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PDE11A (phosphodiesterase 11A)

Written2010-01Rossella Libé, Jérôme Bertherat
INSERM U567, CNRS 8104, Institut Cochin, Service de Maladies Endocriniennes et Metabolique, Hopital Cochin, Paris, France

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)FLJ23693
HGNC (Hugo) PDE11A
HGNC Alias nameDual 3',5'-cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11A
LocusID (NCBI) 50940
Atlas_Id 44448
Location 2q31.2  [Link to chromosome band 2q31]
Location_base_pair Starts at 177623245 and ends at 178072777 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping PDE11A.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
ITGAV (2q32.1)::PDE11A (2q31.2)NFE2L2 (2q31.2)::PDE11A (2q31.2)


Description PDE11A is the most recently discovered PDE enzyme family. In this family, only one gene, PDE11A, has been identified. It is a dual phosphodiesterase that hydrolyzes both cAMP and cGMP.
Transcription Four different isoforms of PDE11A (PDE11A1→A4) have been identified. The longest variant, PDE11A4 is composed of 20 coding exons of varying length, separated by introns, giving the gene a total length of 4441 bps.


Description PDE11A4 is a protein of 104 kDa: it contains two N-terminal GAF domains (between exons 3-12) and one C-terminal catalytic domain (between exons 14-22).
Expression Isoform 1 is present in prostate, pituitary, heart, liver and skeletal muscle. Isoform 2 and 3 are expressed in the testis. Isoform 4 is the only isoform of the enzyme expressed in the adrenal cortex, where it is expressed substantially less than in the prostate.
Localisation Cytoplasm > cytosol.
Function PDE11A enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of both cAMP and cGMP to 5'-AMP and 5'-GMP, respectively. This takes part in the down-regulation of the cAMP and cGMP signaling.
Inactive mutations of the isoform PDE11A4 gene have been identified in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome due to micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. An association of PDE11A4 variants and other neoplasms is suggested since a higher frequency of PDE11A4 missense mutations is observed in patients with macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and testicular tumors than in the controls.
Homology The catalytic domain is conserved among the 4 isoforms of PDE11A.
A high sequence similarity of 42-51% is found within the amino acid sequences of the catalytic regions of PDEs containing a Gaf sequence (i.e. PDE2A, PDE5A, PDE6B, PDE6C, PDE10A and PDE11A).
Gene conserved among species: Pan troglodytes: 98.6%; Canis lupus familiaris: 96.4%; Bos taurus: 95.9%; Mus musculus: 94.6%; Rattus norvegicus: 94.5%; Gallus gallus: 90%; Danio rerio: 90%.


  Non-sense mutations (yellow) and missense mutations (green) described in adrenocortical tumor (PPNAD, AIMAH, ACA and ACC).
Germinal Non sense.
Three PDE11A nonsense mutations leading to a premature stop codon were identified in 3 kindreds with adrenal Cushing syndrome due to micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia.
Other missense mutations (genetic variants) are described in adrenocortical tumor, as macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA), adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and testicular tumors.
Somatic Loss of heterozygosity with loss of wild type allele have been reported in adrenocortical tumor (benign and malignant) with PDE11A4 missense mutations.

Implicated in

Entity Adrenal Cushing syndrome due to micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia
Disease ACTH-independant chronic oversecretion of cortisol due to bilateral adrenal involvement. Pathological examination demonstrates diffuse micronodular hyperaplasia of the cortex of both adrenal. These nodules can be pigmented as observed in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).
Prognosis Morbidity and mortality of non treated Cushing syndrome is high. However after treatment (bilateral adrenalectomy in most cases) there is a clear improvement and the overall prognosis is good, the main side effect of the treatment being adrenal deficiency.
Oncogenesis In the patients with non-sense mutations a loss of the wild type allele was demonstrated in the adrenal nodes, supporting the hypothesis that PDE11A4 is a tumor suppressor gene.
Entity ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH)
Disease AIMAH is a rare form of benign bilateral adrenocortical tumor. It can be associated to an overt Cushing's syndrome (CS). Nowadays, the most frequent clinical presentation is that of bilateral adrenal incidentalomas. The initial endocrine evaluation usually demonstrates subtle abnormalities of cortisol secretion, suggesting a subclinical CS.
Prognosis Morbidity and mortality of non treated Cushing syndrome is high. However after treatment (bilateral adrenalectomy in most cases) there is a clear improvement and the overall prognosis is good, the main side effect of the treatment being adrenal deficiency.
Cytogenetics A higher frequency of missense PDE11A mutations (genetic variants) than in healthy subjects are found.
Oncogenesis The higher frequency of PDE11A missense mutations suggests a role of PDE11A in the genetic predisposition to adrenal tumors.
Entity Testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT)
Disease It is the most common malignancy in Caucasian men aged from 15 to 45 years old. A genetic basis for TGCT is supported by familial clustering, younger-than-usual age at diagnosis, and an increased risk of bilateral disease.
Prognosis More than 90% of patients with newly diagnosed TGCT are cured, and delay in diagnosis correlates with a higher stage at presentation for treatment.
Cytogenetics Recently, PDE11A missense mutations (genetic variants) have been reported in TGCT. The frequency was significantly higher in patients with TGCT than in healthy subjects.
Oncogenesis PDE11A variants are involved in the testicular tumorigenesis and may modify the risk of familial and bilateral TGCT.
Entity Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC)
Disease ACC is a rare malignant tumor, with an estimated prevalence between 4 and 12 per million in adults.
Prognosis The overall survival varies according to tumor stage. However the overall survival is poor and below 30% at 5 years in most series.
Cytogenetics A higher frequency of a polymorphism in exon 6 (E421E) and of three associated polymorphisms located in intron 10-exon 11-intron 11 is found in ACCs than in healthy subjects.
Oncogenesis The synonymous E421E variant and the intron 10/intron 11 variants could play a role in the predisposition to ACC development.


