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MIR331 (microRNA 331)

Written2012-11Keith M Giles, Michael R Epis, Peter J Leedman
Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000, Australia

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)MIRN331
HGNC (Hugo) MIR331
HGNC Alias symbhsa-mir-331
HGNC Previous nameMIRN331
LocusID (NCBI) 442903
Atlas_Id 51220
Location 12q22  [Link to chromosome band 12q22]
Location_base_pair Starts at 95308420 and ends at 95308513 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping MIR331.png]
Local_order Genes flanking MIR331 on 12q22 are:
- VEZT (vezatin)
- METAP2 (methionyl aminopeptidase 2)
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)


  Figure 1: Stem-loop structure of miR-331, with mature miR-331-3p and miR-331-5p sequences highlighted in purple.
Description miR-331 is an intergenic microRNA gene.
Transcription The primary transcript of miR-331 (pri-miR-331) is not currently known.
Pre-microRNA-331 (Precursor microRNA)
Accession: MI0000812
Length: 94 nt
miR-331-3p and miR-331-5p mature sequences are bold.

Mature miR-331-5p
Accession: MIMAT0004700
Length: 22 nt
Sequence: 26 - cuagguauggucccagggaucc - 47

Mature miR-331-3p
Accession: MIMAT0000760
Length: 21 nt
Sequence: 61 - gccccugggccuauccuagaa - 81

Pseudogene No pseudogenes have been reported for miR-331.


Note N/A; microRNAs are not translated.


Note No mutations in MIR331 have been described.

Implicated in

Entity Prostate cancer
Note Five references have suggested a tumour suppressor role for miR-331 in prostate cancer. The first report demonstrated downregulation of miR-331-3p in prostate cancer, and showed that this promoted ERBB-2 expression and AKT activity. Restoring miR-331-3p to prostate cancer cell lines reduced androgen receptor (AR) pathway signaling and PSA expression. Another report confirmed the reduced expression of miR-331-3p in aggressive prostate cancers. Two other studies showed that the RNA-binding protein HuR induces ERBB-2 expression in prostate cancer by preventing the degradation of ERBB-2 mRNA by miR-331-3p, and that miR-331-3p inhibits the growth of prostate cancer cells in part by repressing expression of the deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), an enzyme that controls the activity of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A. In the latter study, an inverse correlation between miR-331-3p and DOHH expression was observed in human prostate cancer tissues. A fifth publication confirmed that miR-331-3p is a prostate cancer tumour suppressor via its regulation of KLK4 expression in prostate cancer cells.
Entity Leukaemia
Note Two references implicate miR-331 in leukaemia. One report showed that the levels of of miR-331-5p were inversely correlated with expression of P-glycoprotein, a drug resistance factor, in leukaemia cell lines with variable resistance to doxorubicin, and that transfection of these cell lines with miR-331-5p increased their sensitivity to doxorubicin. Lower levels of miR-331-5p were also detected in patients following treatment relapse. A second study reported that miR-331 was overexpressed in acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and it was speculated that miR-331 might have roles in haematopoiesis and leukaemogenesis by promoting STAT activation through its regulation of the mRNA target SOCS1.
Entity Gastric cancer
Note One reference has suggested that miR-331-3p is a gastric cancer tumour suppressor. miR-331-3p was downregulated in gastric cancer cell lines, where transient overexpression of miR-331-3p reduced E2F1 expression and blocked cell cycle progression.
Entity Liver cancer
Note Increased circulating levels of miR-331 in a rat model of hepatocarcinogenesis suggest that miR-331 may have utility as a biomarker for the development and/or progression of liver cancer.
Entity Asbestos-related lung cancer
Note One report identified miR-331-3p in a set of overexpressed miRNAs in asbestos-related lung cancer, suggesting that it might have diagnostic use.
Entity Natural killer (NK) cell activation
Note Activation of NK cells by IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21 was shown to regulate expression of specific miRNAs in NK cells, including miR-331-3p. This suggested that miR-331-3p may have a role in the activation of NK cells.
Entity Cerebral ischaemia
Note miR-331 expression in cerebral ischaemia was regulated by the mood stabiliser and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), suggesting that it may have a role in this disease process.


