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HELLS (Helicase, Lymphoid-Specific)

Written2014-03Kathrin Muegge, Theresa Geiman
Laboratory of Cancer Prevention, SAIC-Frederick, National Cancer Institute and Loyola University Maryland, Frederick, Maryland 21701, USA

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


HGNC Alias symbPASG
HGNC Alias nameSWI/SNF2-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 6
 proliferation-associated SNF2-like protein
LocusID (NCBI) 3070
Atlas_Id 40811
Location 10q23.33  [Link to chromosome band 10q23]
Location_base_pair Starts at 94545788 and ends at 94602099 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping HELLS.png]
  Figure 1. The HELLS gene is located on the long arm of human chromosome 10 at position 24.2. HELLS is found from base pair 94545767 to 94602871 base pair (GRCh38 assembly). Neighboring genes are shown.
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
EIF4G1 (3q27.1)::HELLS (10q23.33)HELLS (10q23.33)::TBC1D12 (10q23.33)RTN3 (11q13.1)::HELLS (10q23.33)
SLC45A2 (5p13.2)::HELLS (10q23.33)ZKSCAN5 (7q22.1)::HELLS (10q23.33)
Note HELLS (helicase, lymphoid specific) is a member of the SNF2 family of chromatin remodelling proteins that utilize ATP to alter the structure and packaging of chromatin (Jarvis et al., 1996). These changes in chromatin together with changes in other epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications alter cellular processes such as transcription, mitosis, meiosis, and DNA repair. HELLS has been shown to be important for stem cell gene control, Hox gene control, DNA methylation, DNA repair, meiosis, and chromatin packaging of repetitive DNA (Dennis et al., 2001; Yan et al., 2003b; De La Fuente et al., 2006; Myant et al., 2008; Burrage et al., 2012).
HELLS belongs to the SNF2 family of chromatin remodelling proteins. This group of proteins are involved in altering chromatin structure by hydrolyzing ATP and moving nucleosomes. HELLS has orthologues in mouse, Xenopus laevis, Danio rerio, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae among others. The best studied is the mouse gene called Lsh (lymphoid specific helicase) that resides on a syntenic region of mouse chromosome 19 (Geiman et al., 1998).


Description The HELLS gene consists of 22 exons spanning 57104 base pairs. It is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, proliferating lymphoid cells/tissue, and germ cells. In stem cells, expression decreases upon differentiation. HELLS is additionally expressed at a lower level in many tissues of the developing embryo. In normal adult somatic tissue, expression is low with the exception of proliferating lymphocytes.
Transcription The HELLS gene produces a transcript of 3163 bp. Ten alternatively spliced isoforms have been detected. The functional relevance of most of these splice variants is currently unknown. One, variant 1 containing a 44 ntd insertion between exons 3 and 4, creates an additional exon and has been associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Yano et al., 2004). An additional variant, variant 9, contains a 75 ntd deletion in exon 18 and has been associated with acute myelogenous leukemia an acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Lee et al., 2000).
Pseudogene None.


  Figure 2. The HELLS protein contains the helicase ATP binding and helicase C-terminal domains as identified by Prosite. It additionally contains a nuclear localization signal.
Description HELLS protein consists of 838 amino acids with a predicted size of 97 kD. Since Lsh is a member of the SNF2 chromatin remodeling protein family, it contains the ATP binding and C-terminal helicase domains of this subfamily of helicases.
Localisation Nuclear.
Function HELLS functions as a chromatin remodeling family member linking multiple epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications and DNA methylation (Dennis et al., 2001; Yan et al., 2003a; Yan et al., 2003b; Huang et al., 2004; Fan et al., 2005; Zhu et al., 2006; Xi et al., 2007; Myant et al., 2008). Knockout mice die perinatally with defects in lymphocyte proliferation, embryonic growth, and kidney development (Geiman et al., 2001; Geiman and Muegge, 2000). Loss leads to global DNA methylation changes including global hypomethylation at repetive sequences, as well as both hypo and hypermethylation of single copy genes (Myant et al., 2011; Tao et al., 2011b; Dunican et al., 2013; Yu et al., 2014). HELLS has been identified as a marker of mammalian stem cells with expression decreasing upon differentiation. Reduction in expression of HELLS leads to prolonged expresssion of stem cell genes implicating this protein as having a role in stem cell gene silencing (Xi et al., 2009). HELLS has been also implicated in DNA repair (Burrage et al., 2012). HELLS is additionally involved in meiosis with its loss leading to reduced proliferation and differentiation of germ cells with defects in synapsis (de la Fuente et al., 2006; Zeng et al., 2011).
Homology HELLS exhibits homology with other SNF2 family members like SNF2H, SNF2L, CHD1, CHD2, CHD3, CHD4, CHD5, CHD6, CHD7, CHD8, CHD9, BRG1, and BRAHMA. While other SNF2 family members contain additional domains such as chromodomains, bromodomains, BRK, PHD, and RING fingers, HELLS protein does not. Because of this lack of additional domains, Lsh does not fit into any of the other subfamilies of SNF2 members but appears to represent a distinct subfamily of SNF2 factors. By homology, it is most closely related to the CHD and SNF2H/L (ISWI) subfamily.


