Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

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HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog)

Written1999-02Franz Watzinger, Thomas Lion
Children's Cancer Research Institute (CCRI), Kinderspitalgasse 6, A-1090 Vienna, Austria

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Other aliasc-Ha-ras 1
LocusID (NCBI) 3265
Atlas_Id 108
Location 11p15.5  [Link to chromosome band 11p15]
Location_base_pair Starts at and ends at bp from pter
  Probe(s) - Courtesy Mariano Rocchi, Resources for Molecular Cytogenetics
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
FYCO1 (3p21.31) / HRAS (11p15.5)RNH1 (11p15.5) / HRAS (11p15.5)
Note more on the RAS family is available as a deep insight.


Note to be quoted is the existence of a pseudogene, c-Ha-ras 2, inactivated, processed pseudogene which is located on Chromosome X.
  H-ras splicing variants : alternative splicing of H-ras precursor mRNA leads to the two transcripts p19 and p21 which differ by the ex- or inclusion of the Intron D Exon (IDX); Exons that encode protein are shown as black boxes, untranslated exons as white boxes; the upstream untranslated exon is indicated as Exon -1
Description consists of six exons, spread over 6.6kb of genomic DNA
Transcription alternative RNA splicing reveals two different transcripts (see Fig); if the Intron D Exon (IDX) is skipped exon 4 is directly joined to exon 3


Description regular RAS protein - characterized in the RAS family page
Expression ubiquitously expressed
Localisation anchored to the inner surface of the plasma membrane
Function analogously to other GTP-binding proteins (such as Translation Elongation Factor EFTu or signal transducing G-Proteins) RAS proteins are involved in signal transduction pathways
Homology ras gene family is part of the ras superfamily including the mammalian RAS, RAL, RAC, RHO, RAP, and RAB gene families and the yeast homologs like SEC4 and YPT1 genes; genes encode small monomeric proteins of low molecular mass (20-30 kDa) which share at least 30% homology with RAS proteins.

Implicated in

Entity tumor (frequency of H-RAS mutations); references in Full Bibliography
Entity stomach (0-40%)
Entity urinary bladder (0-65%)
Entity prostate (0-10%)
Entity skin (0-45%)
Entity thyroid (0-60%)
Entity breast (0-10%)
Entity head and neck (0-30%)
Entity endometrium (5%)


