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MIR135A1 (microRNA 135a-1)

Written2014-02Alfons Navarro, Marina Díaz-Beyá, Mariano Monzó
Molecular Oncology, Embryology Laboratory, Human Anatomy Unit, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (AN, MM); Hematology Department, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain (MDB)

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesMIRN135-1
MIRN135A1
microRNA 135-1
Alias_symbol (synonym)hsa-mir-135-1
hsa-mir-135a-1
Other alias
HGNC (Hugo) MIR135A1
LocusID (NCBI) 406925
Atlas_Id 50328
Location 3p21.1  [Link to chromosome band 3p21]
Location_base_pair Starts at 52294219 and ends at 52294308 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping MIR135A1.png]
Local_order Genes flanking MIR135A1 oriented from centromere to telomere on 3p21.1:
- PHF7: PHD finger protein 7, 3p21.1
- BAP1: BRCA1 associated protein-1 (ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase), 3p21.31-p21.2
- DNAH1: dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 1, 3p21.1
- MIR135A1
- GLYCTK-AS1: GLYCTK Antisense RNA 1 (Non-protein coding), 3p21.1
- GLYCTK: glycerate kinase, 3p21.1
- TCONS_00006853; lnc-GLYCTK-1, 3p21.1
- WDR82: WD repeat domain 82, 3p21.2
- MIRLET7G: microRNA let-7g, 3p21.1.
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)

DNA/RNA

 
  A. Stem-loop structure of hsa-mir-135a-1. B. Genomic location of MIR135A 1 and its host genes.
Description The gene is located in the intron 1 of GLYCTK-AS1/RP11 gene (sense) and in the exon 4 of GLYCTK (antisense). The precursor length is 90 nt.
Transcription The transcription of miR-135a is regulated by FOXM1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (Liu et al., 2012).
BMP2 inhibits miR-135a expression during osteoblast differentiation (Li et al., 2008).
Pseudogene No reported pseudogenes.

Protein

Note MicroRNAs are not translated into amino acids.

Mutations

Note Deletions of miR-135a-1 gene have been described in medulloblastomas, where 16/48 (33%) of medulloblastoma patients had a deletion of miR-135a-1 gene (Lv et al., 2012).

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Cancer
  
  
Entity Colorectal cancer (CRC)
Note Interestingly, treating CRC cell lines with mistletoe lecitin-I, degrades precursor of some microRNAs, including pre-mir-135a, thus dowregulating miR-135 and upregulating APC and increasing beta-catenin phosphorylation (Li et al., 2011).
Prognosis A prognostic miRNA signature composed of miR-135a, miR-21, miR-335, miR-206 and let-7a was useful to detect the presence of metastasis (Vickers et al., 2012).
Oncogenesis Oncogene.
miRNA expression: Overexpression among colorectal adenome and carcinome in comparison with normal tissue. miR-135 family (miR-135a and miR-135b) overexpression during CRC progression (in patients) (Nagel et al., 2008). Consistently, a study comparing patient samples, healthy controls and cell lines showed overexpression in CRC samples (Zhou et al., 2012). Another study also showed overexpression associated with progression and metastasis (Vickers et al., 2012).
Targets: Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) (Nagel et al., 2008). Metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) (Zhou et al., 2012).
Function: miR-135a and miR-135b inhibits APC translation (independently of mutational status of APC) activating downstream Wnt pathway activity and induce beta-catenin signaling (Nagel et al., 2008). In CRC cell lines, miR-135a overexpression increased proliferation and promoted mobility and invasion in part by targeting MTSS1 (Zhou et al., 2012).
  
  
Entity Gastric cancer
Oncogenesis Tumor suppressor (Wu H et al., 2012).
miRNA expression: Downregulation in gastric cancer patient samples in comparison with adjacent normal tissue.
Targets: JAK2 (Janus kinase 2)
Function: miR-135a overexpression produces downregulation of JAK2 levels reducing cell proliferation and colony formation. It also reduces p-STAT3 (phospho signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) activation and cyclin D1 and Bcl-x (BCL2-like1).
  
