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HLA-G (major histocompatibility complex, class I, G)

Written2012-01Shang-Mian Yie
The Second Medical College/Teaching Hospital, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, PR China

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesHLA-G histocompatibility antigen
Other aliasMHC-G
HGNC (Hugo) HLA-G
LocusID (NCBI) 3135
Atlas_Id 43744
Location 6p22.1  [Link to chromosome band 6p22]
Location_base_pair Starts at 29826979 and ends at 29831122 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping HLA-G.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
HLA-G (6p22.1) / BET1L (11p15.5)HLA-G (6p22.1) / HLA-B (6p21.33)HLA-G (6p22.1) / HLA-C (6p21.33)
SNHG1 (11q12.3) / HLA-G (6p22.1)

DNA/RNA

 
  Figure 1. The human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene and transcription. A. HLA-G gene location. B. HLA-G gene structure consisting of 7 introns (white color) and 8 exons (green color). C. HLA-G gene promoter exhibiting regulatory elements to regulate HLA-G gene transcription and 3'-UTR of the HLA-G gene exhibiting several regulatory elements including AU-rich motifs and a Poly-A signal to influence mRNA stability, turnover, mobility and splicing pattern. CRE stands for cAMP responsive element, RRES for ras response elements, ISRE for interferon-sensitive response element, HSE for heat shock response element, PRE for progesterone response element, and X1 for X1 box.D. HLA-G primary transcript can be spliced into 7 alternative mRNAs ranging from HLA-G1 to -G7.
Description HLA-G is one of the non-classical class I (Ib) HLA molecules. The HLA-G gene is located at the short arm of chromosome 6 in the HLA region (6p21.2-21.3) between HLA-A and HLA-F genes (figure 1A). The gene structure of HLA-G is homologous to other HLA class I (Ia) genes consisting of 7 introns and 8 exons coding the heavy chain of the molecule. Exon 1 encodes the peptide signal, while exons 2, 3 and 4 encode the extracellular α1, α2 and α3 domains, respectively. Exons 5 and 6 encode the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the heavy chain. Exon 7 is always absent from mature mRNA and due to the stop codon in exon 6; exon 8 is not translated (figure 1B).
Transcription The functional mRNA level of a particular gene is regulated by the rate of synthesis, mainly driven by the promoter region (5'-UTR) of the given gene, as well as by the rate of degradation, stability, localization and translatability of the specific mRNA (Kuersten and Goodwin, 2003). The HLA-G gene promoter has a modified enhancer A (enhA), S and X1 sequence, and a few alternative regulatory elements to regulate HLA-G gene transcription (figure 1C). So far, these regulatory elements include the locus control region (LCR) (Schmidt et al., 1993; Yelavarthi et al., 1993), which is located approximately 1,2 kb from the ATG initiation codon of the HLA-G gene. The CREB1 factor binds to this region (-1380/-1370), as well as to two additional cAMP response elements (CRE) dispersed through the promoter region at positions -934 and -770 from the ATG. An interferon-sensitive response element (ISRE) is located at position -744 from the ATG (Lefebvre et al., 2001). A heat shock element (HSE) is located within the HLA-G promoter at position -459/-454 that binds heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) (Ibrahim et al., 2000). A progesterone receptor response element (PRE) is located at position -37 from the ATG (Yie et al., 2006), and three ras response elements (RRES) are situated along the HLA-G gene promoter (-1356, -142, -53) (Flajollet et al., 2009).
The 3'-UTR of the HLA-G gene also exhibits several regulatory elements including AU-rich motifs and a poly-A signal to influence mRNA stability, turnover, mobility and splicing pattern (Donadi et al., 2011).
The primary transcript of HLA-G can be spliced into 7 alternative mRNAs (figure 1D) that encode membrane-bound (HLA-G1, -G2, -G3, -G4) and soluble (HLA-G5, -G6, -G7) protein isoforms (Carosella et al., 2003). HLA-G1 is the full-length HLA-G molecule, HLA-G2 lacks exon 3, HLA-G3 lacks exons 3 and 4, and HLA-G4 lacks exon 4. HLA-G1 to -G4 are membrane-bound molecules due to the presence of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail encoded by exons 5 and 6. HLA-G5 is similar to HLA-G1 but retains intron 4, HLA-G6 lacks exon 3 but retains intron 4, and HLA-G7 lacks exon 3 but retains intron 2. HLA-G5 and -G6 are soluble forms due to the presence of intron 4, which contains a premature stop codon to prevent the translation of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail. HLA-G7 is soluble due to the presence of intron 2, which contains a premature stop codon.