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PMID 18491255
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Cloning and characterization of two splice variants of human phosphodiesterase 11A.
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Nov 7;97(23):12891-5.
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A genome-wide scan identifies mutations in the gene encoding phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A) in individuals with adrenocortical hyperplasia.
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PMID 16767104
A cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE8B) that is mutated in adrenal hyperplasia is expressed widely in human and mouse tissues: a novel PDE8B isoform in human adrenal cortex.
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Eur J Hum Genet. 2008 Oct;16(10):1245-53. Epub 2008 Apr 23.
PMID 18431404
Functional phosphodiesterase 11A mutations may modify the risk of familial and bilateral testicular germ cell tumors.
Horvath A, Korde L, Greene MH, Libe R, Osorio P, Faucz FR, Raffin-Sanson ML, Tsang KM, Drori-Herishanu L, Patronas Y, Remmers EF, Nikita ME, Moran J, Greene J, Nesterova M, Merino M, Bertherat J, Stratakis CA.
Cancer Res. 2009 Jul 1;69(13):5301-6. Epub 2009 Jun 23.
PMID 19549888
Unraveling the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
Horvath A, Stratakis CA.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Jun;15(3):227-33. (REVIEW)
PMID 18438169
Clinical and genetic heterogeneity, overlap with other tumor syndromes, and atypical glucocorticoid hormone secretion in adrenocorticotropin-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia compared with other adrenocortical tumors.
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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Aug;94(8):2930-7. Epub 2009 Jun 9.
PMID 19509103
PDE9A, PDE10A, and PDE11A expression in rat trigeminovascular pain signalling system.
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Brain Res. 2009 Jul 24;1281:25-34. Epub 2009 May 13.
PMID 19445908
Pharmacogenetics studies in STAR*D: strengths, limitations, and results.
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Psychiatr Serv. 2009 Nov;60(11):1446-57.
PMID 19880459
Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) and genetic predisposition to adrenocortical tumors.
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PMID 18559625
3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 11A: localization in human tissues.
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Int J Impot Res. 2005 Jul-Aug;17(4):320-5.
PMID 15800651
ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome with bilateral micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic adrenocortical adenoma.
Louiset E, Gobet F, Libe R, Horvath A, Renouf S, Cariou J, Rothenbuhler A, Bertherat J, Clauser E, Grise P, Stratakis CA, Kuhn JM, Lefebvre H.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;95(1):18-24. Epub 2009 Nov 13.
PMID 19915020
Association of PDE11A global haplotype with major depression and antidepressant drug response.
Luo HR, Wu GS, Dong C, Arcos-Burgos M, Ribeiro L, Licinio J, Wong ML.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:163-70. Epub 2009 Apr 8.
PMID 19557111
Binding of cyclic nucleotides to phosphodiesterase 10A and 11A GAF domains does not stimulate catalytic activity.
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Biochem J. 2009 Oct 12;423(3):401-9.
PMID 19689430
Identification, synthesis and SAR of amino substituted pyrido[3,2b]pyrazinones as potent and selective PDE5 inhibitors.
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Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Aug 1;19(15):4088-91. Epub 2009 Jun 6.
PMID 19540112
Analysis of genetic variants of phosphodiesterase 11A in acromegalic patients.
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Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Nov;161(5):687-94. Epub 2009 Aug 11.
PMID 19671705
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PMID 17544419
Phosphodiesterase 11 (PDE11) regulation of spermatozoa physiology.
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PMID 16094044
New genes and/or molecular pathways associated with adrenal hyperplasias and related adrenocortical tumors.
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PMID 19063937
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Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008 Sep;69(3):367-73. Epub 2008 Apr 14.
PMID 18419788
Variants in PDE11A and PDE1A are not associated with citalopram response.
Teranishi KS, Slager SL, Garriock H, Kraft JB, Peters EJ, Reinalda MS, Jenkins GD, McGrath PJ, Hamilton SP.
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PMID 18706893
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High biochemical selectivity of tadalafil, sildenafil and vardenafil for human phosphodiesterase 5A1 (PDE5) over PDE11A4 suggests the absence of PDE11A4 cross-reaction in patients.
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This paper should be referenced as such :
Libé, R ; Bertherat, J
PDE11A (phosphodiesterase 11A)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(11):1027-1031.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