  
Entity Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
Prognosis In a cohort of 50 patients, overexpression of miR-135a identified a group of patients with worse OS end DFS among patients with PVTT.
Oncogenesis Oncogene (Liu et al., 2012).
miRNA expression: Overexpression of miR-135a in samples from HCC with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) - that is considered a special type of HCC metastasis - compared with parenchyma tumor nodes.
Targets: MTSS
Function: miR-135a promotes invasion and metastasis in vitro and in mouse models of HCC. Reducing miR-135a leads to reduced PVTT. The transcription of miR-135a is regulated by FOXM1.
  
  
Entity Breast cancer
Oncogenesis Oncogene (Chen et al., 2012).
miRNA expression: Overexpression in metastasic breast tumors in comparison with benign tumor patient samples. Upregulation in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line BT 549 in comparison with other breast cancer cell lines.
Targets: HOXA10 (homeobox A10).
Function: miR-135a promotes the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells at least in part through HOXA10.
  
  
Entity Malignant glioma
Oncogenesis Tumor suppressor (Wu S et al., 2012).
miRNA expression: Downregulated in glioma in comparison with normal glia. miRNA-135a correlated negatively with the pathological grading of human glioma tissue samples.
Targets: STAT6 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 6), SMAD5 (SMAD family member 5), BMPR2 (bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II).
Function: miR-135a selectively induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of malignant glioma by targeting various genes (STAT6, SMAD5, BMPR2). Interestingly it doesn't affect normal glia cells.
  
  
Entity Lung cancer
Oncogenesis Tumor suppressor (Cheng et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2013).
miRNA expression: miR-135a/b downregulated in the cisplatin-resistant cell line A549R compared with the cisplatin-sensitive A549 cell line (Zhou, Qiu et al. 2013)
Targets: MCL1 (myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1) (Zhou et al., 2013), CD133 (Cheng et al., 2013).
Function: Overexpression of miR-135a/b reduced MCL1 and sensitized cell lines to cisplatin by modulation of apoptosis (Zhou et al., 2013). miR-135a/b suppressed CD133 only in CD133 with binding polymorphism rs2240688 CC or CA but not in genotype AA (Cheng et al., 2013).
  
  
Entity Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL)
Prognosis In a cohort of 89 cHL patients, low miR-135a was associated with a higher risk of relapse and worse disease free survival.
Oncogenesis Tumor suppressor (Navarro et al., 2008; Navarro et al., 2009).
miRNA expression: Downregulated miR-135a in cHL patient lymph nodes in comparison with reactive non-tumor lymph nodes used as control.
Targets: JAK2.
Function: Overexpression of miR-135a increases apoptosis and decreases cellular growth in HL cell lines through regulation of JAK/STAT pathway and activation BcL-xL expression.
  
  
Entity Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
Prognosis In a cohort of 85 intermediate risk AML (IR-AML) patients (later extended to 238 IR-AML patients), low expression of miR-135a identified a group of patients with a higher risk of relapse - both in the entire cohort and also within the unfavourable molecular subgroup (FLT3-ITD or wild-type NPM and CEBPA) (Díaz-Beyá et al., 2014).
Oncogenesis Tumor suppressor.
  
  
Entity Renal cell carcinoma
Oncogenesis Tumor suppressor (Hidaka et al., 2012).
miRNA expression: Lower expression of miR-135a observed in 10 cancer tissue samples compared to 5 adjacent non-cancer tissue samples.
Function: Effect on cell proliferation, where the miR-135a overexpression reduces cell viavility.
  
  
Entity Cervival cancer cell
Oncogenesis Oncogene (Leung et al., 2014).
miRNA expression: miR-135a is overexpressed in cervical squamous cell carcinoma in comparison with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (precancerous lesions).
Targets: SIAH1 (in cervical cancer cells and cervical epithelial cells).
Function: Overexpression of miR-135a induced increased colony formation, anchorage-independent growth, and proliferation, cell-invasion and migration in cervical cancer cell lines. The inhibition of miR-135a on SIAH1 led to upregulation of beta-catenin activity, indicating that miR-135a induces transformation and enhances tumor growth. The authors analyzed the miR-135a-induced malignant transformation activity in cell lines with or without human papiloma virus (HPV) proteins (E6 and E7) and concluded that these proteins are necessary for miR-135a oncogenic activity. Also in xenografts, miR-135a improved the growth of cancer cells and the tumorigenic activity of HPV cells.
  