Protein

 
  Figure 2. HLA-G protein and its function. A. HLA-G protein exhibits a heterodimer consisting of globular domains (α1, α2 and α3 domains, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains) and a light chain (β2-microglobulin). B. Alternative splicing of the primary transcript yields 7 protein isoforms: truncated isoforms are generated by excision of one or two exons encoding the globular domains, whereas translation of intron 4 or intron 2 yields soluble isoforms that lack the transmembrane domain. HLA-G molecules can form homomultimers through the generation of Cys42-Cys42 or Cys42-Cys147 disulphide bonds. C. Immunoregulatory activities mediated by HLA-G, where the involved target cells and receptors are indicated.
Description The HLA-G protein exhibits a heterodimer consisting of globular domains (α1, α2 and α3 domains, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains) and a light chain (β2-microglobulin) called monomer (figure 2A). However, there may be 7 protein isoforms, generated by alternative splicing of the primary transcript: four of them being membrane-bound (HLA-G1, -G2, -G3 and -G4) and three soluble (HLA-G5, -G6 and -G7) (figure 2B). HLA-G1 is the complete isoform associated with β2-microglobulin. The HLA-G2 isoform has no α2 domain, while HLA-G3 has no α2 and α3 domains, and HLA-G4 has no α3 domain. The soluble HLA-G5 and -G6 isoforms contain the same extra globular domains as HLA-G1 and -G2, respectively, generated by transcripts conserving intron 4, which blocks the translation of the transmembrane domain. The 5'-region of intron 4 is translated until the generation of a stop codon, which gives the HLA-G5 and -G6 isoforms a tail of 21 amino acids responsible for their solubility. The HLA-G7 isoform has only the α1 domain linked to two amino acids encoded by intron 2, which is retained in the corresponding transcript (Fujii et al., 1994; Ishitani and Geraghty, 1992; Paul et al., 2000).
In addtion, HLA-G molecules can form dimers through the creation of disulphide bonds between two unique cysteine residues at positions 42 (Cys42-Cys42 bonds) and 147 (Cys42-Cys147 bonds) of the HLA-G heavy chain (figure 2B) (Boyson et al., 2002; Gonen-Gross et al., 2003). The dimerization has an oblique orientation that exposes the HLA-G receptor binding sites of the α3 domain upwards, making them more accessible to the receptors. Consequently, HLA-G dimers bind receptors with higher affinity and slower dissociation rates than monomers, and signal more efficiently than monomers as well (Shiroishi et al., 2006).
Expression Classical class Ia antigens are ubiquitously expressed, whereas the expression of HLA-G is restrictive. HLA-G protein expression is only found in trophoblast cells in the placenta, certain immune cells (in most cases monocytes), thymus, cornea, proximal nail matrix, erythroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (Kovats et al., 1990; Crisa et al., 1997; Lila et al., 2001; Ishitani et al., 2003; Rebmann et al., 2003; Morandi et al., 2008). The reasons for HLA-G expression in some but not other tissues have not been fully elucidated. However, soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) can be detected in the serum/plasma of both men and women. The main source of sHLA-G in the blood of men and non-pregnant women is most likely monocytes. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and B cells also seem to be able to secrete HLA-G5 although to a lesser extent (Rebmann et al., 2003). The presence or level of sHLA-G in serum/plasma samples is associated with HLA-G polymorphism (Rebmann et al., 2001; Hviid et al., 2004a; Hviid et al., 2004b; Rizzo et al., 2005).
