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MSH6 (mutS homolog 6 (E. Coli))

Identity

Other namesGTBP
HSAP
HNPCC5
HGNC (Hugo) MSH6
LocusID (NCBI) 2956
Location 2p16.3
Location_base_pair Starts at 48010221 and ends at 48034092 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]
Local_order Genes flanking MSH6 in centromere to telomere direction on 2p16 are:
HTLF (2p22-p16) (human T-cell leukemia virus enhancer factor)
FBXO11 (2p16.3) (F-box protein 11)
MSH6 (2p16) (mutS homolog 6 (E. coli))
LOC285053 (2p16.3) (similar to ribosomal protein L18a).
KCNK12 (2p22-p21) (potassium channel, subfamily K, member 12).
MSH2 (2p22-p21) (mutS homolog 2, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 1 (E. coli)).

DNA/RNA

Note The genes for MSH2 and MSH6 which form the major mismatch recognition MutSalpha complex functional in the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway are located within 1 Mb of each other. MSH2 and MSH6 may have been produced by duplication of a primordial mutS repair gene.
 
  Exons are represented by gray boxes (in scale) with exon numbers on the bottom. The arrows show the ATG and the stop codons respectively.
Description MSH6 gene maps to NC_000002.10 and spans a region of 23.8 kilo bases.
MSH6 has 10 exons, the sizes being 347, 197, 170, 2545, 266, 119, 89, 155, 200 and 176 bps.
Transcription Human MSH6 gene is transcriptionally upregulated 2.5 fold at late G1/early S phase while the amount of protein remains unchanged during the whole cell cycle.
The promoter region has a high GC content, as well as multiple start sites. Sequence analysis of 3.9 kb of the 5'-upstream region of the MSH6 gene revealed the absence of TATAA- or CAAT-boxes. Seven consensus binding sequences for the ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 were found in the promoter region. This factor is implicated in positioning the RNA polymerase II complex at the transcriptional start sites of promoters lacking TATA- and CAAT-boxes. The proximal promoter region of MSH6 gene also contains several consensus binding sites of the embryonic TEA domain-containing factor ETF. This transcription factor has also been reported to stimulate transcription from promoters lacking the TATA box. In addition, the trancription of MSH6 gene is downregulated by CpG methylation of the promoter region.
Three common polymorphic variants (-557 T G, -448 G A, and -159 C T) of the MSH6 promoter have been identified in which different Sp1 sites were inactivated by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) resulting in altered promoter activity.
Pseudogene No pseudogene has been reported for the MSH6 gene.

Protein

Note Eukaryotic MutSalpha is a heterodimer of the 100-kDa MSH2 and the 160-kDa MSH6 that participates in the mismatch repair pathway. The proteins are required for single base and frameshift mispair specific binding, a result consistent with the finding that tumour-derived cell lines devoid of either protein have a mutator phenotype.
Description The MSH6 protein maps to NP_000170 and has 1360 amino acids. The molecular weight is 152786 Da. The protein contains a highly conserved helix-turn-helix domain associated with a Walker-A motif (an adenine nucleotide and magnesium binding motif) with ATPase activity.
The breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1) product is part of a large multisubunit protein complex of tumor suppressors, DNA damage sensors, and signal transducers. This complex is called BASC, for 'BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex and the mismatch repair protein MSH6 was found to be a part of this complex.
Localisation The subcellular localisation of MSH6 is the nucleus.
Function hMSH6 gene product with hMSH2, hMSH3 gene products play role in strand specific repair of DNA replication errors. Studies show that hMSH2-hMSH6 complex functions in the recognition step of the repair of base-base mismatches or single frameshifts. The ADP/ATP binding domain of the heterodimer and the associated ATPase activity function to regulate mismatch binding as a molecular switch. Both MSH2 and MSH6 can simultaneously bind ATP. The MSH6 subunit contains the high-affinity ATP binding site and MSH2 contains a high-affinity ADP binding site. Stable binding of ATP to MSH6 results in a decreased affinity of MSH2 for ADP, and binding to mispaired DNA stabilizes the binding of ATP to MSH6. Mispair binding encourages a dual-occupancy state with ATP bound to Msh6 and Msh2; following which there is a hydrolysis-independent sliding along DNA. Subsequent steps result in the excision of the mispaired region followed by DNA synthesis and ligation.
Homology H.sapiens: MSH6 (mutS homolog 6 (E. coli)).
C.familiaris: LOC474585 (similar to mutS homolog 6).
M.musculus: Msh6 (mutS homolog 6 (E. coli)).
C.elegans: msh-6 (MSH (MutS Homolog) family).
S.pombe: SPCC285.16c (hypothetical protein).
S.cerevisiae: MSH6 (Mismatch repair protein).
A.thaliana: MSH6 (MSH6).

