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MIER1 (mesoderm induction early response 1 homolog (Xenopus laevis))

Written2011-09Laura L Gillespie, Gary D Paterno
Terry Fox Cancer Research Labs, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St John's, NL, Canada
This article is an update of :
2009-12Laura L Gillespie, Gary D Paterno
Terry Fox Cancer Research Labs, Division of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St John's, NL, Canada

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)ER1
HGNC Alias symbhMI-ER1
HGNC Previous name"mesoderm induction early response 1 homolog (Xenopus laevis)
 mesoderm induction early response 1, transcriptional regulator"
LocusID (NCBI) 57708
Atlas_Id 50389
Location 1p31.3  [Link to chromosome band 1p31]
Location_base_pair Starts at 66924990 and ends at 66988619 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping MIER1.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
MIER1 (1p31.3) / DNM3 (1q24.3)MIER1 (1p31.3) / LEPR (1p31.3)MIER1 (1p31.3) / MIER1 (1p31.3)
Note MIER1 was identified by differential display as an immediate-early gene activated during fibroblast growth factor (FGF) induction of mesoderm differentiation in Xenopus laevis.


  A. Schematic illustrating the exon-intron organization of the human MIER1 gene. Exons are shown as red bars/vertical lines and introns as horizontal lines; exon numbers are indicated below each schematic. The light red bar indicates the facultative intron 16 and the position of the alpha and beta carboxy-terminal coding regions are indicated. Note that the beta coding region is located within the facultative intron. The three alternate starts of translation, ML-, MF- and MAE- are indicated as are the three polyadenylation signals (PAS): i, ii and iii. B. Schematic illustrating the variant 5' and 3' ends of human MIER1 transcripts. Alternate 5' ends are generated from differential promoter usage (P1 or P2) or alternate inclusion of exon 3A. This leads to three alternate starts of translation, indicated as ML-, MF- and MAE-, and produces three distinct amino termini. The four variant 3' ends, a, bi, bii and biii, produced by alternative splicing or alternate PAS usage, result in transcripts readily distinguished by size (1.7 kb, 2.5 kb, 3.4 kb and 4.8 kb, respectively) on a Northern blot. It should be noted that three of the variant 3' ends, bi, bii and biii encode the same protein sequence and differ only in their untranslated region. * indicates beta encoding transcript that contains the alpha exon in its 3'UTR. The locations of the alpha and beta carboxy-terminal coding regions and PAS i, ii and iii are indicated. The combination of three possible 5' ends with four possible 3' ends gives rise to 12 distinct transcripts, but only 6 distinct protein isoforms. In most adult tissues, the most abundant transcript is 4.8 kb. Additional transcripts have been reported in Ensembl.
Description 63 kb gene; 2 promoters controlling 2 distinct transcriptional start sites; 17 exons; intron 16 is facultative; 3 polyadenylation sites.