As mentioned earlier, HLA-G expression is mainly controlled at the transcriptional level by a unique gene promoter and at the post-transcriptional level by alternative splicing, mRNA stability, translation and protein transport to the cell surface. Many factors have been described that can potentially affect transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms responsible for HLA-G regulation (Moreau et al., 2009).
Function It has been demonstrated that HLA-G is an immune tolerogenic molecule, which plays an important role in the suppression of the immune responses (Carosella et al., 2008) (figure 2C). The immune-inhibitory function of HLA-G is realized by interacting with leukocyte receptors including leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 1 (LILRB1) and member 2 (LILRB2), and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4 (KIR2DL4) (Shiroishi et al., 2006; Gao et al., 2000).
LILRB1s are expressed on the surface of several leukocytes, such as NK and lymphomononuclear cells, while LILRB2s are primarily expressed on the surface of a restricted set of cells, including monocytes and dendritic cells (Brown et al., 2004). Both LILRB1 and LILRB2 have several inhibitory motifs (ITIM) receptors based on the immunoreceptor tyrosine in their cytoplasmic tail, which inhibits signaling events triggered by stimulatory receptors (Dietrich et al., 2001). LILRB1 and LILRB2 both interact with classical HLA class I molecules. However, their binding with HLA-G presents three- to four-fold higher affinity when compared to classical molecules (Shiroishi et al., 2003). LILRB1 and LILRB2 also bind to the α3 domain and β2-microglobulin of the HLA-G molecule, although LILRB2 binds with higher affinity than LILRB1. LILRB2 binds more to the α3 domain than to the β2-microglobulin domain. The binding sites of LILRB1 and LILRB2 are distinct. The Tyr36 and Arg38 residues of LILRB2 bind to the 195-197 loop of the α3 domain of HLA-G, whereas the Tyr38 and Tyr76 residues of LILRB1 bind to the Phe195 of HLA-G (Shiroishi et al., 2006).
KIRs are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells, exhibiting two (KIR2D) or three (KIR3D) extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, which also contain ITIMs. The KIR2DL4 binds to the α1 domain of the HLA-G molecule (Yan and Fan, 2005). However, the binding site of KIR2DL4 to HLA-G remains unknown (Donadi et al., 2011). Moreover, since an array of activator and inhibitor receptors is expressed on the surface of most NK cells and macrophages, and the final effector function is dependent on the balance between activator and inhibitor receptors (Hsu et al., 2002), the role of the interaction between KIR2DL4 and HLA-G in the modulation of the immune response has been a matter of much debate (LeMaoult et al., 2003; Apps et al., 2008).
HLA-G has an inhibitory effect on cytotoxic cells exhibiting CD8 on their surface through the interaction of the α3 domain of HLA-G with the CD8 α/α molecule. The α3 domain of HLA-G is the same site of interaction with CD8 α/α and LILRBs. Even though the CD8 α/α and LILIRBs binding sites overlap, LILIRBs inhibit the binding of CD8 α/α to HLA molecules by displacing CD8 α/α and activating ITIMs (Shiroishi et al., 2003).
Beside the extracellular domains of HLA-G, all segments of the molecule may contribute to its function. The short cytoplasmic tail retains HLA-G longer in the endoplasmic reticulum and prolongs the half-life of the molecule on the cell surface because of the lack of an endocytosis motif (Park et al., 2001; Park and Ahn, 2003). This permits multiple interactions with cells of the immune system.
Soluble HLA-G molecule can induce apoptosis in CD8+ activated T lymphocytes as well as in CD8+ NK cells (lacking the T cell receptor) at similar rates. The binding of soluble HLA molecules to CD8 leads to apoptosis upregulating Fas production and Fas/FasL interaction (Puppo et al., 2002; Contini et al., 2003). This mechanism represents an additional immunomodulatory effect of HLA-G.

