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NDRG2 (NDRG family member 2)

Written2005-06Libo Yao, Lifeng Wang, Jiang Zhang, Na Liu
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, The State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, P.R. China

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias (NCBI)SYLD
KIAA1248
DKFZp781G1938
HGNC:14460
HGNC (Hugo) NDRG2
HGNC Alias symbKIAA1248
SYLD
LocusID (NCBI) 57447
Atlas_Id 41513
Location 14q11.2  [Link to chromosome band 14q11]
Location_base_pair Starts at 21016763 and ends at 21025105 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping NDRG2.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
ATL2 (2p22.2)::NDRG2 (14q11.2)CRYL1 (13q12.11)::NDRG2 (14q11.2)NDRG2 (14q11.2)::BAG6 (6p21.33)
NDRG2 (14q11.2)::CALR (19p13.2)NDRG2 (14q11.2)::DDIT4 (10q22.1)NDRG2 (14q11.2)::ERC1 (12p13.33)
NDRG2 (14q11.2)::KIF3A (5q31.1)NDRG2 (14q11.2)::NDRG2 (14q11.2)NDRG2 (14q11.2)::RABEP1 (17p13.2)
NDRG2 (14q11.2)::RPL38 (17q25.1)NDRG2 (14q11.2)::SEC63 (6q21)NDRG2 (14q11.2)::TRAF4 (17q11.2)
PAPLN (14q24.2)::NDRG2 (14q11.2)

DNA/RNA

Description The gene encompasses 9013 bp of DNA; 16 or 17 exons (the first and second are non-coding).
Transcription Eight splicing mRNAs are found.
  • 2142 bp mRNA; CDS: 174-1289bp ;1113 bp open reading frame
  • 2100 bp mRNA; CDS: 174-1247bp ;1071 bp open reading frame
  • 2033 bp mRNA; CDS: 107-1180bp ;1071 bp open reading frame
  • 2075 bp mRNA; CDS: 107-1222bp ;1113 bp open reading frame
  • 2010 bp mRNA; CDS: 84-1157bp ;1071 bp open reading frame
  • 2052 bp mRNA; CDS: 84-1199bp ;1113 bp open reading frame
  • 2119 bp mRNA; CDS: 151-1266bp ;1113 bp open reading frame
  • 2077 bp mRNA; CDS: 151-1224bp ;1071 bp open reading frame.
  • Protein

    Description 357 amino acids ; another isoform has 371 amino acids ; 40 or 43 kDa ; Thr348 is a Akt phosphorylation site, Ser332 is a PKC teta-phosphorylation site. NDRG2 has the alpha/beta hydrolase fold motif.
    Expression Widely expressed, especially in brain, heart, skeletal muscle and kidney.
    Localisation cytosol
    Function A candidate tumor suppressor gene. Ndrg2 expressed much higher in normal tissues than the tumors (brain, liver, pancreas tissues etc) . Overexpression of ndrg2 can inhibit the proliferation of glioblastoma U373 and U138 cells. NDRG2 upregulation is associated with disease pathogenesis in the human brain. Ndrg2 is expressed during the differentiation of DCs, and the expression is differentially regulated by maturation-inducing stimuli such as LPS and CD40. The expression of ndrg2 in rat frontal cortex was decreased by chronic antidepressant treatment.
    Homology At the amino acid level, human NDRG2 shows 57% identical to NDRG1 and NDRG3, 65% identical to NDRG4-B, 63% identical to NDRG4-Bvar and 61% identical to NDRG4-H respectively. Also human NDRG2 shows 92% identical to mouse NDRG2.