  
Entity Various tumor cell lines (HeLa cervical carcinoma, SW480 colon cancer, A375 melanoma, PANC-1 pancreatic tumor, and 293 epithelial kidney cells)
Note FAK is overexpressed in many cancers.
Oncogenesis Tumor suppressor (Golubovskaya et al., 2014).
Targets: FAK (focal adhesion kinase).
Function: miR-135a overexpression decreased FAK mRNA and protein levels, decreased cell invasion and increased sensitivity to doxorubicin, 5-fluorouacil and FAK inhibitor Y15.
  
  
Entity Various tumor cell lines
Oncogenesis Oncogene (Holleman et al., 2011).
miRNA expression: miR-135a levels were significantly upregulated in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian, lung, uterine, breast and prostate tumor cells lines derived from A549, PC-14, MCF-7, PC-3, SKOV-3 and MES-SA.
Targets: APC.
Function: miR-135a upregulation in vitro and in vivo is associated with paclitaxel resistance. Anti-miR-135a treatment in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer xenografts restored sensitivity to paclitaxel, in part through the direct inhibition of APC expression.
  
  
Entity Metabolism
  
  
Entity Diabetes
Note miRNA expression: Overexpression in diabetic human and mouse skeletal muscle.
Targets: IRS2 (insulin receptor substrate 2).
Function: miR-135a inhibits IRS2, thus reducing glucose uptake into the cell. miR-135a overexpression attenuates insulin signaling and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. In vivo, silencing miR-135a decreases hyperglicemia (Agarwal et al., 2013).
  
  
Entity Essential hypertension, renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system
Note Targets: NR3C2 (mineral corticoid receptor).
Function: In Hela cells, overexpression of miR-135a and miR-124 downregulates NR3C2 protein, indicating a role in the regulation of blood pressure (Sõber et al., 2010).
  
  
Entity Corticoid dependent stress response
Note Targets: NR3C2 (mineral corticoid receptor, other alias MR)
Function: In a mouse model, downregulation of miR-135a and miR-124 in amygdale after two hours of stress stimulus. Stress reaction by activation of corticosteroid signaling through NR3C2R. miR-135a and miR-124 are thus important components of the stress signaling response in the brain (Mannironi et al., 2013).
  
  
Entity Development, congenital disease and others
  
  
Entity Cryptorchid testis
Note miRNA expression: In rat models, low expression of miR-135a in undescended testis in comparison with that in contralateral normal testis. Higher miR-135a expression in the testes than in other organs. miR-135a is detected in spermatogonial stem cells.
Targets: FoxO1 (forehead box protein O1).
Functions: miR-135a contributes to spermatogonial stem cell maintenance through modulation of FoxO1 (Moritoki et al., 2014).
  
  
Entity Endometriosis
Note miRNA expression: Overexpressed in endometriosis in comparison with normal endometrial tissue (50 controls and 32 women with endometriosis).
Targets: HOXA10 (homeobox A10).
Function: miR135a expression in controls was increased during the proliferative phase, decreased at the time of ovulation, and increased during the luteal phase (Petracco et al., 2011).
  
  
Entity Osteogenesis
Note miRNA expression: Very low levels in differentiated osteoblast, downregulated during BMP2-mediated osteogenic differentiation.
Targets: SMAD5.
Function: miR-135a suppresses osteogenesis and inhibits differentiation of osteoprogenitors and the osteogenic phenotype in pluripotent cells by attenuating SMAD5. BMP2 inhibits miR-135a expression and permits osteoblast differentiation (Li et al., 2008).
  
  
Entity Muscle differentiation (myogenesis) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)
Note miRNA expression: miR-135a is upregulated during myogenic differentiation. Overexpression of miR-135a is observed when the myoblasts are differentiated in human samples, cell lines and mouse model (Greco et al., 2009). miR-135a is part of the DMD miRNA signature (Greco et al., 2009) and is overexpressed in Duchenne muscle (Cesana et al., 2011).
Targets: MEF2C (myocyte enhancer factor 2C) (Cesana et al., 2011).
Function: Critical in myogenesis by targeting MEF2C. miR-135a inhibits MEF2C, leading to inhibition of muscle genes. LincRNA MD1 sponges miR-135a, allowing transcription of muscle genes. LincRNA MD1 is reduced in Duchenne muscle cells, so miR-135a is overexpressed and MEFC2 is downregulated (Cesana et al., 2011).
  
