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GRPR (Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor)

Written2014-02Terry W Moody
National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 2W-130, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

Abstract Bombesin (BB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) bind with high affinity to the GRP-receptor (GRP-R) which regulates release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle contraction and proliferation of epithelial as well as cancer cells. The GRP-R is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) which activates phospholipase C signaling pathways. The GRP-R is expressed in numerous cancers including breast, colon, lung and prostate cancer.

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HGNC Alias symbBB2
HGNC Alias namebombesin receptor 2
LocusID (NCBI) 2925
Atlas_Id 40759
Location Xp22.2  [Link to chromosome band Xp22]
Location_base_pair Starts at 16123565 and ends at 16153518 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping GRPR.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
GRPR (Xp22.2)::SDC2 (8q22.1)SDC2 (8q22.1)::GRPR (Xp22.2)


Note The human GRP-R gene has 3 exons and is localized to chromosome Xp22.2.
Description The gene has 3 exons. The GRP-R gene spans 30218 bases.
Transcription The GRP-R gene has 9 and 3.1 kb transcripts in human stomach as well as NCI-H345 lung cancer cells, T47D breast cancer cells and HuTu 80 duodenal carcinoma cells. The pancreas has 9, 4.6, 3.1 and 2.1 kb transcripts. Polymorphisms are observed at 794 (G-A), 851 (C-T) and 1061 (C-T) but these do not alter the GRP-R sequence (Xiao et al., 2001). The GRP-R gene has 1155 bp.


Note Bombesin, a 14 amino acid peptide (Anastasi et al., 1974) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), a 27 amino acid peptide (McDonald et al., 1979), bind with high affinity to receptors initially characterized in the rat brain (Moody et al., 1978) and guinea pig pancreatic acini (Jensen et al., 1978). The GRP-R was cloned (Battey et al., 1991; Spindel et al., 1990) and found to be a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) containing 384 amino acids. The human GRP-R gene is localized to the X chromosome and the GRP-R has 7 transmembrane (TM ) domains, an extracellular N-terminal and intracellular C-terminal. Exon 1 codes for TM 1, 2 and 3 domains with splice site in IC loop 2 (Asp137). Exon 2 codes for TM 4 and 5 with a Gln255 splice site. Exon 3 codes for TM 6-7 domains and the cytoplasmic C-terminal. Exon 1, 2 and 3 have 413 bp, 352 bp and 390 bp respectively whereas introns 1 and 2 are 23 kb and 1.6 kb respectively (Xiao et al., 2001).
The human GRP-R is glycosylated at Asn20, palmitoylated at Cys339 and has a disulfide between Cys113 and Cys196 (Jensen et al., 2008). For GRP-R agonist binding Gln120, Pro198, Arg287 and Ala307 are essential (Akeson et al., 1997). For GRP-R antagonist binding Thr296, Phe301 and Ser304 are essential (Tokita et al., 2001). GRP-R antagonists include (Psi13,14,Leu14)BB, (D-Phe6)BB6-13propylamide and PD176,252 (Gonzalez et al., 2009).
  Human GRP-R protein. The GRP-R, which is a glycoprotein embedded in the plasma membrane, contains 384 amino acids with 7 TM domains, an extracellular N-terminal and intracellular C-terminal. The amino acids at the N- and C-terminal are indicated. The amino acids before and after each of the 7 TM domains are indicated. Numerous amino acids in or near TM 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 domains are essential for agonist binding, whereas amino acids in or near TM 6 and 7 domains are important for antagonist binding.
Description The GRP-R interacts with Gq causing phosphatidylinositol turnover (Rozengurt, 1998). As a result, BB addition to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells causes increased protein kinase C activity and elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ (Moody et al., 1987). Also, BB causes tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK, FAK, paxillin, and Src leading to increased cellular proliferation (Jensen et al., 2008).
Expression The GRP-R is localized to the normal brain especially the periventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus (Wolf et al., 1983) where activation by BB causes satiety (Gibbs et al., 1979). The GRP-R, which regulates insulin secretion, is present in the pancreatic islets (Persson et al., 2002). The GRP-R is present in colonic villi and may play a role in villi development (Carroll et al., 2002). The GRP-R is present on small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells and BB stimulates whereas Psi13,14, Leu14)BB or PD176252 inhibits cellular proliferation (Mahmoud et al., 1991; Moody et al., 2003). The GRP-R is present on squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck cancer cells and PD176252 inhibits the growth of these cells (Zhang et al., 2007). In colon cancer the transcription factor CREB is a regulator of GRP-R expression (Chinnappan et al., 2008).
Localisation The GRP-R is localized to the plasma membrane of normal and cancer cells.
Homology Other receptors of the BB family include neuromedin B (NMB) which contains 390 amino acids (Wada et al., 1991) and has 55% sequence homology with the GRP-R. An orphan receptor named BB receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) was cloned which contains 399 amino acids and has 51% sequence homology with the GRP-R (Fathi et al., 1993). The GRP receptor binds BB and GRP with high affinity whereas the NMB receptor binds NMB with high affinity. BRS-3 does not bind BB, GRP or NMB with high affinity (Jensen et al., 2008).