The RNA-binding protein HuR opposes the repression of ERBB-2 gene expression by microRNA miR-331-3p in prostate cancer cells.
Epis MR, Barker A, Giles KM, Beveridge DJ, Leedman PJ.
J Biol Chem. 2011 Dec 2;286(48):41442-54. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.301481. Epub 2011 Oct 4.
PMID 21971048
Regulation of expression of deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), the enzyme that catalyzes the activation of eIF5A, by miR-331-3p and miR-642-5p in prostate cancer cells.
Epis MR, Giles KM, Kalinowski FC, Barker A, Cohen RJ, Leedman PJ.
J Biol Chem. 2012 Oct 12;287(42):35251-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.374686. Epub 2012 Aug 20.
PMID 22908221
Down-regulated miR-331-5p and miR-27a are associated with chemotherapy resistance and relapse in leukaemia.
Feng DD, Zhang H, Zhang P, Zheng YS, Zhang XJ, Han BW, Luo XQ, Xu L, Zhou H, Qu LH, Chen YQ.
J Cell Mol Med. 2011 Oct;15(10):2164-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2010.01213.x.
PMID 21070600
MicroRNA regulation of growth factor receptor signaling in human cancer cells.
Giles KM, Barker A, Zhang PM, Epis MR, Leedman PJ.
Methods Mol Biol. 2011;676:147-63. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60761-863-8_11.
PMID 20931396
miRNA-331-3p directly targets E2F1 and induces growth arrest in human gastric cancer.
Guo X, Guo L, Ji J, Zhang J, Zhang J, Chen X, Cai Q, Li J, Gu Q, Liu B, Zhu Z, Yu Y.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Jul 16;398(1):1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.05.082. Epub 2010 May 16.
PMID 20510161
Post-insult valproic acid-regulated microRNAs: potential targets for cerebral ischemia.
Hunsberger JG, Fessler EB, Wang Z, Elkahloun AG, Chuang DM.
Am J Transl Res. 2012;4(3):316-32. Epub 2012 Jul 25.
PMID 22937209
Identification of microRNA transcriptome involved in human natural killer cell activation.
Liu X, Wang Y, Sun Q, Yan J, Huang J, Zhu S, Yu J.
Immunol Lett. 2012 Apr 30;143(2):208-17.
PMID 22701882
Integrative analysis of microRNA, mRNA and aCGH data reveals asbestos- and histology-related changes in lung cancer.
Nymark P, Guled M, Borze I, Faisal A, Lahti L, Salmenkivi K, Kettunen E, Anttila S, Knuutila S.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011 Aug;50(8):585-97. doi: 10.1002/gcc.20880. Epub 2011 May 11.
PMID 21563230
Circulating microRNAs, possible indicators of progress of rat hepatocarcinogenesis from early stages.
Sukata T, Sumida K, Kushida M, Ogata K, Miyata K, Yabushita S, Uwagawa S.
Toxicol Lett. 2011 Jan 15;200(1-2):46-52. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.10.013. Epub 2010 Oct 28.
PMID 21035526
Gene networks and microRNAs implicated in aggressive prostate cancer.
Wang L, Tang H, Thayanithy V, Subramanian S, Oberg AL, Cunningham JM, Cerhan JR, Steer CJ, Thibodeau SN.
Cancer Res. 2009 Dec 15;69(24):9490-7. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2183.
PMID 19996289
The miRNA-kallikrein axis of interaction: a new dimension in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.
White NM, Youssef YM, Fendler A, Stephan C, Jung K, Yousef GM.
Biol Chem. 2012 Apr 1;393(5):379-89. doi: 10.1515/hsz-2011-0246.
PMID 22505520
miRNA expression profiles in chronic lymphocytic and acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Zanette DL, Rivadavia F, Molfetta GA, Barbuzano FG, Proto-Siqueira R, Silva-Jr WA, Falcao RP, Zago MA.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007 Nov;40(11):1435-40.
PMID 17934639


This paper should be referenced as such :
Giles, KM ; Epis, MR ; Leedman, PJ
MIR331 (microRNA 331)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2013;17(4):269-271.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

External links

HGNC (Hugo)MIR331   31772
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)MIR331  442903  microRNA 331
AliasesMIRN331; hsa-mir-331; mir-331
GeneCards (Weizmann)MIR331
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000199172 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000199172 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000199172 [Sequence]  chr12:95308420-95308513 [Contig_View]  MIR331 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000199172
TCGA cBioPortalMIR331
AceView (NCBI)MIR331
Genatlas (Paris)MIR331
SOURCE (Princeton)MIR331
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)MIR331
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)MIR331  -     chr12:95308420-95308513 +  12q22   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)MIR331  -     12q22   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathMIR331 - 12q22 [CytoView hg19]  MIR331 - 12q22 [CytoView hg38]
genome Data Viewer NCBIMIR331 [Mapview hg19]  
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)LM608730
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)MIR331
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000199172
Gene ExpressionMIR331 [ NCBI-GEO ]   MIR331 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   MIR331 [ SEEK ]   MIR331 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)MIR331 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of MIR331 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)442903
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)MIR331
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000199172-MIR331 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Conserved Domain (NCBI)MIR331
DMDM Disease mutations442903
Blocks (Seattle)MIR331
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000199172-MIR331 [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
Ontologies - Pathways
Huge Navigator MIR331 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease442903
BioCentury BCIQMIR331
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Protein Interactions : CTD442903
Pharm GKB GenePA164722664
Clinical trialMIR331
canSAR (ICR)MIR331 (select the gene name)
DataMed IndexMIR331
PubMed28 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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indexed on : Mon Oct 12 12:46:55 CEST 2020

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