Mutations

Note The MSH6 gene plays a role in the development of inherited cancers, especially the colorectum and endometrial cancers.
Germinal MSH6 germline mutations have variable penetration. Atypical hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) can result from germline mutations in MSH6; however, disease-causing germline mutations of MSH6 are rare in HNPCC and HNPCC-like families. Other studies have indicated that germline MSH6 mutations may contribute to a subset of early-onset colorectal cancer.
Somatic The involvement of somatic or epigenetic inactivation of hMSH6 is rare in colorectal cancer and missense mutations in MSH6 are often clinically innocuous or have a low penetrance. However, somatic mutations of MSH6 have been shown to confer resistance to alkylating agents such as temozolomide in malignant gliomas in vivo. This concurrently results in accelerated mutagenesis in resistant clones as a consequence of continued exposure to alkylating agents in the presence of defective mismatch repair. Therefore, when MSH6 is inactivated in gliomas, there is a change in status of the alkylating agents from induction of tumour cell death to promotion of neoplastic progression.

Implicated in

Entity hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer
Disease Mutations in the mismatch repair genes MSH2, MSH6, < CC: TXT: MLH1 ID: 149> and PMS2 results in hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, Lynch syndrome). Individuals predisposed to this syndrome have increased lifetime risk of developing colorectal, endometrial and other cancers. The resulting mismatch repair deficiency leads to microsatellite instability which is the hallmark of tumors arising within this syndrome, as well as a variable proportion of sporadic tumors.
Clinically, HNPCC can be divided into two subgroups:
Type I: a young onset age for hereditary colorectal cancer, and carcinoma of the proximal colon.
Type II: patients are susceptible to cancers in tissues such as the colon, uterus, ovary, breast, stomach, small intestine and skin.
Diagnosis of classical HNPCC is based on the Amsterdam criteria:
- 3 or more relatives affected by colorectal cancer, one a first degree relative of the other two;
- 2 or more generation affected;
- 1 or more colorectal cancers presenting before 50 years of age; exclusion of hereditary polyposis syndromes.
  
Entity Turcot Syndrome
Disease Turcot syndrome is a condition whereby central nervous system malignant tumours are associated with familial colorectal cancer. A homozygous mutation in MSH6 has been reported in a family with childhood-onset brain tumour, lymphoma, colorectal cancer, and neurofibromatosis type 1 phenotype.
  
Entity Colorectal cancer.
Disease Mutations in four mismatch repair genes MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2, have been convincingly linked to susceptibility of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)/Lynch syndrome. Of the 500 different HNPCC-associated MMR gene mutations known, approximately 10% are associated with mutations in the MSH6 gene.
  
Entity Endometrial cancer
Disease Germline mutations in the MSH6 gene are often observed in HNPCC-like families with an increased frequency of endometrial cancer. Sequence analysis of the MSH6 coding region revealed the presence of three putative missense mutations in patients with atypical family histories that do not meet HNPCC criteria. MSH6 mutations may contribute to the etiology of double primary carcinomas of the colorectum and endometrium.
  
Entity Ovarian cancer
Disease Late-onset endometrioid type of ovarian cancer can be linked to MSH6 germline mutations.
  
Entity Lung cancer
Disease Early onset lung cancer (before age 50) has been associated with polymorphisms in the MSH6 gene. Cadmium, an environmental and occupational carcinogen associated with lung cancer development was shown to inhibit the ATPase activity of MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer.
  
Entity Breast cancer
Disease Mutations in the MSH6 gene are not usually connected with breast cancer, even when associated with endometrial or colorectal cancer.
  