Note The GRP-R gene has 4 point mutations in biopsy specimens from patients with autism spectrum disorders, 2 of which result in amino acid changes (C6S and L181F). The mutated GRP-R had normal agonist binding and second messenger production (Seidita et al., 2008). Also an X-8 translocation occurs in intron 1 of the GRP-R gene in a patient with infantile autism (Ishikawa-Brush et al., 1997).

Implicated in

Entity Lung cancer
Note High densities of GRP-R are present in SCLC and NSCLC biopsy specimens and cell lines (Mattei et al., 2014). BB stimulates whereas GRP-R antagonists such as PD176252 inhibit lung cancer cellular proliferation (Moody et al., 2003).
Entity Prostate cancer
Note Numerous radioligands have been developed to image the GRP-R in prostate cancer patients (Mansi et al., 2013; Sancho et al., 2011). GRP-R antagonists have been radiolabeled with (111)In, (99m)Tc, (68)Ga or (64)Cu (Abiraj et al., 2011). High tumor/background ratios were obtained as PET and SPECT images.
Entity Breast cancer
Note Cytotoxic BB conjugates of 2-pyrrolinodoxorubicin inhibit the growth of breast cancer xenografts in nude mice (Engel et al., 2005). The GRP-R was detected in 41/57 breast carcinoma biopsy specimens (Reubi et al., 2002).
Entity Colon cancer
Note The GRPR regulates colon cancer cellular differentiation and impairs cellular metastasis (Carroll et al., 1999).
Entity Head and neck cancer
Note The GRP-R regulates transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (Lui et al., 2003). The mitogenic effects of GRP require the activation of an EGFR-dependent MEK/ERK-dependent pathway.
Entity Diabetes
Note GRP-R knockout mice had impaired glucose tolerance due to a defect in insulin release (Persson et al., 2000).
Entity Satiety
Note GRP-R blockade antagonizes feeding suppression by peripherally administered GRP (Ladenheim et al., 1996).
Entity Hormone secretion
Note The GRP-R regulates the secretion of numerous hormones including gastrin, glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, prolactin and somatostatin (Westendorf and Schonbrunn, 1982; Jensen et al., 2008).
Entity Pruritus
Note GRP-R containing spinal cord neurons, which are present in lamina I, mediate itch sensation (Sun et al., 2009). Addition of GRP-R antagonists inhibited scratching behavior in 3 mouse models of itching.