Mutations

Somatic 44 HLA-G coding alleles have been defined based upon 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) observed between exon 1 and intron 6. Nucleotide variability in the coding region of the HLA-G gene is evenly distributed throughout exons 2, 3 and 4, as well as in introns (Donadi et al., 2011). The heavy chain encoding region exhibits 33 SNPs but only 13 amino acid variations are observed, 4 of them in α1, 6 in α2 and 3 in the α3 domain (Donadi et al., 2011). The amino acid substitutions may account for the biological function of HLA-G, including peptide binding, isoform production, and ability to polymerize and modulate immune system cells.
The HLA-G promoter exhibits 29 SNPs to date. Since many of these polymorphisms either coincide with or are closed to the known regulatory elements, they may affect the binding of the corresponding regulatory factors (Tan et al., 2005; Hviid et al., 2006; Hviid et al., 2004a; Hviid et al., 2004b). Polymorphisms located at CpG sites may affect promoter methylation (Ober et al., 2006). In some cases, polymorphism in the promoter region may be in linkage disequilibrium with 3'-UTR variants (Nicolae et al., 2005), and some of them could influence alternative splicing (Auboeuf et al., 2002) and mRNA stability (Rousseau et al., 2003).
In contrast to the coding region, the 3'-UTR of the HLA-G locus presents a high degree of variation. Since the 3'-UTR of HLA-G gene exhibits several regulatory elements including AU-rich motifs, a poly-A signal, as well as signals that regulate the spatial and temporal expression of an mRNA, the polymorphic sites may influence mRNA stability, turnover, mobility and splicing pattern. The polymorphic sites at the 3'-UTR seem to bear ranged in several haplotypes (Alvarez et al., 2009; Castelli et al., 2010; Donadi et al., 2011), their influence seems to occur simultaneously.

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Various cancers
Disease Cancer is essentially considered a complex cell disease caused by abnormalities in the genetic material of transformed cells. However, cancer development is a complicated progressive process that involves a sequence of gene-environment interactions with dysfunctions in multiple systems, including immune functions. The immune system can specifically identify and eliminate tumor cells based on their expression of tumor-specific antigens or molecules induced during malignant cell transformation. This process is referred to as tumor immune surveillance (Swann and Smyth, 2007). Despite tumor immune surveillance, tumors can still develop in the presence of a functioning immune system. This occurs through tumor immunoediting, a process that comprises three major phases (Urosevic and Dummer, 2008): 1) the elimination phase in which most immuno-genic tumor cells are eliminated by cytotoxic T and NK cells; 2) the equilibrium phase in which tumor cells with reduced immunogenicity are selected; and 3) the escape phase in which variants that no longer respond to the host immune system are maintained (Urosevic and Dummer, 2008). HLA-G is involved in every phase of tumor immunoediting by decreasing the elimination of tumor cells, by inhibiting the cytotoxic function of T and NK cells, and by trogocytosis, (i.e. the intercell transference of viable HLA-G molecules), which renders competent cytotoxic cells unresponsive to tumor antigens (LeMaoult et al., 2007; Caumartin et al., 2007) (figure 3).
Prognosis HLA-G is aberrantly expressed in many human solid malignant tumors in situ and malignant hematopoietic diseases including breast, ovarian, clear renal cell, colorectal, gastric, esophageal, lung, and hepatocellular cancers, as well as acute myeloid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) (Carosella et al., 2008; Yie and Hu, 2011). The aberrant expression of HLA-G in malignant neoplasm is significantly correlated with poor clinical outcome of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) (Ye et al., 2007), gastric cancer (GC) (Yie et al., 2007b), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Yie et al., 2007c), esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) (Yie et al., 2007a), breast cancer (He et al., 2010), hepatocellular cancers (Cai et al., 2009), and B-CLL (Nückel et al., 2005). This is due to the fact that HLA-G expression favors tumor development and metastasis in every phase of cancer immunoediting by impairing anti-tumor immune responses (Urosevic and Dummer, 2008).
A reverse correlation between HLA-G expression in tumors and the degree of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has been demonstrated in a variety of cancer types (Yie and Hu, 2011). The presence of TILs indicates an anti-tumor cellular immune response (Yu and Fu, 2006). Also, it has been documented that HLA-G can increase regulatory T cells within TILs in breast and hepatocellular cancers (Chen et al., 2010; Cai et al., 2009). The regulatory T cells are a subset of immune T cells that inhibit the anti-tumor functions of tumor-specific T cells (Shevach, 2002). Therefore, current data suggest that the estimation of HLA-G expression is a novel prognostic marker useful in assessing host immune response since cancer can be explained, at least in part, as an abnormal immune system tolerance to uncontrolled cells (de la Cruz-Merino et al., 2008).
Furthermore, serum soluble HLA-G is increased in various types of cancer patients (Pistoia et al., 2007; Yie and Hu, 2011) including patients with melanoma (Ugurel et al., 2001), acute leukemia (Gros et al., 2006), multiple myeloma (Leleu et al., 2005), neuroblastoma (Morandi et al., 2007), lymphoproliferative disorders (Sebti et al., 2007), breast or ovarian cancer (Singer et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2010; He et al., 2010), non-small cell lung cancer (Cao et al., 2011), esophageal cancer (Cao et al., 2011), colorectal cancer (Zhu et al., 2011; Cao et al., 2011), gastric cancer (Cao et al., 2011) and hepatocellular carcinoma (Wang et al., 2011), when compared to normal healthy controls or benign disease cases. Although numerous and different cancer studies show preferential up-regulation of HLA-G in advanced diseases rather than in initial tumor lesions, currently available HLA-G data do support the notion that HLA-G can be used as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis of human carcinomas (Yie and Hu, 2011).
 