ras oncogenes: their role in neoplasia.
Barbacid M
European journal of clinical investigation. 1990 ; 20 (3) : 225-235.
PMID 2114981
ras oncogenes in human cancer: a review.
Bos JL
Cancer research. 1989 ; 49 (17) : 4682-4689.
PMID 2547513
Variability of Ha-ras (codon 12) proto-oncogene mutations in diverse thyroid cancers.
Bouras M, Bertholon J, Dutrieux-Berger N, Parvaz P, Paulin C, Revol A
European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies. 1998 ; 139 (2) : 209-216.
PMID 9724079
Codon 12 Harvey-ras mutations are rare events in non-melanoma human skin cancer.
Campbell C, Quinn AG, Rees JL
The British journal of dermatology. 1993 ; 128 (2) : 111-114.
PMID 8096149
Ras oncogene mutations in thyroid tumors: polymerase chain reaction-restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis from paraffin-embedded tissues.
Capella G, Matias-Guiu X, Ampudia X, de Leiva A, Perucho M, Prat J
Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B. 1996 ; 5 (1) : 45-52.
PMID 8919545
ras gene mutations in human prostate cancer.
Carter BS, Epstein JI, Isaacs WB
Cancer research. 1990 ; 50 (21) : 6830-6832.
PMID 2208148
The absence of Harvey ras mutations during development and progression of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck.
Clark LJ, Edington K, Swan IR, McLay KA, Newlands WJ, Wills LC, Young HA, Johnston PW, Mitchell R, Robertson G
British journal of cancer. 1993 ; 68 (3) : 617-620.
PMID 8353052
Expression of the H-ras proto-oncogene is controlled by alternative splicing.
Cohen JB, Broz SD, Levinson AD
Cell. 1989 ; 58 (3) : 461-472.
PMID 2667764
Correlation of mutations of oncogene C-Ha-ras at codon 12 with metastasis and survival of gastric cancer patients.
Deng GR, Liu XH, Wang JR
Oncogene research. 1991 ; 6 (1) : 33-38.
PMID 1671796
A new oncogene in human thyroid papillary carcinomas and their lymph-nodal metastases.
Fusco A, Grieco M, Santoro M, Berlingieri MT, Pilotti S, Pierotti MA, Della Porta G, Vecchio G
Nature. 1987 ; 328 (6126) : 170-172.
PMID 3600795
Activated ras alleles in human carcinoma of the prostate are rare.
Gumerlock PH, Poonamallee UR, Meyers FJ, deVere White RW
Cancer research. 1991 ; 51 (6) : 1632-1637.
PMID 1998954
A PCR-RFLP method for the detection of activated H-ras oncogene with a point mutation at codon 12 and 61.
Hong SJ, Lee T, Park YS, Lee KO, Chung BH, Lee SH
Yonsei medical journal. 1996 ; 37 (6) : 371-379.
PMID 9048488
A splicing enhancer in the 3'-terminal c-H-ras exon influences mRNA abundance and transforming activity.
Hwang DY, Cohen JB
Journal of virology. 1997 ; 71 (9) : 6416-6426.
PMID 9261359
Mutations, expression and genomic instability of the H-ras proto-oncogene in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck.
Kiaris H, Spandidos DA, Jones AS, Vaughan ED, Field JK
British journal of cancer. 1995 ; 72 (1) : 123-128.
PMID 7599040
Mutation of ras oncogene in gastric adenocarcinoma: association with histological phenotype.
Kim TY, Bang YJ, Kim WS, Kang SH, Lee KU, Choe KJ, Kim NK
Anticancer research. 1997 ; 17 (2B) : 1335-1339.
PMID 9137494
Comparison of ras activation in prostate carcinoma in Japanese and American men.
Konishi N, Hiasa Y, Tsuzuki T, Tao M, Enomoto T, Miller GJ
The Prostate. 1997 ; 30 (1) : 53-57.
PMID 9018336
A position 12-activated H-ras oncogene in all HS578T mammary carcinosarcoma cells but not normal mammary cells of the same patient.
Kraus MH, Yuasa Y, Aaronson SA
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1984 ; 81 (17) : 5384-5388.
PMID 6089200
High frequency of ras oncogene activation in all stages of human thyroid tumorigenesis.
Lemoine NR, Mayall ES, Wyllie FS, Williams ED, Goyns M, Stringer B, Wynford-Thomas D
Oncogene. 1989 ; 4 (2) : 159-164.
PMID 2648253
Oncogenes and bladder cancer.
Malone PR, Visvanathan KV, Ponder BA, Shearer RJ, Summerhayes IC
British journal of urology. 1985 ; 57 (6) : 664-667.
PMID 4084726
ras activation in experimental carcinogenesis.
Mangues R, Pellicer A
Seminars in cancer biology. 1992 ; 3 (4) : 229-239.
PMID 1421167
K-ras activation in gastric epithelial tumors in Japanese.
Miki H, Ohmori M, Perantoni AO, Enomoto T