Bombesin antagonist-based radioligands for translational nuclear imaging of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive tumors.
Abiraj K, Mansi R, Tamma ML, Fani M, Forrer F, Nicolas G, Cescato R, Reubi JC, Maecke HR.
J Nucl Med. 2011 Dec;52(12):1970-8. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.111.094375. Epub 2011 Nov 11.
PMID 22080443
Identification of four amino acids in the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor that are required for high affinity agonist binding.
Akeson M, Sainz E, Mantey SA, Jensen RT, Battey JF.
J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 11;272(28):17405-9.
PMID 9211882
Isolation and structure of bombesin and alytesin, 2 analogous active peptides from the skin of the European amphibians Bombina and Alytes.
Anastasi A, Erspamer V, Bucci M.
Experientia. 1971 Feb 15;27(2):166-7.
PMID 5544731
Molecular cloning of the bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide receptor from Swiss 3T3 cells.
Battey JF, Way JM, Corjay MH, Shapira H, Kusano K, Harkins R, Wu JM, Slattery T, Mann E, Feldman RI.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jan 15;88(2):395-9.
PMID 1671171
Contribution of gastrin-releasing peptide and its receptor to villus development in the murine and human gastrointestinal tract.
Carroll RE, Matkowskyj K, Saunthararajah Y, Sekosan M, Battey JF, Benya RV.
Mech Dev. 2002 May;113(2):121-30.
PMID 11960700
Human gastrin-releasing peptide receptor gene regulation requires transcription factor binding at two distinct CRE sites.
Chinnappan D, Qu X, Xiao D, Ratnasari A, Weber HC.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Jul;295(1):G153-G162. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00036.2008. Epub 2008 May 15.
PMID 18483184
Targeted cytotoxic bombesin analog AN-215 effectively inhibits experimental human breast cancers with a low induction of multi-drug resistance proteins.
Engel JB, Schally AV, Halmos G, Baker B, Nagy A, Keller G.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005 Dec;12(4):999-1009.
PMID 16322338
BRS-3: a novel bombesin receptor subtype selectively expressed in testis and lung carcinoma cells.
Fathi Z, Corjay MH, Shapira H, Wada E, Benya R, Jensen R, Viallet J, Sausville EA, Battey JF.
J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 15;268(8):5979-84.
PMID 8383682
Bombesin suppresses feeding in rats.
Gibbs J, Fauser DJ, Rowe EA, Rolls BJ, Rolls ET, Maddison SP.
Nature. 1979 Nov 8;282(5735):208-10.
PMID 492336
Characterization of putative GRP- and NMB-receptor antagonist's interaction with human receptors.
Gonzalez N, Mantey SA, Pradhan TK, Sancho V, Moody TW, Coy DH, Jensen RT.
Peptides. 2009 Aug;30(8):1473-86. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2009.05.007. Epub 2009 May 20.
PMID 19463875
Autism and multiple exostoses associated with an X;8 translocation occurring within the GRPR gene and 3' to the SDC2 gene.
Ishikawa-Brush Y, Powell JF, Bolton P, Miller AP, Francis F, Willard HF, Lehrach H, Monaco AP.
Hum Mol Genet. 1997 Aug;6(8):1241-50.
PMID 9259269
International Union of Pharmacology. LXVIII. Mammalian bombesin receptors: nomenclature, distribution, pharmacology, signaling, and functions in normal and disease states.
Jensen RT, Battey JF, Spindel ER, Benya RV.
Pharmacol Rev. 2008 Mar;60(1):1-42. Epub 2007 Nov 30. (REVIEW)
PMID 18055507
Interaction of bombesin and litorin with specific membrane receptors on pancreatic acinar cells.
Jensen RT, Moody T, Pert C, Rivier JE, Gardner JD.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Dec;75(12):6139-43.
PMID 216015
Hindbrain GRP receptor blockade antagonizes feeding suppression by peripherally administered GRP.
Ladenheim EE, Taylor JE, Coy DH, Moore KA, Moran TH.
Am J Physiol. 1996 Jul;271(1 Pt 2):R180-4.
PMID 8760218
Mitogenic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in head and neck squamous cancer cells are mediated by activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.
Lui VW, Thomas SM, Zhang Q, Wentzel AL, Siegfried JM, Li JY, Grandis JR.
Oncogene. 2003 Sep 18;22(40):6183-93.
PMID 13679857
[Psi 13,14] bombesin analogues inhibit growth of small cell lung cancerin vitro and in vivo.
Mahmoud S, Staley J, Taylor J, Bogden A, Moreau JP, Coy D, Avis I, Cuttitta F, Mulshine JL, Moody TW.
Cancer Res. 1991 Apr 1;51(7):1798-802.
PMID 1848479
Targeting GRPR in urological cancers--from basic research to clinical application.
Mansi R, Fleischmann A, Macke HR, Reubi JC.
Nat Rev Urol. 2013 Apr;10(4):235-44. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2013.42. Epub 2013 Mar 19. (REVIEW)
PMID 23507930
Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor expression in lung cancer.