External links


HGNC (Hugo)PDE11A   8773
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)PDE11A    phosphodiesterase 11A
GeneCards (Weizmann)PDE11A
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000128655 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000128655 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000128655 [Sequence]  chr2:177623245-178072777 [Contig_View]  PDE11A [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000128655
TCGA cBioPortalPDE11A
AceView (NCBI)PDE11A
Genatlas (Paris)PDE11A
SOURCE (Princeton)PDE11A
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)PDE11A
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)PDE11A  -     chr2:177623245-178072777 -  2q31.2   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)PDE11A  -     2q31.2   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathPDE11A - 2q31.2 [CytoView hg19]  PDE11A - 2q31.2 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBIPDE11A [Mapview hg19]  
OMIM604961   610475   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB036704 AB038041 AF281865 AI919276 AJ251509
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001077196 NM_001077197 NM_001077358 NM_016953
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)PDE11A
Gene ExpressionPDE11A [ NCBI-GEO ]   PDE11A [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   PDE11A [ SEEK ]   PDE11A [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)PDE11A [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of PDE11A in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)50940
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)PDE11A
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000128655-PDE11A [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ9HCR9   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ9HCR9  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ9HCR9
Catalytic activity : Enzyme3.1.4.35 [ Enzyme-Expasy ] [ IntEnz-EBI ] [ BRENDA ] [ KEGG ]   [ MEROPS ]
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)PDEASE_I_1 (PS00126)    PDEASE_I_2 (PS51845)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)GAF    GAF-like_dom_sf    HD/PDEase_dom    PDEase    PDEase_catalytic_dom    PDEase_catalytic_dom_sf    PDEase_CS   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)GAF (PF01590)    PDEase_I (PF00233)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam01590    pfam00233   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)GAF (SM00065)  HDc (SM00471)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)PDE11A
AlphaFold pdb e-kbQ9HCR9   
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000128655-PDE11A [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)Q9HCR9
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOcyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity  3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity  3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity  cGMP-stimulated cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity  cGMP-stimulated cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity  cellular_component  cytosol  signal transduction  G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  metabolic process  negative regulation of cGMP-mediated signaling  cGMP binding  negative regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling  metal ion binding  3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity  
Ontology : EGO-EBIcyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity  3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity  3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity  cGMP-stimulated cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity  cGMP-stimulated cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity  cellular_component  cytosol  signal transduction  G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  metabolic process  negative regulation of cGMP-mediated signaling  cGMP binding  negative regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling  metal ion binding  3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity  
Pathways : KEGGPurine metabolism    Morphine addiction   
REACTOMEQ9HCR9 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-418555 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkPDE11A
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkPDE11A
Wikipedia pathwaysPDE11A
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000128655
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamPDE11A
Homologs : HomoloGenePDE11A
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)PDE11A
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanITGAV::PDE11A [2q32.1/2q31.2]  
Fusion : MitelmanNFE2L2::PDE11A [2q31.2/2q31.2]  
Fusion : FusionGDB3.1.4.17   
Fusion : QuiverPDE11A
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerPDE11A [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)PDE11A
Exome Variant ServerPDE11A
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000128655
Varsome BrowserPDE11A
ACMGPDE11A variants
Genomic Variants (DGV)PDE11A [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERPDE11A [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisPDE11A 
ICGC Data PortalPDE11A 
TCGA Data PortalPDE11A 
Broad Tumor PortalPDE11A
OASIS PortalPDE11A [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICPDE11A  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC3DPDE11A
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDPDE11A
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)[gene] [transcripts] [variants]
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)PDE11A
DoCM (Curated mutations)PDE11A
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)PDE11A
NCG (London)PDE11A
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
OMIM604961    610475   
Genetic Testing Registry PDE11A
NextProtQ9HCR9 [Medical]
Target ValidationPDE11A
Huge Navigator PDE11A [HugePedia]
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Protein Interactions : CTDPDE11A
Pharm GKB GenePA33121
Clinical trialPDE11A
DataMed IndexPDE11A
PubMed47 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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