Note Hellstm1Kmu
There are two mutant mouse models of HELLS. The original knockout mouse generated by the Muegge lab (Hellstm1Kmu) deleting the helicase domains of I, Ia, and part of two that are included in exons 6 and 7. These mutant mice die perinatally with embryonic growth retardation (Geiman et al., 2001). These null embryos have kidney defects such as necrosis and globule formation in tubules (Geiman et al., 2001). Murine embryonic fibroblasts display early senescence in culture and mitotic defects (Fan et al., 2003). Since HELLS is highly expressed in developing and activated lymphoid tissue, lymphoid development and function was studied using a radiation chimera. Null embryos display lymphoid defects in thymocyte development with a partial blockage in transitioning from CD4/CD8 double negative to double positive T lymphocytes. This partial arrest in lymphocyte development leads to a reduction in mature T and B lymphocytes (Geiman et al., 2000). In addition, activation of lymphocytes leads to apoptosis intead of cell proliferation (Geiman et al., 2000). Molecular studies on this mouse led to identifying HELLS as a gene necessary for DNA methylation and important for correct chromatin packaging and histone methylation (Dennis et al., 2001; Yan et al., 2003b ; Huang et al., 2004; Myant et al., 2011; Tao et al., 2011b; Yu et al., 2014).
Another mutant mouse model of Hells was developed in the Arceci lab designated Hellstm1Rarc. This mouse model was generated from a hypomorphic allele of HELLS by deleting exons 10, 11, and 12 (Sun et al., 2004). The deleted section includes several helicase domains of HELLS (III, IV, and part of II) but not the ATPase domain. This mutant mouse also shows growth retardation but approximately 40% of mice survive to several weeks of age unlike the Muegge mouse model which die at birth. Additionally, these mice exhibit signs of premature aging with defects such as graying hair and balding, low fat deposition, and unstable gate among others (Sun et al., 2004). The premature aging defects seen in this mouse model are likely the result of replicative senescence caused by increased expression of the p16 tumor suppressor gene in these HELLS mutant mice. Molecular analysis demonstrated profound DNA methylation loss and aberrant expression of repeat sequences (Sun et al., 2004; Dunican et al., 2013).

