284(1):89-98. (REVIEW)
PMID 12648468
 
Neuregulin 1-erbB signaling and the molecular/cellular basis of schizophrenia.
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PMID 15162166
 
HER2/neu kinase-dependent modulation of androgen receptor function through effects on DNA binding and stability.
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Cancer Cell. 2004 Nov;6(5):517-27.
PMID 15542435
 
Homozygosity mapping of lethal congenital contractural syndrome type 2 (LCCS2) to a 6 cM interval on chromosome 12q13.
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PMID 15378541
 
Stabilization of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1 by the deubiquitinating enzyme USP8.
Wu X, Yen L, Irwin L, Sweeney C, Carraway KL 3rd.
Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Sep;24(17):7748-57.
PMID 15314180
 
ErbB-3 mediates phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in gefitinib-sensitive non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.
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PMID 15731348
 
ERBB receptors and cancer: the complexity of targeted inhibitors.
Hynes NE, Lane HA.
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Inactivation of ErbB3 by siRNA promotes apoptosis and attenuates growth and invasiveness of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549.
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PMID 15688028
 
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PMID 15583694
 
ERBB3 kinase domain mutations are rare in lung, breast and colon carcinomas.
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PMID 16998794
 
Expression and nuclear localization of ErbB3 in prostate cancer.
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PMID 16675564
 
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PMID 16777603
 
A secreted isoform of ErbB3 promotes osteonectin expression in bone and enhances the invasiveness of prostate cancer cells.
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Bone microenvironment and androgen status modulate subcellular localization of ErbB3 in prostate cancer cells.
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MET amplification leads to gefitinib resistance in lung cancer by activating ERBB3 signaling.
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Downregulation of erbB3 abrogates erbB2-mediated tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells.
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PMID 17266042
 
Escape from HER-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy by the kinase-inactive HER3.
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The role of ErbB3 and its binding partners in breast cancer progression and resistance to hormone and tyrosine kinase directed therapies.
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Structural analysis of the catalytically inactive kinase domain of the human EGF receptor 3.
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ErbB3/HER3 intracellular domain is competent to bind ATP and catalyze autophosphorylation.
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 27;107(17):7692-7. Epub 2010 Mar 29.
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Contributor(s)

Written05-2012Smita Awasthi, Anne W Hamburger
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, USA

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Awasthi S, Hamburger AW . ERBB3 (v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (avian)). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. May 2012 .
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/ERBB3ID40479ch12q13.html

The various updated versions of this paper are referenced and archived by INIST as such :
http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/bitstream/handle/2042/48356/05-2012-ERBB3ID40479ch12q13.pdf   [ Bibliographic record ]

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