    Implicated in

    Note
      
    Entity Alzheimer's disease
    Disease Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Dementia is a collective name for progressive degenerative brain syndromes, which affect memory, thinking, behavior and emotion. Symptoms may include: 1) lose of memory ; 2) difficulty in finding the right words or understanding what people are saying; 3) difficulty in performing previously routine tasks; 4) personality and mood changes.
    Prognosis The probable outcome is poor. The disorder is usually not acute, but progresses steadily. Total disability is common. Death normally occurs within 15 years, usually from an infection or a failure of other body systems. The duration of illness, from onset of symptoms to death, averages 8 to 10 years
    Hybrid/Mutated Gene NDRG2 is upregulated at both the RNA and protein levels in AD brains. Expression of NDRG2 in affected brains was revealed in : (1) cortical pyramidal neurons, (2) senile plaques and (3) cellular processes of dystrophic neurons. NDRG2 upregulation is associated with disease pathogenesis in the human brain
      
      
    Entity Liver cancers
    Disease Liver cancers are primary liver tumors (hepatoma/hepatocellular carcinoma, bile duct cancer/cholangio-carcinoma) or metastatic liver tumor.
    Oncogenesis Compared with adjacent normal tissues, the expression levels of NDRG2 mRNA in liver cancer tissues reduced significantly, but the mutation in the whole coding region of NDRG2 was not found.
      
      
    Entity Glioblastoma
    Disease Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of the primary brain tumors known collectively as gliomas. These tumors arise from the supporting, glial cells of the brain during childhood and in adults. These growths do not spread throughout the body like other forms of cancer, but cause symptoms by invading the brain.NDRG2 gene was first found in this tissue by using subtraction cloning.
    Oncogenesis Ndrg2 is present at low levels in human GBM tissues and glioblastoma cell lines comparing with normal tissue and cells. Transient transfection exogenous NDRG2 gene will inhibits glioblastoma U373 and U138 cells proliferation.
      
      
    Entity Gastric cancer
    Disease Gastric cancer is the result of cell changes in the lining of the stomach. The most common types of stomach cancer start in the glandular cells of the stomach lining and are known as adenocarcinomas. These are rare cancers that usually start from the cells of the muscle layer of the stomach. The most common type of sarcoma to affect the stomach is a leiomyosarcoma. Another type of sarcoma is a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST).
    Oncogenesis Ndrg2 is present at low level in some stomach cancer tissue and cell lines.
      

    Bibliography

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    Genes & development. 1992 ; 6 (12A) : 2248-2257.
    PMID 1459450
     
    N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation.
    Deng Y, Yao L, Chau L, Ng SS, Peng Y, Liu X, Au WS, Wang J, Li F, Ji S, Han H, Nie X, Li Q, Kung HF, Leung SY, Lin MC
    International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2003 ; 106 (3) : 342-347.
    PMID 12845671
     
    NDRG2 expression and mutation in human liver and pancreatic cancers.
    Hu XL, Liu XP, Lin SX, Deng YC, Liu N, Li X, Yao LB
    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 2004 ; 10 (23) : 3518-3521.
    PMID 15526377
     
    Homocysteine-respondent genes in vascular endothelial cells identified by differential display analysis. GRP78/BiP and novel genes.
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    PMID 8939898
     
    Inhibition of tumor cell growth by RTP/rit42 and its responsiveness to p53 and DNA damage.
    Kurdistani SK, Arizti P, Reimer CL, Sugrue MM, Aaronson SA, Lee SW
    Cancer research. 1998 ; 58 (19) : 4439-4444.
    PMID 9766676
     
    NDRG2: a novel Alzheimer's disease associated protein.
    Mitchelmore C, Büchmann-M&oring; S, Rask L, West MJ, Troncoso JC, Jensen NA
    Neurobiology of disease. 2004 ; 16 (1) : 48-58.
    PMID 15207261
     
    Identification of new genes ndr2 and ndr3 which are related to Ndr1/RTP/Drg1 but show distinct tissue specificity and response to N-myc.
    Okuda T, Kondoh H
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1999 ; 266 (1) : 208-215.
    PMID 10581191
     