Figure 3. The role of HLA-G in tumor immunoediting. HLA-G is involved in every phase of tumor immunoediting to inhibit host immune response. During the tumor immunoediting process, HLA-G can be activated and up-regulated by many factors. Aberrant expression of HLA-G can: 1) disable effectors of innate and adaptive immunity in the elimination phase; 2) alter antigen presentation and contribute less immunogenic phenotype in the equilibrium phase; and 3) induce immunosuppressive cytokines and peripheral tolerance to the tumor (plus processes described in the two previous phases) in the escape phase.
  

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Hum Reprod. 2006 Jul;21(7):1743-8. Epub 2006 Feb 24.
PMID 16501035
 
An essential function of tapasin in quality control of HLA-G molecules.
Park B, Ahn K.
J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 18;278(16):14337-45. Epub 2003 Feb 11.
PMID 12582157
 
The truncated cytoplasmic tail of HLA-G serves a quality-control function in post-ER compartments.
Park B, Lee S, Kim E, Chang S, Jin M, Ahn K.
Immunity. 2001 Aug;15(2):213-24.
PMID 11520457
 
Identification of HLA-G7 as a new splice variant of the HLA-G mRNA and expression of soluble HLA-G5, -G6, and -G7 transcripts in human transfected cells.
Paul P, Cabestre FA, Ibrahim EC, Lefebvre S, Khalil-Daher I, Vazeux G, Quiles RM, Bermond F, Dausset J, Carosella ED.
Hum Immunol. 2000 Nov;61(11):1138-49.
PMID 11137219
 
Soluble HLA-G: Are they clinically relevant?
Pistoia V, Morandi F, Wang X, Ferrone S.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2007 Dec;17(6):469-79. Epub 2007 Jul 31. (REVIEW)
PMID 17825579
 
Soluble HLA class I molecules/CD8 ligation trigger apoptosis of CD8+ cells by Fas/Fas-ligand interaction.
Puppo F, Contini P, Ghio M, Indiveri F.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2002 Feb 12;2:421-3. (REVIEW)
PMID 12806026
 
Secretion of sHLA-G molecules in malignancies.
Rebmann V, Regel J, Stolke D, Grosse-Wilde H.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2003 Oct;13(5):371-7.
PMID 14708717
 
Association of soluble HLA-G plasma levels with HLA-G alleles.
Rebmann V, van der Ven K, Passler M, Pfeiffer K, Krebs D, Grosse-Wilde H.
Tissue Antigens. 2001 Jan;57(1):15-21.
PMID 11169254
 
Defective production of soluble HLA-G molecules by peripheral blood monocytes in patients with asthma.
Rizzo R, Mapp CE, Melchiorri L, Maestrelli P, Visentin A, Ferretti S, Bononi I, Miotto D, Baricordi OR.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Mar;115(3):508-13.
PMID 15753897
 