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)MSH6   7329
Cards
AtlasMSH6ID344ch2p16
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)MSH6  2956  mutS homolog 6
GeneCards (Weizmann)MSH6
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000116062 [Gene_View]  chr2:48010221-48034092 [Contig_View]  MSH6 [Vega]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000116062 [Gene_View]  chr2:48010221-48034092 [Contig_View]  MSH6 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000116062
cBioPortalMSH6
AceView (NCBI)MSH6
Genatlas (Paris)MSH6
WikiGenes2956
SOURCE (Princeton)MSH6
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)MSH6  -     chr2:48010221-48034092 +  2p16   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)MSH6  -     2p16   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
EnsemblMSH6 - 2p16 [CytoView hg19]  MSH6 - 2p16 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIMSH6 [Mapview hg19]  MSH6 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM276300   600678   608089   614350   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK130683 AK293921 AK304735 AK308392 BC004246
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_000179 NM_001281492 NM_001281493 NM_001281494
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)AC_000134 NC_000002 NC_018913 NG_007111 NT_022184 NW_001838769 NW_004929300
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)MSH6
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.445052 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.445052
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0016455
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000116062
Gene ExpressionMSH6 [ NCBI-GEO ]     MSH6 [ SEEK ]   MSH6 [ MEM ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP52701 (Uniprot)
NextProtP52701  [Medical]
With graphics : InterProP52701
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP52701 (Swissvar)
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)DNA_MISMATCH_REPAIR_2 (PS00486)    PWWP (PS50812)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)DNA_mismatch_repair_Msh6    DNA_mismatch_repair_MSH6_C    DNA_mismatch_repair_MutS-lik_N    DNA_mismatch_repair_MutS_C    DNA_mismatch_repair_MutS_clamp    DNA_mismatch_repair_MutS_core    DNA_mismatch_repair_MutS_N    DNA_mmatch_repair_MutS_con_dom    P-loop_NTPase    PWWP_dom   
Related proteins : CluSTrP52701
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)MutS_I (PF01624)    MutS_II (PF05188)    MutS_III (PF05192)    MutS_IV (PF05190)    MutS_V (PF00488)    PWWP (PF00855)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam01624    pfam05188    pfam05192    pfam05190    pfam00488    pfam00855   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)MUTSac (SM00534)  MUTSd (SM00533)  PWWP (SM00293)  
DMDM Disease mutations2956
Blocks (Seattle)P52701
PDB (SRS)2GFU    2O8B    2O8C    2O8D    2O8E    2O8F   
PDB (PDBSum)2GFU    2O8B    2O8C    2O8D    2O8E    2O8F   
PDB (IMB)2GFU    2O8B    2O8C    2O8D    2O8E    2O8F   
PDB (RSDB)2GFU    2O8B    2O8C    2O8D    2O8E    2O8F   
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000116062
Peptide AtlasP52701
HPRD07202
IPIIPI00384456   IPI00106847   IPI01014931   IPI00981928   IPI01013073   IPI00893449   IPI00440122   IPI00893137   IPI00892806   IPI00893025   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P52701
IntAct (EBI)P52701
FunCoupENSG00000116062
BioGRIDMSH6
IntegromeDBMSH6
STRING (EMBL)MSH6
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP52701
Ontology : AmiGOnuclear chromosome  magnesium ion binding  four-way junction DNA binding  meiotic mismatch repair  meiotic mismatch repair  nuclear chromatin  chromatin binding  double-stranded DNA binding  protein binding  protein binding  ATP binding  nucleus  nucleolus  cytoplasm  Golgi apparatus  plasma membrane  ATP catabolic process  ATP catabolic process  DNA repair  mismatch repair  mismatch repair  mismatch repair  reciprocal meiotic recombination  DNA-dependent ATPase activity  determination of adult lifespan  intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage  intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage  response to UV  response to UV  somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes  somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes  somatic recombination of immunoglobulin gene segments  ATPase activity  mismatched DNA binding  mismatched DNA binding  guanine/thymine mispair binding  single guanine insertion binding  single thymine insertion binding  MutSalpha complex  oxidized purine DNA binding  MutLalpha complex binding  methylated histone binding  protein homodimerization activity  intracellular membrane-bounded organelle  ADP binding  maintenance of DNA repeat elements  isotype switching  isotype switching  negative regulation of DNA recombination  positive regulation of helicase activity  intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway  
Ontology : EGO-EBInuclear chromosome  magnesium ion binding  four-way junction DNA binding  meiotic mismatch repair  meiotic mismatch repair  nuclear chromatin  chromatin binding  double-stranded DNA binding  protein binding  protein binding  ATP binding  nucleus  nucleolus  cytoplasm  Golgi apparatus  plasma membrane  ATP catabolic process  ATP catabolic process  DNA repair  mismatch repair  mismatch repair  mismatch repair  reciprocal meiotic recombination  DNA-dependent ATPase activity  determination of adult lifespan  intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage  intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage  response to UV  response to UV  somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes  somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes  somatic recombination of immunoglobulin gene segments  ATPase activity  mismatched DNA binding  mismatched DNA binding  guanine/thymine mispair binding  single guanine insertion binding  single thymine insertion binding  MutSalpha complex  oxidized purine DNA binding  MutLalpha complex binding  methylated histone binding  protein homodimerization activity  intracellular membrane-bounded organelle  ADP binding  maintenance of DNA repeat elements  isotype switching  isotype switching  negative regulation of DNA recombination  positive regulation of helicase activity  intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway  
Pathways : KEGGMismatch repair    Pathways in cancer    Colorectal cancer   
Protein Interaction DatabaseMSH6
DoCM (Curated mutations)MSH6
Wikipedia pathwaysMSH6
Gene fusion - rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP, variants
NCBI Variation ViewerMSH6 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)MSH6
dbVarMSH6
ClinVarMSH6
1000_GenomesMSH6 
Exome Variant ServerMSH6
SNP (GeneSNP Utah)MSH6
SNP : HGBaseMSH6
Genetic variants : HAPMAPMSH6
Genomic VariantsMSH6  MSH6 [DGVbeta]
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalENSG00000116062 
Cancer Gene: CensusMSH6 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICMSH6 
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisMSH6 
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Colon cancer gene variant databases
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - human mismatch repair genes
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Zhejiang University Center for Genetic and Genomic Medicine (ZJU-CGGM)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] 
Diseases
DECIPHER (Syndromes)2:48010221-48034092
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDMSH6
OMIM276300    600678    608089    614350   
MedgenMSH6
NextProtP52701 [Medical]
GENETestsMSH6
Disease Genetic AssociationMSH6
Huge Navigator MSH6 [HugePedia]  MSH6 [HugeCancerGEM]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease2956
DGIdb (Drug Gene Interaction db)MSH6
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneMSH6
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)MSH6
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamMSH6
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD2956
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA184
Drug Sensitivity MSH6
Clinical trialMSH6
Cancer Resource (Charite)ENSG00000116062
Other databases
Other databaseUMD-MSH6 (mutS homolog 6 (E. coli)). Curator: S. Olschwang
Probes
Litterature
PubMed288 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
CoreMineMSH6
GoPubMedMSH6
iHOPMSH6