Mattei J, Achcar RD, Cano CH, Macedo BR, Meurer L, Batlle BS, Groshong SD, Kulczynski JM, Roesler R, Dal Lago L, Brunetto AT, Schwartsmann G.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014 Jan;138(1):98-104. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2012-0679-OA.
PMID 24377816
Characterization of a gastrin releasing peptide from porcine non-antral gastric tissue.
McDonald TJ, Jornvall H, Nilsson G, Vagne M, Ghatei M, Bloom SR, Mutt V.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1979 Sep 12;90(1):227-33.
PMID 496973
Nonpeptide gastrin releasing peptide receptor antagonists inhibit the proliferation of lung cancer cells.
Moody TW, Leyton J, Garcia-Marin L, Jensen RT.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Aug 1;474(1):21-9.
PMID 12909192
Bombesin-like peptides elevate cytosolic calcium in small cell lung cancer cells.
Moody TW, Murphy A, Mahmoud S, Fiskum G.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 Aug 31;147(1):189-95.
PMID 2443131
Bomebesin: specific binding to rat brain membranes.
Moody TW, Pert CB, Rivier J, Brown MR.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Nov;75(11):5372-6.
PMID 281686
Reduced GLP-1 and insulin responses and glucose intolerance after gastric glucose in GRP receptor-deleted mice.
Persson K, Gingerich RL, Nayak S, Wada K, Wada E, Ahren B.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov;279(5):E956-62.
PMID 11052949
Islet function phenotype in gastrin-releasing peptide receptor gene-deficient mice.
Persson K, Pacini G, Sundler F, Ahren B.
Endocrinology. 2002 Oct;143(10):3717-26.
PMID 12239081
Bombesin receptor subtypes in human cancers: detection with the universal radioligand (125)I-[D-TYR(6), beta-ALA(11), PHE(13), NLE(14)] bombesin(6-14).
Reubi JC, Wenger S, Schmuckli-Maurer J, Schaer JC, Gugger M.
Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Apr;8(4):1139-46.
PMID 11948125
Signal transduction pathways in the mitogenic response to G protein-coupled neuropeptide receptor agonists.
Rozengurt E.
J Cell Physiol. 1998 Dec;177(4):507-17. (REVIEW)
PMID 10092204
Bombesin receptor-mediated imaging and cytotoxicity: review and current status.
Sancho V, Di Florio A, Moody TW, Jensen RT.
Curr Drug Deliv. 2011 Jan;8(1):79-134. (REVIEW)
PMID 21034419
Analysis of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor gene in Italian patients with autism spectrum disorders.
Seidita G, Mirisola M, D'Anna RP, Gallo A, Jensen RT, Mantey SA, Gonzalez N, Falco M, Zingale M, Elia M, Cucina L, Chiavetta V, Romano V, Cali F.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008 Sep 5;147B(6):807-13. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.30752.
PMID 18393381
Cloning and functional characterization of a complementary DNA encoding the murine fibroblast bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide receptor.
Spindel ER, Giladi E, Brehm P, Goodman RH, Segerson TP.
Mol Endocrinol. 1990 Dec;4(12):1956-63.
PMID 1707129
Cellular basis of itch sensation.
Sun YG, Zhao ZQ, Meng XL, Yin J, Liu XY, Chen ZF.
Science. 2009 Sep 18;325(5947):1531-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1174868. Epub 2009 Aug 6.
PMID 19661382
Molecular basis for selectivity of high affinity peptide antagonists for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor.
Tokita K, Katsuno T, Hocart SJ, Coy DH, Llinares M, Martinez J, Jensen RT.
J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 28;276(39):36652-63. Epub 2001 Aug 2.
PMID 11463790
cDNA cloning, characterization, and brain region-specific expression of a neuromedin-B-preferring bombesin receptor.
Wada E, Way J, Shapira H, Kusano K, Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Coy D, Jensen R, Battery J.
Neuron. 1991 Mar;6(3):421-30.
PMID 1848080
Bombesin stimulates prolactin and growth hormone release by pituitary cells in culture.
Westendorf JM, Schonbrunn A.
Endocrinology. 1982 Feb;110(2):352-8.
PMID 6799271
Autoradiographic visualization of rat brain binding sites for bombesin-like peptides.
Wolf SS, Moody TW, O'Donohue TL, Zarbin MA, Kuhar MJ.
Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 Jan 28;87(1):163-4.
PMID 6301851
The human gastrin-releasing peptide receptor gene structure, its tissue expression and promoter.
Xiao D, Wang J, Hampton LL, Weber HC.
Gene. 2001 Feb 7;264(1):95-103.
PMID 11245983
Antitumor mechanisms of combined gastrin-releasing peptide receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor targeting in head and neck cancer.
Zhang Q, Bhola NE, Lui VW, Siwak DR, Thomas SM, Gubish CT, Siegfried JM, Mills GB, Shin D, Grandis JR.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Apr;6(4):1414-24.
PMID 17431120