Cancer letters. 1991 ; 58 (1-2) : 107-113.
PMID 2049776
Infrequent point mutations of ras oncogenes in gastric cancers.
Nanus DM, Kelsen DP, Mentle IR, Altorki N, Albino AP
Gastroenterology. 1990 ; 98 (4) : 955-960.
PMID 2179035
Human cancer and cellular oncogenes.
Nishimura S, Sekiya T
The Biochemical journal. 1987 ; 243 (2) : 313-327.
PMID 3307760
Low-frequency mutation of Ha-ras and Ki-ras oncogenes in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
Older&oring; G, Daehlin L, Ogreid D
Anticancer research. 1998 ; 18 (4A) : 2675-2678.
PMID 9703927
Low incidence of ras oncogene activation in human squamous cell carcinomas.
Rumsby G, Carter RL, Gusterson BA
British journal of cancer. 1990 ; 61 (3) : 365-368.
PMID 2183872
Screening of H-ras gene point mutations in 50 cases of bladder carcinoma.
Saito S, Hata M, Fukuyama R, Sakai K, Kudoh J, Tazaki H, Shimizu N
International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association. 1997 ; 4 (2) : 178-185.
PMID 9179693
High frequency mutation in codons 12 and 61 of H-ras oncogene in chewing tobacco-related human oral carcinoma in India.
Saranath D, Chang SE, Bhoite LT, Panchal RG, Kerr IB, Mehta AR, Johnson NW, Deo MG
British journal of cancer. 1991 ; 63 (4) : 573-578.
PMID 2021541
Mutations of ras genes are relatively frequent in Japanese prostate cancers: pointing to genetic differences between populations.
Shiraishi T, Muneyuki T, Fukutome K, Ito H, Kotake T, Watanabe M, Yatani R
Anticancer research. 1998 ; 18 (4B) : 2789-2792.
PMID 9713462
Oncogene activation in malignant transformation: a study of H-ras in human breast cancer.
Spandidos DA
Anticancer research. 1987 ; 7 (5B) : 991-996.
PMID 3435051
Detection of activated ras oncogenes in human thyroid carcinomas.
Su´rez HG, Du Villard JA, Caillou B, Schlumberger M, Tubiana M, Parmentier C, Monier R
Oncogene. 1988 ; 2 (4) : 403-406.
PMID 3283656
Mapping of UV photoproducts within ras proto-oncogenes in UV-irradiated cells: correlation with mutations in human skin cancer.
Törmä VT, Pfeifer GP
Oncogene. 1992 ; 7 (9) : 1729-1736.
PMID 1501884
ras gene mutations in human endometrial carcinoma.
Varras MN, Koffa M, Koumantakis E, Ergazaki M, Protopapa E, Michalas S, Spandidos DA
Oncology. 1996 ; 53 (6) : 505-510.
PMID 8960147
No evidence for point mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 of the ras gene in a high-incidence area for esophageal and gastric cancers.
Victor T, Du Toit R, Jordaan AM, Bester AJ, van Helden PD
Cancer research. 1990 ; 50 (16) : 4911-4914.
PMID 2199031
Preferential and novel activation of H-ras in human bladder carcinomas.
Visvanathan KV, Pocock RD, Summerhayes IC
Oncogene research. 1988 ; 3 (1) : 77-86.
PMID 3144694


This paper should be referenced as such :
Watzinger, F ; Lion, T
HRAS (Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 1999;3(2):63-65.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version :

Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 18 ]
  Thyroid: Anaplastic (undifferentiated) carcinoma
Bladder: Urothelial carcinomas
Breast tumors : an overview
Bone: Chordoma
Colon: Colorectal adenocarcinoma
Bone: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma
Breast: Ductal carcinoma
Soft Tissues: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma
Head and Neck: Epidermoid carcinoma
Head and Neck: Iris Hamartomas
Thyroid: Medullary carcinoma
Ovary: Epithelial tumors
Soft Tissues: Rhabdomyosarcoma
Skin: Melanoma
Testis: Spermatocytic seminoma
Skin: Spitz tumors
Thyroid: Papillary carcinoma with inv(10)(p12.1q11.2) ACBD5/RET
RNH1/HRAS (11p15)

External links

Genomic and cartography
Gene and transcription
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
BioGPS (Tissue expression)3265
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Protein Interaction databases
Ontologies - Pathways
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
canSAR (ICR) (select the gene name)
Other database
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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indexed on : Thu Oct 18 17:38:59 CEST 2018

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