Bibliography

GTBP, a 160-kilodalton protein essential for mismatch-binding activity in human cells.
Palombo F, Gallinari P, Iaccarino I, Lettieri T, Hughes M, D'Arrigo A, Truong O, Hsuan JJ, Jiricny J
Science (New York, N.Y.). 1995 ; 268 (5219) : 1912-1914.
PMID 7604265
 
Mutations of GTBP in genetically unstable cells.
Papadopoulos N, Nicolaides NC, Liu B, Parsons R, Lengauer C, Palombo F, D'Arrigo A, Markowitz S, Willson JK, Kinzler KW
Science (New York, N.Y.). 1995 ; 268 (5219) : 1915-1917.
PMID 7604266
 
hMSH2 forms specific mispair-binding complexes with hMSH3 and hMSH6.
Acharya S, Wilson T, Gradia S, Kane MF, Guerrette S, Marsischky GT, Kolodner R, Fishel R
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1996 ; 93 (24) : 13629-13634.
PMID 8942985
 
The human mismatch recognition complex hMSH2-hMSH6 functions as a novel molecular switch.
Gradia S, Acharya S, Fishel R
Cell. 1997 ; 91 (7) : 995-1005.
PMID 9428522
 
hMSH2-hMSH6 forms a hydrolysis-independent sliding clamp on mismatched DNA.
Gradia S, Subramanian D, Wilson T, Acharya S, Makhov A, Griffith J, Fishel R
Molecular cell. 1999 ; 3 (2) : 255-261.
PMID 10078208
 
Do MSH6 mutations contribute to double primary cancers of the colorectum and endometrium?
Charames GS, Millar AL, Pal T, Narod S, Bapat B
Human genetics. 2000 ; 107 (6) : 623-629.
PMID 11153917
 
BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures.
Wang Y, Cortez D, Yazdi P, Neff N, Elledge SJ, Qin J
Genes & development. 2000 ; 14 (8) : 927-939.
PMID 10783165
 
Involvement of hMSH6 in the development of hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancer revealed by immunostaining is based on germline mutations, but rarely on somatic inactivation.
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International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2002 ; 97 (5) : 643-648.
PMID 11807791
 
Ovarian cancer of endometrioid type as part of the MSH6gene mutation phenotype.
Suchy J, Kurzawski G, Jakubowska A, Lubi‰Ński J
Journal of human genetics. 2002 ; 47 (10) : 529-531.
PMID 12376742
 