The 14 bp deletion-insertion polymorphism in the 3' UT region of the HLA-G gene influences HLA-G mRNA stability.
Rousseau P, Le Discorde M, Mouillot G, Marcou C, Carosella ED, Moreau P.
Hum Immunol. 2003 Nov;64(11):1005-10.
PMID 14602228
 
Extraembryonic expression of the human MHC class I gene HLA-G in transgenic mice. Evidence for a positive regulatory region located 1 kilobase 5' to the start site of transcription.
Schmidt CM, Ehlenfeldt RG, Athanasiou MC, Duvick LA, Heinrichs H, David CS, Orr HT.
J Immunol. 1993 Sep 1;151(5):2633-45.
PMID 8360483
 
Expression of functional soluble human leucocyte antigen-G molecules in lymphoproliferative disorders.
Sebti Y, Le Maux A, Gros F, De Guibert S, Pangault C, Rouas-Freiss N, Bernard M, Amiot L.
Br J Haematol. 2007 Jul;138(2):202-12.
PMID 17593027
 
CD4+ CD25+ suppressor T cells: more questions than answers.
Shevach EM.
Nat Rev Immunol. 2002 Jun;2(6):389-400. (REVIEW)
PMID 12093005
 
Efficient leukocyte Ig-like receptor signaling and crystal structure of disulfide-linked HLA-G dimer.
Shiroishi M, Kuroki K, Ose T, Rasubala L, Shiratori I, Arase H, Tsumoto K, Kumagai I, Kohda D, Maenaka K.
J Biol Chem. 2006 Apr 14;281(15):10439-47. Epub 2006 Feb 2.
PMID 16455647
 
HLA-G is a potential tumor marker in malignant ascites.
Singer G, Rebmann V, Chen YC, Liu HT, Ali SZ, Reinsberg J, McMaster MT, Pfeiffer K, Chan DW, Wardelmann E, Grosse-Wilde H, Cheng CC, Kurman RJ, Shih IeM.
Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Oct 1;9(12):4460-4.
PMID 14555519
 
Immune surveillance of tumors.
Swann JB, Smyth MJ.
J Clin Invest. 2007 May;117(5):1137-46. (REVIEW)
PMID 17476343
 
Evidence of balancing selection at the HLA-G promoter region.
Tan Z, Shon AM, Ober C.
Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Dec 1;14(23):3619-28. Epub 2005 Oct 19.
PMID 16236759
 
Soluble human leukocyte antigen--G serum level is elevated in melanoma patients and is further increased by interferon-alpha immunotherapy.
Ugurel S, Rebmann V, Ferrone S, Tilgen W, Grosse-Wilde H, Reinhold U.
Cancer. 2001 Jul 15;92(2):369-76.
PMID 11466692
 
Human leukocyte antigen-G and cancer immunoediting.
Urosevic M, Dummer R.
Cancer Res. 2008 Feb 1;68(3):627-30. (REVIEW)
PMID 18245459
 
Expression of HLA-G in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Wang Y, Ye Z, Meng XQ, Zheng SS.
Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2011 Apr;10(2):158-63.
PMID 21459722
 
Residues Met76 and Gln79 in HLA-G alpha1 domain involve in KIR2DL4 recognition.
Yan WH, Fan LA.
Cell Res. 2005 Mar;15(3):176-82.
PMID 15780179
 
Human leukocyte antigen G expression: as a significant prognostic indicator for patients with colorectal cancer.
Ye SR, Yang H, Li K, Dong DD, Lin XM, Yie SM.
Mod Pathol. 2007 Mar;20(3):375-83. Epub 2007 Feb 2.
PMID 17277760
 
Cellular distribution of HLA-G mRNA in transgenic mouse placentas.
Yelavarthi KK, Schmidt CM, Ehlenfeldt RG, Orr HT, Hunt JS.
J Immunol. 1993 Oct 1;151(7):3638-45.
PMID 8376798
 
Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) as a marker for diagnosis, prognosis and tumor immune escape in human malignancies.
Yie SM, Hu Z.
Histol Histopathol. 2011 Mar;26(3):409-20. (REVIEW)
PMID 21210353
 
Progesterone regulates HLA-G gene expression through a novel progesterone response element.
Yie SM, Xiao R, Librach CL.
Hum Reprod. 2006 Oct;21(10):2538-44. Epub 2006 May 9.
PMID 16684846
 
Expression of human leucocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is associated with prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Yie SM, Yang H, Ye SR, Li K, Dong DD, Lin XM.
Lung Cancer. 2007c Nov;58(2):267-74. Epub 2007 Jul 30.
PMID 17673327
 
Tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes: friends or foes?
Yu P, Fu YX.
Lab Invest. 2006 Mar;86(3):231-45. (REVIEW)
PMID 16446705
 
Serum sHLA-G levels: a useful indicator in distinguishing colorectal cancer from benign colorectal diseases.
Zhu CB, Wang CX, Zhang X, Zhang J, Li W.
Int J Cancer. 2011 Feb 1;128(3):617-22.
PMID 20473865
 
Cancer and immune response: old and new evidence for future challenges.
de la Cruz-Merino L, Grande-Pulido E, Albero-Tamarit A, Codes-Manuel de Villena ME.
Oncologist. 2008 Dec;13(12):1246-54. Epub 2008 Dec 4. (REVIEW)
PMID 19056856
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Yie, SM
HLA-G (major histocompatibility complex, class I, G)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2012;16(6):403-411.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/HLAGID43744ch6p22.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)HLA-G   4964
Cards
AtlasHLAGID43744ch6p22
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)HLA-G  3135  major histocompatibility complex, class I, G
AliasesMHC-G
GeneCards (Weizmann)HLA-G
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000204632 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000204632 [Gene_View]  chr6:29826979-29831122 [Contig_View]  HLA-G [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000204632
TCGA cBioPortalHLA-G
AceView (NCBI)HLA-G
Genatlas (Paris)HLA-G
WikiGenes3135
SOURCE (Princeton)HLA-G
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)HLA-G
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)HLA-G  -     chr6:29826979-29831122 +  6p22.1   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)HLA-G  -     6p22.1   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblHLA-G - 6p22.1 [CytoView hg19]  HLA-G - 6p22.1 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIHLA-G [Mapview hg19]  HLA-G [Mapview hg38]
OMIM142871   600807   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)###############################################################################################################################################################################################################################################################
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_002127
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)NC_000006 NC_018917 NG_029039 NT_113891 NT_167244 NT_167245 NT_167246 NT_167247 NT_167248 NT_167249
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)HLA-G
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.512152 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.512152
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000204632
Gene ExpressionHLA-G [ NCBI-GEO ]   HLA-G [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   HLA-G [ SEEK ]   HLA-G [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)HLA-G [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)3135
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)HLA-G
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000204632-HLA-G [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP17693   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtP17693  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP17693
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP17693
PhosPhoSitePlusP17693
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)IG_LIKE (PS50835)    IG_MHC (PS00290)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Ig-like_dom    Ig-like_fold    Ig/MHC_CS    Ig_C1-set    MHC_I-like_Ag-recog    MHC_I/II-like_Ag-recog    MHC_I_a_a1/a2   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)C1-set (PF07654)    MHC_I (PF00129)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam07654    pfam00129   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)IGc1 (SM00407)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)HLA-G
DMDM Disease mutations3135
Blocks (Seattle)HLA-G
PDB (SRS)1YDP    2D31    2DYP    3BZE    3CDG    3CII    3KYN    3KYO   
PDB (PDBSum)1YDP    2D31    2DYP    3BZE    3CDG    3CII    3KYN    3KYO   
PDB (IMB)1YDP    2D31    2DYP    3BZE    3CDG    3CII    3KYN    3KYO   
PDB (RSDB)1YDP    2D31    2DYP    3BZE    3CDG    3CII    3KYN    3KYO   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1YDP    2D31    2DYP    3BZE    3CDG    3CII    3KYN    3KYO   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1YDP    2D31    2DYP    3BZE    3CDG    3CII    3KYN    3KYO   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1YDP    2D31    2DYP    3BZE    3CDG    3CII    3KYN    3KYO   
SuperfamilyP17693
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000204632-HLA-G [tissue]
Peptide AtlasP17693
HPRD00834