Implicated in

Entity Acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Note When the HELLS gene was first characterized, it was found to be located in a break point region of the human genome frequently associated with leukemia at 10q23-10q24 (Geiman et al., 1998). Subsequently, an in-frame 75 ntd deletion in exon 18 (variant 9) of the HELLS gene was found in 57% of accute myelogenous leukemia and 37% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient samples tested but not in normal lymphoid tissue examined (Lee et al., 2000). This deletion leads to the loss of 25 amino acids and includes part of one of the conserved SNF2 family helicase domain. This same variant was also detected in both normal and non-small cell lung cancer patient samples raising the possibility that variant 9 is also expressed in some normal tissue (Yano et al., 2004).
Entity Erythroleukemia
Note The mouse HELLS gene (Lsh) has been implicated in the development of erythroleukemia based on animal studies involving the original knockout mouse model (Hellstm1Kmu) (Fan et al., 2008). Since these mice die at birth, hematopoiesis was studied using a reconstitution model (Geiman et al., 2001). Hells -/- mice had defective hematopoiesis (Fan et al., 2008). In a subset of mice reconstituted with Hells-/- cells, erythroleukemia developed which is normally a rare spontaneous event in mice. Hells loss leads to hypomethylation of repetitive elements throughout the genome (Huang et al., 2004; Dunican et al., 2013). This hypomethylation was found to occur in these Hells null mouse hemaotopoietic progenitor cells at retroviral elements within the PU.1 oncogene leading to overexpression of the gene (Fan et al., 2008). Increased PU.1 gene expression is linked to erythroleukemia.
Entity Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Note A 44 ntd insertion between exons 3 and 4 (variant 1) was detected in 26% of non-small cell lung cancer samples but in none of the normal tissue samples (Yano et al., 2004). This insertion through exon creation of a sequence of intronic origin is predicted to lead to premature termination of translation leading to a 97 amino acid protein. The truncated protein may act as a dominant negative protein. This truncated HELLS may also lose its normal nuclear localization since at least part of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) would be affected.
Entity Head and neck cancer
Note HELLS is a downstream target of the FOXM1 transcription factor (Waseem et al., 2010). Both HELLS and FOXM1 have been found to be overexpressed in head and neck cancer such as oraopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (Janus et al., 2011). High expression of both genes correlates with tumor stage 3 or higher. Additionally, HELLS expression was found to increase in progression from normal to dysplasia and then squamous cell carcinoma and metastasis in head and neck cancer (Waseem et al., 2010). Because of this, HELLS has been proposed as a biomarker for early detection and progression of head and neck cancer. Additionally, HELLS is known to be involved in control of p16 tumor suppressor gene expression through repression with reduction in HELLS leading to increased p16 expression. FOXM1 also suppresses p16, likely through HELLS induction (Teh et al., 2012). This also leads to a DNA methylation profile in primary oral keratinocytes that is similar to human head and neck cancer (Teh et al., 2012).
Entity Breast cancer
Note The HELLS gene has been found to be mutated in 3% of invasive breast cancer samples. Most are an amplification or upregulation of the HELLS gene but there are also some that have deletion or downregulation (Colak et al., 2013). HELLS was proposed to be a possible marker for progression from pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Additionally, the HELLS gene is located in a copy number alteration chromosomal region (Colak et al., 2013). Furthermore, depletion of HELLS in a breast cancer cell line reduced DNA methylation at several tumor suppressor genes. This resulted in de-repression of genes involved in proliferation, and altered several growth characteristics of breast cancer cells in vitro including anchorage independent growth in soft agar and the ability to migrate in a wound healing assay (Tao et al., 2011a).
Entity Skin squamous cell carcinoma
Note The role of HELLS in skin tumorigenesis was explored by overexpressing a deltaNp63alpha isoform of the p63 gene (Keyes et al., 2011). HELLS is a direct transcriptional target of deltaNp63alpha. HELLS had been implicated in senescence before by targeting the p16 tumor supressor gene. In this study, p16 was found not to be involved. Instead, increased deltaNp63alpha led to upregulation of HELLS expression. This caused senescence bypass, increased stem like cells and tumorigenesis in human primary keratinocytes.
Entity Melanoma
Note HELLS was identified as a gene having elevated expression in aggressive metastatic tumor cells lines compared to cell lines from less aggressive primary tumors (Ryu et al., 2007). HELLS mRNA was also detected in the blood of patients with different stages of melanoma. The level of HELLS mRNA in patient blood was significantly higher in patients with metastatic melanoma than those with localized primary tumors (Kim et al., 2010). This work also found that HELLS expression in blood appears to be a better biomarker for metastatic melanoma than the currently used standard (Kim et al., 2010). These results suggest that HELLS may be a useful biomarker of melanoma presence and progression and a possible target for intervention.
Entity Prostate cancer
Note The HELLS protein specifically interacts with E2F3, a transcription factor uniquely amplified in some human tumors. The expression of E2F3 is inversely correlated with patient survival. HELLS and E2F3 are co-overexpressed in prostate carcinomas at the most aggressive stages. The association of HELLS and E2F3 occurs at several E2F target genes that control cell cycle entry. Depletion of HELLS in a prostate cancer cell line reduced the induction of E2F target genes and impaired growth suggesting that HELLS may contribute to the malignant progression of tumors (von Eyss et al., 2012).