  
Entity Preimplantation embryo development
Note miRNA expression: Overexpressed in mouse zygote and decreased thereafter, indicating that it is a zygote-specific miRNA.
Targets: SIAH1A (E3 ubiquitin ligase seven in absentia homolog 1A).
Function: miR-135a modulates the first cell cleavage through regulation of Siah1a. When miR-135a is inhibited, first cell cleavage is suppressed. mir-135a regulates proteosomal degradation (Pang et al., 2011).
  
  
Entity Mouse embryonic stem cells
Note miRNA expression: Upregulated during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.
Targets: SIRT1 (sirtuin 1).
Function: Together with miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-9, miR-204 and miR-199b, miR-135a suppressed SIRT1 protein expression during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation (Saunders et al., 2010).
  
  
Entity Bovine blastocyst development
Note miRNA expression: miR-135a is part of a downregulated miRNA signature in more mature stage (Goossens et al., 2013).
  
  
Entity Megakaryocytopoiesis
Note miRNA expression: A comparison between differentiated megakaryocytes with AML megakaryocytic cell lines found miR-135a higher in AML samples (Garzon et al., 2006).
  
  
Entity Hypoxia
Note miRNA expression: Downregulation of miR-135a (and miR199a-5p) in response to hypoxia.
Targets: FLAP (5-lipoxygenase activating protein) (Gonsalves and Kalra, 2010).
  

Bibliography

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Hypoxia-mediated expression of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein involves HIF-1alpha and NF-kappaB and microRNAs 135a and 199a-5p.
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Down-regulation of some miRNAs by degrading their precursors contributes to anti-cancer effect of mistletoe lectin-I.
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A microRNA signature for a BMP2-induced osteoblast lineage commitment program.
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MiR-135a targets JAK2 and inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation.
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PMID 22310976
 
MiR-135a functions as a selective killer of malignant glioma.
Wu S, Lin Y, Xu D, Chen J, Shu M, Zhou Y, Zhu W, Su X, Zhou Y, Qiu P, Yan G.
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PMID 22139076
 
miR-135a/b modulate cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer cell line by targeting MCL1.
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PMID 23640248
 
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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
A Navarro, M Díaz-Beyá, M Monzó_
MIR135A1 (microRNA 135a-1)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2014;18(10):718-723.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/MIR135A1ID50328ch3p21.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)MIR135A1   31520
Cards
AtlasMIR135A1ID50328ch3p21
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)MIR135A1  406925  microRNA 135a-1
AliasesMIRN135-1; MIRN135A1; mir-135a-1
GeneCards (Weizmann)MIR135A1
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000207926 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000207926 [Gene_View]  chr3:52294219-52294308 [Contig_View]  MIR135A1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000207926
TCGA cBioPortalMIR135A1
AceView (NCBI)MIR135A1
Genatlas (Paris)MIR135A1
WikiGenes406925
SOURCE (Princeton)MIR135A1
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)MIR135A1
miRBaseMIR135A1
dbDEMCMIR135A1
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)MIR135A1  -     chr3:52294219-52294308 -  3p21.2   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)MIR135A1  -     3p21.2   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblMIR135A1 - 3p21.2 [CytoView hg19]  MIR135A1 - 3p21.2 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIMIR135A1 [Mapview hg19]  MIR135A1 [Mapview hg38]
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)LM608492
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)MIR135A1
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000207926
Gene ExpressionMIR135A1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   MIR135A1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   MIR135A1 [ SEEK ]   MIR135A1 [ MEM ]
Ggne Eypzession Viewer (FireBrowse)MIR135A1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
BioGPS (Tissue expression)406925
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)MIR135A1
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000207926-MIR135A1 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Conserved Domain (NCBI)MIR135A1
DMDM Disease mutations406925
Blocks (Seattle)MIR135A1
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000207926-MIR135A1 [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
FunCoupENSG00000207926
BioGRIDMIR135A1
STRING (EMBL)MIR135A1
ZODIACMIR135A1
Ontologies - Pathways
Huge Navigator MIR135A1 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease406925
BioCentury BCIQMIR135A1
ClinGenMIR135A1
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD406925
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA164722481
Clinical trialMIR135A1
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)MIR135A1 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed34 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineMIR135A1
EVEXMIR135A1
GoPubMedMIR135A1
iHOPMIR135A1
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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