IPIIPI00015988   IPI01018347   IPI00478603   IPI00829900   IPI00829818   IPI00893526   IPI00893936   IPI00894299   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P17693
IntAct (EBI)P17693
FunCoupENSG00000204632
BioGRIDHLA-G
STRING (EMBL)HLA-G
ZODIACHLA-G
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP17693
Ontology : AmiGOGolgi membrane  antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I  antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I  antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent  antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-independent  positive regulation of tolerance induction  positive regulation of T cell tolerance induction  immune response-inhibiting cell surface receptor signaling pathway  receptor binding  plasma membrane  plasma membrane  cellular defense response  ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane  membrane  phagocytic vesicle membrane  early endosome membrane  positive regulation of interleukin-12 production  negative regulation of T cell proliferation  peptide antigen binding  MHC class I protein complex  protein homodimerization activity  protein homodimerization activity  positive regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation  regulation of immune response  negative regulation of immune response  recycling endosome membrane  interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway  type I interferon signaling pathway  integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane  negative regulation of dendritic cell differentiation  
Ontology : EGO-EBIGolgi membrane  antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I  antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I  antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent  antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-independent  positive regulation of tolerance induction  positive regulation of T cell tolerance induction  immune response-inhibiting cell surface receptor signaling pathway  receptor binding  plasma membrane  plasma membrane  cellular defense response  ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane  membrane  phagocytic vesicle membrane  early endosome membrane  positive regulation of interleukin-12 production  negative regulation of T cell proliferation  peptide antigen binding  MHC class I protein complex  protein homodimerization activity  protein homodimerization activity  positive regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation  regulation of immune response  negative regulation of immune response  recycling endosome membrane  interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway  type I interferon signaling pathway  integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane  negative regulation of dendritic cell differentiation  
Pathways : KEGG   
REACTOMEP17693 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-983170 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkHLA-G
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkHLA-G
Wikipedia pathwaysHLA-G
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB3135
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000204632
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamHLA-G
HOVERGENP17693
HOGENOMP17693
Homologs : HomoloGeneHLA-G
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)HLA-G
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion Cancer (Beijing)HLA-G [6p22.1]  -  HLA-B [6p21.33]  [FUSC003196]  [FUSC003196]  [FUSC003196]  [FUSC003196]
Fusion Cancer (Beijing)HLA-G [6p22.1]  -  HLA-C [6p21.33]  [FUSC003076]
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerHLA-G [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)HLA-G
dbVarHLA-G
ClinVarHLA-G
1000_GenomesHLA-G 
Exome Variant ServerHLA-G
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000204632
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000204632
Genetic variants : HAPMAP3135
Genomic Variants (DGV)HLA-G [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERHLA-G [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisHLA-G 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalHLA-G 
TCGA Data PortalHLA-G 
Broad Tumor PortalHLA-G
OASIS PortalHLA-G [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICHLA-G  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDHLA-G
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch HLA-G
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)HLA-G
DoCM (Curated mutations)HLA-G (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)HLA-G (select a term)
intoGenHLA-G
NCG5 (London)HLA-G
Cancer3DHLA-G(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM142871    600807   
Orphanet
MedgenHLA-G
Genetic Testing Registry HLA-G
NextProtP17693 [Medical]
TSGene3135
GENETestsHLA-G
Target ValidationHLA-G
Huge Navigator HLA-G [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease3135
BioCentury BCIQHLA-G
ClinGenHLA-G
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD3135
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA35083
Clinical trialHLA-G
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)HLA-G (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed499 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineHLA-G
EVEXHLA-G
GoPubMedHLA-G
iHOPHLA-G
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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indexed on : Thu Oct 12 16:23:56 CEST 2017

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