The SNF2 family ATPase LSH promotes phosphorylation of H2AX and efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells.
Burrage J, Termanis A, Geissner A, Myant K, Gordon K, Stancheva I.
J Cell Sci. 2012 Nov 15;125(Pt 22):5524-34. doi: 10.1242/jcs.111252. Epub 2012 Sep 3.
PMID 22946062
Age-specific gene expression signatures for breast tumors and cross-species conserved potential cancer progression markers in young women.
Colak D, Nofal A, Albakheet A, Nirmal M, Jeprel H, Eldali A, Al-Tweigeri T, Tulbah A, Ajarim D, Malik OA, Inan MS, Kaya N, Park BH, Bin Amer SM.
PLoS One. 2013 May 21;8(5):e63204. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063204. Print 2013.
PMID 23704896
Lsh is required for meiotic chromosome synapsis and retrotransposon silencing in female germ cells.
De La Fuente R, Baumann C, Fan T, Schmidtmann A, Dobrinski I, Muegge K.
Nat Cell Biol. 2006 Dec;8(12):1448-54. Epub 2006 Nov 19.
PMID 17115026
Lsh, a member of the SNF2 family, is required for genome-wide methylation.
Dennis K, Fan T, Geiman T, Yan Q, Muegge K.
Genes Dev. 2001 Nov 15;15(22):2940-4.
PMID 11711429
Lsh regulates LTR retrotransposon repression independently of Dnmt3b function.
Dunican DS, Cruickshanks HA, Suzuki M, Semple CA, Davey T, Arceci RJ, Greally J, Adams IR, Meehan RR.
Genome Biol. 2013 Dec 24;14(12):R146. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID 24367978
Lsh controls silencing of the imprinted Cdkn1c gene.
Fan T, Hagan JP, Kozlov SV, Stewart CL, Muegge K.
Development. 2005 Feb;132(4):635-44. Epub 2005 Jan 12.
PMID 15647320
DNA hypomethylation caused by Lsh deletion promotes erythroleukemia development.
Fan T, Schmidtmann A, Xi S, Briones V, Zhu H, Suh HC, Gooya J, Keller JR, Xu H, Roayaei J, Anver M, Ruscetti S, Muegge K.
Epigenetics. 2008 May-Jun;3(3):134-42. Epub 2008 May 9.
PMID 18487951
Lsh-deficient murine embryonal fibroblasts show reduced proliferation with signs of abnormal mitosis.
Fan T, Yan Q, Huang J, Austin S, Cho E, Ferris D, Muegge K.
Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 1;63(15):4677-83.
PMID 12907649
Characterization of gene expression, genomic structure, and chromosomal localization of Hells (Lsh).
Geiman TM, Durum SK, Muegge K.
Genomics. 1998 Dec 15;54(3):477-83.
PMID 9878251
Lsh, an SNF2/helicase family member, is required for proliferation of mature T lymphocytes.
Geiman TM, Muegge K.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Apr 25;97(9):4772-7.
PMID 10781083
Lsh, a SNF2 family member, is required for normal murine development.
Geiman TM, Tessarollo L, Anver MR, Kopp JB, Ward JM, Muegge K.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 May 3;1526(2):211-20.
PMID 11325543
Lsh, an epigenetic guardian of repetitive elements.
Huang J, Fan T, Yan Q, Zhu H, Fox S, Issaq HJ, Best L, Gangi L, Munroe D, Muegge K.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2004 Sep 24;32(17):5019-28. Print 2004.
PMID 15448183
Linking expression of FOXM1, CEP55 and HELLS to tumorigenesis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Janus JR, Laborde RR, Greenberg AJ, Wang VW, Wei W, Trier A, Olsen SM, Moore EJ, Olsen KD, Smith DI.
Laryngoscope. 2011 Dec;121(12):2598-603. doi: 10.1002/lary.22379.
PMID 22109759
A novel putative helicase produced in early murine lymphocytes.
Jarvis CD, Geiman T, Vila-Storm MP, Osipovich O, Akella U, Candeias S, Nathan I, Durum SK, Muegge K.
Gene. 1996 Mar 9;169(2):203-7.
PMID 8647447
ΔNp63α is an oncogene that targets chromatin remodeler Lsh to drive skin stem cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
Keyes WM, Pecoraro M, Aranda V, Vernersson-Lindahl E, Li W, Vogel H, Guo X, Garcia EL, Michurina TV, Enikolopov G, Muthuswamy SK, Mills AA.
Cell Stem Cell. 2011 Feb 4;8(2):164-76. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2010.12.009.
PMID 21295273
Quantitative measurement of circulating lymphoid-specific helicase (HELLS) gene transcript: a potential serum biomarker for melanoma metastasis.
Kim HE, Symanowski JT, Samlowski EE, Gonzales J, Ryu B.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2010 Dec;23(6):845-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2010.00753.x. Epub 2010 Aug 18.
PMID 20727106
Proliferation-associated SNF2-like gene (PASG): a SNF2 family member altered in leukemia.
Lee DW, Zhang K, Ning ZQ, Raabe EH, Tintner S, Wieland R, Wilkins BJ, Kim JM, Blough RI, Arceci RJ.
Cancer Res. 2000 Jul 1;60(13):3612-22.
PMID 10910076
LSH cooperates with DNA methyltransferases to repress transcription.
Myant K, Stancheva I.
Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Jan;28(1):215-26. Epub 2007 Oct 29.
PMID 17967891