  Schematic illustrating the common internal domains of the MIER1 isoforms and the variant amino- (N-) and carboxy- (C-) termini. Transcription from the P1 promoter produces proteins that either begin with M-L- or with the sequence encoded by exon 3A (MFMFNWFTDCLWTLFLSNYQ). Transcription from the P2 promoter produces a protein that begins with M-A-E-. The variant N-termini of the MIER1 isoforms are followed by common internal sequence containing several distinct domains: acidic, which function in transcriptional activation (Paterno et al., 1997); ELM2, responsible for recruitment of HDAC1 (Ding et al., 2003); SANT, which interacts with Sp1 (Ding et al., 2004) and PSPPP, which is required for MIER1 activity in the Xenopus embryo (Teplitsky et al., 2003). The two alternate C-termini, alpha and beta, result from removal or inclusion and read-through of intron 16, respectively. The alpha C-terminus contains a classic LXXLL motif for interaction with nuclear receptors; the beta C-terminus contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS).
Description The six human MIER1 isoforms: M-3A-alpha (457 aa), M-3A-beta (536 aa), ML-alpha (432 aa), ML-beta (511 aa), MAE-alpha (433 aa), and MAE-beta (512 aa), range in predicted molecular size from 47.5 kDa-59 kDa; however all isoforms migrate slower than predicted on SDS-PAGE, with calculated molecular sizes ranging 78 kDa-90 kDa.
Expression MIER1beta protein is expressed ubiquitously, while MIER1alpha protein is expressed mainly in a subset of endocrine organs and endocrine responsive tissues, including the pancreatic islets, adrenal glands, testis, ovary, hypothalamus, pituitary, parafollicular cells of the thyroid and mammary ductal epithelium.
Localisation MIER1beta is nuclear in all adult cell types but is retained in the cytoplasm of the pre-gastrula Xenopus embryo. MIER1alpha is cytoplasmic in most cell types, but localized in the nucleus in normal mammary ductal epithelium. During progression to invasive breast carcinoma, its subcellular localization shifts from nuclear to exclusively cytoplasmic.
Function MIER1alpha and beta function in transcriptional repression by at least two distinct mechanisms: recruitment and regulation of chromatin modifying enzymes, including HDAC1, HDAC2, CBP and G9a; interaction with transcription factors, such as Sp1 and ERalpha, to repress transcription of their respective target genes. MIER1alpha inhibits estrogen-stimulated anchorage-independent growth of breast carcinoma cells.
Homology The MIER1 gene family contains two other members, MIER2 and MIER3. The MIER1 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, frog, zebrafish, fruit fly, and C. elegans.

Implicated in

Entity Breast cancer
Note Initial studies showed that total MIER1 mRNA levels were increased in breast carcinoma cell lines and tumour samples (Paterno et al., 1998); in a more recent study, no consistent difference in MIER1alpha protein expression levels between normal breast and tumour samples was detected (McCarthy et al., 2008). Immunohistochemical analysis of patient biopsies revealed that MIER1alpha protein is expressed primarily in ductal epithelial cells in normal breast tissue, with little or no expression in the surrounding stroma; in breast carcinoma samples, its expression is restricted to tumour cells. While there is no difference in expression levels, the subcellular localization of MIER1alpha changes dramatically during tumour progression: MIER1alpha is nuclear in 75% of normal breast samples and in 77% of hyperplasia, but in breast carcinoma, only 51% of ductal carcinoma in situ, 25% of invasive lobular carcinoma and 4% of invasive ductal carcinoma contained nuclear MIER1alpha (McCarthy et al., 2008). This shift from nuclear to cytoplasmic localization of MIER1alpha during breast cancer progression suggests that loss of nuclear MIER1alpha contributes to the development of invasive breast carcinoma. MIER1alpha inhibits ERalpha transcriptional activity and overexpression of MIER1alpha in breast carcinoma cells inhibits estrogen-stimulated anchorage-independent growth (McCarthy et al., 2008).


Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.
Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villen J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC, Gygi SP.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 17;101(33):12130-5. Epub 2004 Aug 9.
PMID 15302935
The transcriptional cofactor MIER1-beta negatively regulates histone acetyltransferase activity of the CREB-binding protein.
Blackmore TM, Mercer CF, Paterno GD, Gillespie LL.
BMC Res Notes. 2008 Aug 22;1:68.
PMID 18721470
The SANT domain of human MI-ER1 interacts with Sp1 to interfere with GC box recognition and repress transcription from its own promoter.
Ding Z, Gillespie LL, Mercer FC, Paterno GD.
J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 2;279(27):28009-16. Epub 2004 Apr 26.
PMID 15117948
Differential nuclear localization of ER1 protein during embryonic development in Xenopus laevis.
Luchman HA, Paterno GD, Kao KR, Gillespie LL.
Mech Dev. 1999 Jan;80(1):111-4.
PMID 10096069
Changes in subcellular localisation of MI-ER1 alpha, a novel oestrogen receptor-alpha interacting protein, is associated with breast cancer progression.
McCarthy PL, Mercer FC, Savicky MW, Carter BA, Paterno GD, Gillespie LL.
Br J Cancer. 2008 Aug 19;99(4):639-46. Epub 2008 Jul 29.
PMID 18665173
Phosphoproteome analysis of the human mitotic spindle.
Nousiainen M, Sillje HH, Sauer G, Nigg EA, Korner R.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 4;103(14):5391-6. Epub 2006 Mar 24.
PMID 16565220
Genomic organization of the human mi-er1 gene and characterization of alternatively spliced isoforms: regulated use of a facultative intron determines subcellular localization.
Paterno GD, Ding Z, Lew YY, Nash GW, Mercer FC, Gillespie LL.
Gene. 2002 Jul 24;295(1):79-88.
PMID 12242014
Nuclear localization signals in the Xenopus FGF embryonic early response 1 protein.
Post JN, Gillespie LL, Paterno GD.
FEBS Lett. 2001 Jul 27;502(1-2):41-5.
PMID 11478945
Developmentally regulated cytoplasmic retention of the transcription factor XMI-ER1 requires sequence in the acidic activation domain.
Post JN, Luchman HA, Mercer FC, Paterno GD, Gillespie LL.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005 Feb;37(2):463-77.
PMID 15474990
Proline365 is a critical residue for the activity of XMI-ER1 in Xenopus embryonic development.
Teplitsky Y, Paterno GD, Gillespie LL.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Sep 5;308(4):679-83.
PMID 12927772
Cloning and characterization of the mouse ortholog of mi-er1.
Thorne LB, Grant AL, Paterno GD, Gillespie LL.
DNA Seq. 2005 Jun;16(3):237-40.
PMID 16147882
Protein expression of the transcriptional regulator MI-ER1 alpha in adult mouse tissues.
Thorne LB, McCarthy PL, Paterno GD, Gillespie LL.
J Mol Histol. 2008 Feb;39(1):15-24. Epub 2007 Jul 11.
PMID 17622490
Atrophin recruits HDAC1/2 and G9a to modify histone H3K9 and to determine cell fates.
Wang L, Charroux B, Kerridge S, Tsai CC.
EMBO Rep. 2008 Jun;9(6):555-62. Epub 2008 May 2.
PMID 18451879


This paper should be referenced as such :
Gillespie, LL ; Paterno, GD
MIER1 (mesoderm induction early response 1 homolog (Xenopus laevis))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2012;16(2):127-130.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
History of this paper:
Gillespie, LL ; Paterno, GD. MIER1 (mesoderm induction early response 1 homolog (Xenopus laevis)). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(10):915-917.

External links

HGNC (Hugo)MIER1   29657
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)MIER1    MIER1 transcriptional regulator
AliasesER1; MI-ER1
GeneCards (Weizmann)MIER1
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000198160 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000198160 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000198160 [Sequence]  chr1:66924990-66988619 [Contig_View]  MIER1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000198160
TCGA cBioPortalMIER1
Genatlas (Paris)MIER1
SOURCE (Princeton)MIER1
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)MIER1
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)MIER1  -     chr1:66924990-66988619 +  1p31.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)MIER1  -     1p31.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathMIER1 - 1p31.3 [CytoView hg19]  MIER1 - 1p31.3 [CytoView hg38]
genome Data Viewer NCBIMIER1 [Mapview hg19]  
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB046830 AF515446 AF515447 AF515448 AK302061
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001077700 NM_001077701 NM_001077702 NM_001077703 NM_001077704 NM_001146110 NM_001146111 NM_001146112 NM_001146113 NM_001278215 NM_001350530 NM_020948
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)MIER1
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000198160
Gene ExpressionMIER1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   MIER1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   MIER1 [ SEEK ]   MIER1 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)MIER1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of MIER1 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)57708
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)MIER1
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000198160-MIER1 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Conserved Domain (NCBI)MIER1
Blocks (Seattle)MIER1
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000198160-MIER1 [tissue]
IPIIPI00477825   IPI00478280   IPI00479032   IPI00655845   IPI00646985   IPI00656089   IPI00655630   IPI00656079   IPI00433492   IPI00925194   IPI00927624   IPI00640919   IPI00655783   
Protein Interaction databases
Ontologies - Pathways
PubMed44 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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