    Characterization and expression of three novel differentiation-related genes belong to the human NDRG gene family.
    Qu X, Zhai Y, Wei H, Zhang C, Xing G, Yu Y, He F
    Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 2002 ; 229 (1-2) : 35-44.
    PMID 11936845
     
    N-myc-dependent repression of ndr1, a gene identified by direct subtraction of whole mouse embryo cDNAs between wild type and N-myc mutant.
    Shimono A, Okuda T, Kondoh H
    Mechanisms of development. 1999 ; 83 (1-2) : 39-52.
    PMID 10381566
     
    Loss of N-myc function results in embryonic lethality and failure of the epithelial component of the embryo to develop.
    Stanton BR, Perkins AS, Tessarollo L, Sassoon DA, Parada LF
    Genes & development. 1992 ; 6 (12A) : 2235-2247.
    PMID 1459449
     
    Characterization of the human NDRG gene family: a newly identified member, NDRG4, is specifically expressed in brain and heart.
    Zhou RH, Kokame K, Tsukamoto Y, Yutani C, Kato H, Miyata T
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    A novel gene which is up-regulated during colon epithelial cell differentiation and down-regulated in colorectal neoplasms.
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    PMID 9251681
     

    Citation

    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Yao, L ; Wang, L ; Zhang, J ; Na, Liu N
    NDRG2 (NDRG family member 2)
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2005;9(4):278-279.
    Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]


    External links

    Nomenclature
    HGNC (Hugo)NDRG2   14460
    Cards
    AtlasNDRG2ID41513ch14q11
    Entrez_Gene (NCBI)NDRG2    NDRG family member 2
    AliasesSYLD
    GeneCards (Weizmann)NDRG2
    Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000165795 [Gene_View]
    Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000165795 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000165795 [Sequence]  chr14:21016763-21025105 [Contig_View]  NDRG2 [Vega]
    ICGC DataPortalENSG00000165795
    TCGA cBioPortalNDRG2
    AceView (NCBI)NDRG2
    Genatlas (Paris)NDRG2
    SOURCE (Princeton)NDRG2
    Genetics Home Reference (NIH)NDRG2
    Genomic and cartography
    GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)NDRG2  -     chr14:21016763-21025105 -  14q11.2   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
    GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)NDRG2  -     14q11.2   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
    GoldenPathNDRG2 - 14q11.2 [CytoView hg19]  NDRG2 - 14q11.2 [CytoView hg38]
    ImmunoBaseENSG00000165795
    Genome Data Viewer NCBINDRG2 [Mapview hg19]  
    OMIM605272   
    Gene and transcription
    Genbank (Entrez)AB033074 AF087872 AF159092 AF304051 AK024521
    RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001282211 NM_001282212 NM_001282213 NM_001282214 NM_001282215 NM_001282216 NM_001320329 NM_001354558 NM_001354559 NM_001354560 NM_001354561 NM_001354562 NM_001354564 NM_001354565 NM_001354566 NM_001354567 NM_001354568 NM_001354569 NM_001354570 NM_016250 NM_201535 NM_201536 NM_201537 NM_201538 NM_201539 NM_201540 NM_201541
    Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)NDRG2
    Gene ExpressionNDRG2 [ NCBI-GEO ]   NDRG2 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   NDRG2 [ SEEK ]   NDRG2 [ MEM ]
    Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)NDRG2 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
    GenevisibleExpression of NDRG2 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
    BioGPS (Tissue expression)57447
    GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)NDRG2
    Human Protein AtlasENSG00000165795-NDRG2 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
    Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
    Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
    Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
    Conserved Domain (NCBI)NDRG2
    Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000165795-NDRG2 [tissue]
    HPRD17630
    Protein Interaction databases
    BioGRIDNDRG2
    STRING (EMBL)NDRG2
    ZODIACNDRG2
    Ontologies - Pathways
    Litterature
    PubMed147 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
    GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
    EVEXNDRG2
    REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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    indexed on : Fri Oct 8 21:23:31 CEST 2021

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