Identification and functional characterization of the promoter region of the human MSH6 gene.
Szadkowski M, Jiricny J
Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 2002 ; 33 (1) : 36-46.
PMID 11746986
 
Regulation of the human MSH6 gene by the Sp1 transcription factor and alteration of promoter activity and expression by polymorphisms.
Gazzoli I, Kolodner RD
Molecular and cellular biology. 2003 ; 23 (22) : 7992-8007.
PMID 14585961
 
MSH6 germline mutations are rare in colorectal cancer families.
Peterlongo P, Nafa K, Lerman GS, Glogowski E, Shia J, Ye TZ, Markowitz AJ, Guillem JG, Kolachana P, Boyd JA, Offit K, Ellis NA
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2003 ; 107 (4) : 571-579.
PMID 14520694
 
MSH6 missense mutations are often associated with no or low cancer susceptibility.
Kariola R, Hampel H, Frankel WL, Raevaara TE, de la Chapelle A, Nystrˆm-Lahti M
British journal of cancer. 2004 ; 91 (7) : 1287-1292.
PMID 15354210
 
Cadmium inhibits mismatch repair by blocking the ATPase activity of the MSH2-MSH6 complex.
Banerjee S, Flores-Rozas H
Nucleic acids research. 2005 ; 33 (4) : 1410-1419.
PMID 15746000
 
A homozygous mutation in MSH6 causes Turcot syndrome.
Hegde MR, Chong B, Blazo ME, Chin LH, Ward PA, Chintagumpala MM, Kim JY, Plon SE, Richards CS
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2005 ; 11 (13) : 4689-4693.
PMID 16000562
 
Lynch syndrome genes.
Peltomˆ§ki P
Familial cancer. 2005 ; 4 (3) : 227-232.
PMID 16136382
 
Inherited susceptibility to colorectal cancer.
Rowley PT
Annual review of medicine. 2005 ; 56 : 539-554.
PMID 15660526
 
Low prevalence of germline hMSH6 mutations in colorectal cancer families from Spain.
Sˆ°nchez de Abajo A, de la Hoya M, Tosar A, Godino J, Fernˆ°ndez JM, Asenjo JL, Villamil BP, Segura PP, Diaz-Rubio E, Caldes T
World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 2005 ; 11 (37) : 5770-5776.
PMID 16270383
 
No MSH6 germline mutations in breast cancer families with colorectal and/or endometrial cancer.
Vahteristo P, Ojala S, Tamminen A, Tommiska J, Sammalkorpi H, Kiuru-Kuhlefelt S, Eerola H, Aaltonen LA, Aittomˆ§ki K, Nevanlinna H
Journal of medical genetics. 2005 ; 42 (4) : page e22.
PMID 15805151
 
The genetics of HNPCC: application to diagnosis and screening.
Abdel-Rahman WM, Mecklin JP, Peltomˆ§ki P
Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. 2006 ; 58 (3) : 208-220.
PMID 16434208
 
Identification and survival of carriers of mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes in colon cancer.
Barnetson RA, Tenesa A, Farrington SM, Nicholl ID, Cetnarskyj R, Porteous ME, Campbell H, Dunlop MG
The New England journal of medicine. 2006 ; 354 (26) : 2751-2763.
PMID 16807412
 
A hypermutation phenotype and somatic MSH6 mutations in recurrent human malignant gliomas after alkylator chemotherapy.
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The multifaceted mismatch-repair system.
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Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology. 2006 ; 7 (5) : 335-346.
PMID 16612326
 
DNA repair and cell cycle control genes and the risk of young-onset lung cancer.
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PMID 17108146
 
Inhibition of Msh6 ATPase activity by mispaired DNA induces a Msh2(ATP)-Msh6(ATP) state capable of hydrolysis-independent movement along DNA.
Mazur DJ, Mendillo ML, Kolodner RD
Molecular cell. 2006 ; 22 (1) : 39-49.
PMID 16600868
 
MSH6 germline mutations in early-onset colorectal cancer patients without family history of the disease.
Pinto C, Veiga I, Pinheiro M, Mesquita B, Jeronimo C, Sousa O, Fragoso M, Santos L, Moreira-Dias L, Baptista M, Lopes C, Castedo S, Teixeira MR
British journal of cancer. 2006 ; 95 (6) : 752-756.
PMID 16940983
 
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Contributor(s)

Written11-2006Sreeparna Banerjee

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Banerjee, S. MSH6 (mutS homolog 6 (E
Coli))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2007;11(3):169-172.
Free online version   Free pdf version   [Bibliographic record ]
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/MSH6ID344ch2p16.html

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