LSH and G9a/GLP complex are required for developmentally programmed DNA methylation.
Myant K, Termanis A, Sundaram AY, Boe T, Li C, Merusi C, Burrage J, de Las Heras JI, Stancheva I.
Genome Res. 2011 Jan;21(1):83-94. doi: 10.1101/gr.108498.110. Epub 2010 Dec 13.
PMID 21149390
Comprehensive expression profiling of tumor cell lines identifies molecular signatures of melanoma progression.
Ryu B, Kim DS, Deluca AM, Alani RM.
PLoS One. 2007 Jul 4;2(7):e594.
PMID 17611626
Growth retardation and premature aging phenotypes in mice with disruption of the SNF2-like gene, PASG.
Sun LQ, Lee DW, Zhang Q, Xiao W, Raabe EH, Meeker A, Miao D, Huso DL, Arceci RJ.
Genes Dev. 2004 May 1;18(9):1035-46. Epub 2004 Apr 22.
PMID 15105378
Treatment of breast cancer cells with DNA demethylating agents leads to a release of Pol II stalling at genes with DNA-hypermethylated regions upstream of TSS.
Tao Y, Liu S, Briones V, Geiman TM, Muegge K.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2011a Dec;39(22):9508-20. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr611. Epub 2011 Aug 31.
PMID 21880597
Lsh, chromatin remodeling family member, modulates genome-wide cytosine methylation patterns at nonrepeat sequences.
Tao Y, Xi S, Shan J, Maunakea A, Che A, Briones V, Lee EY, Geiman T, Huang J, Stephens R, Leighty RM, Zhao K, Muegge K.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011b Apr 5;108(14):5626-31. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1017000108. Epub 2011 Mar 22.
PMID 21427231
FOXM1 induces a global methylation signature that mimics the cancer epigenome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Teh MT, Gemenetzidis E, Patel D, Tariq R, Nadir A, Bahta AW, Waseem A, Hutchison IL.
PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e34329. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034329. Epub 2012 Mar 26.
PMID 22461910
Downstream targets of FOXM1: CEP55 and HELLS are cancer progression markers of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Waseem A, Ali M, Odell EW, Fortune F, Teh MT.
Oral Oncol. 2010 Jul;46(7):536-42. doi: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.03.022. Epub 2010 Apr 18.
PMID 20400365
Lsh participates in DNA methylation and silencing of stem cell genes.
Xi S, Geiman TM, Briones V, Guang Tao Y, Xu H, Muegge K.
Stem Cells. 2009 Nov;27(11):2691-702. doi: 10.1002/stem.183.
PMID 19650037
Lsh controls Hox gene silencing during development.
Xi S, Zhu H, Xu H, Schmidtmann A, Geiman TM, Muegge K.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 4;104(36):14366-71. Epub 2007 Aug 28.
PMID 17726103
Association of Lsh, a regulator of DNA methylation, with pericentromeric heterochromatin is dependent on intact heterochromatin.
Yan Q, Cho E, Lockett S, Muegge K.
Mol Cell Biol. 2003a Dec;23(23):8416-28.
PMID 14612388
Lsh, a modulator of CpG methylation, is crucial for normal histone methylation.
Yan Q, Huang J, Fan T, Zhu H, Muegge K.
EMBO J. 2003b Oct 1;22(19):5154-62.
PMID 14517253
Tumor-specific exon creation of the HELLS/SMARCA6 gene in non-small cell lung cancer.
Yano M, Ouchida M, Shigematsu H, Tanaka N, Ichimura K, Kobayashi K, Inaki Y, Toyooka S, Tsukuda K, Shimizu N, Shimizu K.
Int J Cancer. 2004 Oct 20;112(1):8-13.
PMID 15305370
CG hypomethylation in Lsh-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts is associated with de novo H3K4me1 formation and altered cellular plasticity.
Yu W, Briones V, Lister R, McIntosh C, Han Y, Lee EY, Ren J, Terashima M, Leighty RM, Ecker JR, Muegge K.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Apr 22;111(16):5890-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1320945111. Epub 2014 Apr 7.
PMID 24711395
Lymphoid-specific helicase (HELLS) is essential for meiotic progression in mouse spermatocytes.
Zeng W, Baumann C, Schmidtmann A, Honaramooz A, Tang L, Bondareva A, Dores C, Fan T, Xi S, Geiman T, Rathi R, de Rooij D, De La Fuente R, Muegge K, Dobrinski I.
Biol Reprod. 2011 Jun;84(6):1235-41. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.110.085720. Epub 2011 Feb 23.
PMID 21349825
Lsh is involved in de novo methylation of DNA.
Zhu H, Geiman TM, Xi S, Jiang Q, Schmidtmann A, Chen T, Li E, Muegge K.
EMBO J. 2006 Jan 25;25(2):335-45. Epub 2006 Jan 5.
PMID 16395332
The SNF2-like helicase HELLS mediates E2F3-dependent transcription and cellular transformation.
von Eyss B, Maaskola J, Memczak S, Mollmann K, Schuetz A, Loddenkemper C, Tanh MD, Otto A, Muegge K, Heinemann U, Rajewsky N, Ziebold U.
EMBO J. 2012 Feb 15;31(4):972-85. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2011.451. Epub 2011 Dec 13.
PMID 22157815