This paper should be referenced as such :
TW Moody
GRPR (Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2014;18(10):711-714.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

External links


HGNC (Hugo)GRPR   4609
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)GRPR    gastrin releasing peptide receptor
AliasesBB2; BB2R; BRS2
GeneCards (Weizmann)GRPR
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000126010 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000126010 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000126010 [Sequence]  chrX:16123565-16153518 [Contig_View]  GRPR [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000126010
Genatlas (Paris)GRPR
SOURCE (Princeton)GRPR
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)GRPR
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)GRPR  -     chrX:16123565-16153518 +  Xp22.2   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)GRPR  -     Xp22.2   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathGRPR - Xp22.2 [CytoView hg19]  GRPR - Xp22.2 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBIGRPR [Mapview hg19]  
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK313588 AU125660 BC074733 KJ534854 KJ534855
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_005314
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)GRPR
Gene ExpressionGRPR [ NCBI-GEO ]   GRPR [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   GRPR [ SEEK ]   GRPR [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)GRPR [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of GRPR in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)2925
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)GRPR
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000126010-GRPR [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP30550   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP30550  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP30550
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_1 (PS00237)    G_PROTEIN_RECEP_F1_2 (PS50262)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Bombsn_rcpt-like    Gastrin_pep_rcpt    GPCR_Rhodpsn    GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)7tm_1 (PF00001)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00001   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)7TM_GPCR_Srsx (SM01381)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)GRPR
AlphaFold pdb e-kbP30550   
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000126010-GRPR [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)P30550
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOG protein-coupled receptor activity  plasma membrane  plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  neuropeptide signaling pathway  learning or memory  neuropeptide receptor activity  G protein-coupled peptide receptor activity  social behavior  neuropeptide binding  motor behavior  
Ontology : EGO-EBIG protein-coupled receptor activity  plasma membrane  plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  neuropeptide signaling pathway  learning or memory  neuropeptide receptor activity  G protein-coupled peptide receptor activity  social behavior  neuropeptide binding  motor behavior  
Pathways : KEGGCalcium signaling pathway    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction   
REACTOMEP30550 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-416476 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkGRPR
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkGRPR
Wikipedia pathwaysGRPR
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000126010
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamGRPR
Homologs : HomoloGeneGRPR
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)GRPR
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : QuiverGRPR
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerGRPR [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)GRPR
Exome Variant ServerGRPR
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000126010
Varsome BrowserGRPR
ACMGGRPR variants
Genomic Variants (DGV)GRPR [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERGRPR [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisGRPR 
ICGC Data PortalGRPR 
TCGA Data PortalGRPR 
Broad Tumor PortalGRPR
OASIS PortalGRPR [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICGRPR  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC3DGRPR
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDGRPR
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)[gene] [transcripts] [variants]
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)GRPR
DoCM (Curated mutations)GRPR
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)GRPR
NCG (London)GRPR
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Genetic Testing Registry GRPR
NextProtP30550 [Medical]
Target ValidationGRPR
Huge Navigator GRPR [HugePedia]
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Protein Interactions : CTDGRPR
Pharm GKB GenePA29002
Clinical trialGRPR
DataMed IndexGRPR
PubMed66 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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