This paper should be referenced as such :
K Muegge, T Geiman
HELLS (Helicase, Lymphoid-Specific)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2014;18(11):829-833.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

Other Leukemias implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  t(8;10)(p23;q23) HELLS::CSMD1

External links

HGNC (Hugo)HELLS   4861
Atlas Explorer : (Salamanque)HELLS
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)HELLS    helicase, lymphoid specific
AliasesICF4; LSH; Nbla10143; PASG; 
GeneCards (Weizmann)HELLS
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000119969 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000119969 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000119969 [Sequence]  chr10:94545788-94602099 [Contig_View]  HELLS [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000119969
Genatlas (Paris)HELLS
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)HELLS
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)HELLS  -     chr10:94545788-94602099 +  10q23.33   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)HELLS  -     10q23.33   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathHELLS - 10q23.33 [CytoView hg19]  HELLS - 10q23.33 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBIHELLS [Mapview hg19]  
OMIM603946   616911   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB074174 AB102716 AB102717 AB102718 AB102719
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001289067 NM_001289068 NM_001289069 NM_001289070 NM_001289071 NM_001289072 NM_001289073 NM_001289074 NM_001289075 NM_018063
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)HELLS
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)HELLS [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of HELLS in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)3070
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)HELLS
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000119969-HELLS [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Conserved Domain (NCBI)HELLS
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000119969-HELLS [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
Ontologies - Pathways
PubMed98 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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