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PTCH1 patched homolog 1 (Drosophila)

Written2000-12Erika Lindström, Rune Toftgœrd
Karolinska Institute, Department of Biosciences, NOVUM, Huddinge, Sweden
This article is an update of :
1999-01Jean-Loup Huret
Genetics, Dept Medical Information, University of Poitiers, CHU Poitiers Hospital, F-86021 Poitiers, France
1997-05Jean-Loup Huret
Genetics, Dept Medical Information, University of Poitiers, CHU Poitiers Hospital, F-86021 Poitiers, France

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias (NCBI)PTC, but this term was confusing with PTC/PKA
PTCH
patched
HGNC (Hugo) PTCH1
HGNC Alias symbBCNS
HGNC Previous nameNBCCS
 PTCH
HGNC Previous namepatched (Drosophila) homolog
 patched homolog (Drosophila)
 patched homolog 1 (Drosophila)
LocusID (NCBI) 5727
Atlas_Id 100
Location 9q22.32  [Link to chromosome band 9q22]
Location_base_pair Starts at 95481827 and ends at 95516971 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping PTCH1.png]
Local_order (between FACC and XPAC PTCH1 is flanked by the microsatellite markers D9S196 and D9S287; a microsatellite marker, 1AJL, is located inside the gene
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
MTRNR2L2 (5q14.1)::PTCH1 (9q22.32)NUDCD3 (7p13)::PTCH1 (9q22.32)PTCH1 (9q22.32)::LUC7L2 (7q34)
PTCH1 (9q22.32)::NEXMIF (Xq13.3)PTCH1 (9q22.32)::PTCH1 (9q22.32)

DNA/RNA

Description 24 exons, exon 24 is non-coding; 34 kb
Transcription alternate splicing: 3 different 5' termini; 6.5 kb mRNA; coding sequence: CDS 1 ... 4344

Protein

Description glycoprotein; 12 transmembrane domains, 2 extra cellular loops, intracellular N-term and C-term and sterol-sensing domain (SSD)
Expression widely expressed at low levels; increased levels in cells receiving a hedgehog signal
Localisation transmembrane protein, cellular membrane, intracellular vesicles
Function part of a signalling pathway; opposed by the gene products of hedgehog genes; transmembrane protein; is thought to have a repressive activity on cell proliferation; the recent demonstration of NBCCS syndrome (see below) as a chromosome instability syndrome suggests that this protein has a role in DNA maintenance, repair and/or replication
Homology patched (drosophila segment polarity gene), PTCH2 (human gene with unknown function)

Mutations

Germinal germ-line mutations lead to protein truncation in naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients (see below); mutations types are variable : nucleotide substitutions (missense/nonsense), small deletions, or small insertions mainly, leading to protein truncation; these mutations have been observed in most exons; there is, so far, no hot-spot.
Somatic mutation and allele loss events in basal cell carcinoma, in NBCCS and in sporadic basal cell carcinoma are, so far, in accordance with the two-hit model for neoplasia, as is found in retinoblastoma; mutation and allele loss have also been found in sporadic , sporadic medulloblastomas and in a few cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; mutations have also been reported in a low frequency of sporadic trichoepitheliomas and in sporadic odontogenic keratocysts

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) or Gorlin syndrome
Disease autosomal dominant condition; cancer prone disease (multiple basal cell carcinomas, medulloblastomas); malformations; it is also a chromosome instability syndrome
Cytogenetics spontaneous and induced chromosome instability
  
  
Entity skin cancers
Disease
  • sporadic basal cell carcinoma, but also in the benign trichoepithelioma, a tumor often associated with basal cell carcinomas
  • sporadic basal cell carcinoma from xeroderma pigmentosum patients have a high frequency of typical UV-induced mutations in PTCH1
  •   
      
    Entity brain diseases
    Disease
  • in a subset of sporadic of the central nervous system (cerebral PNETs, medulloblastomas, and desmoplastic medulloblastomas); note: NBCCS patients have a predisposition for the development of PNETs, while, herein mentioned are sporadic PNETs
  • PTCH1 have also been found mutated in both familiar and sporadic cases of Holoprosencephaly (HPE)
  •   
      
    Entity various cancers and benign tumors
    Disease
  • invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: PTCH1 has been found mutated in rare cases
  • sporadic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
  • jaws: in sporadic odontogenic keratocysts and in odontogenic keratocysts from NBCCS patients
  •   

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    Citation

    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Lindstr
    PTCH1 (patched homolog 1 (Drosophila))
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2001;5(1):16-18.
    Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
    History of this paper:
    Huret, JL. PTCH1 (patched homolog 1 (Drosophila)). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 1997;1(1):1-2.
    http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/bitstream/handle/2042/32018/05-1997-PTCHID100.pdf
    Huret, JL. PTCH1 (patched homolog 1 (Drosophila)). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 1999;3(2):57-58.
    http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/bitstream/handle/2042/32018/05-1997-PTCHID100.pdf


    Other Cancer prone implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 2 ]
      Familial nervous system tumour syndromes Naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCS)


    External links

    Nomenclature
    HGNC (Hugo)PTCH1   9585
    LRG (Locus Reference Genomic)LRG_515
    Cards
    AtlasPTCHID100
    Atlas Explorer : (Salamanque)PTCH1
    Entrez_Gene (NCBI)PTCH1    patched 1
    AliasesBCNS; NBCCS; PTC; PTC1; 
    PTCH
    GeneCards (Weizmann)PTCH1
    Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000185920 [Gene_View]
    Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000185920 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000185920 [Sequence]  chr9:95481827-95516971 [Contig_View]  PTCH1 [Vega]
    ICGC DataPortalENSG00000185920
    TCGA cBioPortalPTCH1
    AceView (NCBI)PTCH1
    Genatlas (Paris)PTCH1
    SOURCE (Princeton)PTCH1
    Genetics Home Reference (NIH)PTCH1
    Genomic and cartography
    GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)PTCH1  -     chr9:95481827-95516971 -  9q22.32   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
    GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)PTCH1  -     9q22.32   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
    GoldenPathPTCH1 - 9q22.32 [CytoView hg19]  PTCH1 - 9q22.32 [CytoView hg38]
    ImmunoBaseENSG00000185920
    Genome Data Viewer NCBIPTCH1 [Mapview hg19]  
    OMIM109400   601309   605462   610828   
    Gene and transcription
    Genbank (Entrez)AB189436 AB189437 AB189438 AB189439 AB189440
    RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_000264 NM_001083602 NM_001083603 NM_001083604 NM_001083605 NM_001083606 NM_001083607 NM_001354918 NM_001354919
    Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)PTCH1
    Gene ExpressionPTCH1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   PTCH1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   PTCH1 [ SEEK ]   PTCH1 [ MEM ]
    Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)PTCH1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
    GenevisibleExpression of PTCH1 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
    BioGPS (Tissue expression)5727
    GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)PTCH1
    Human Protein AtlasENSG00000185920-PTCH1 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
    Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
    Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
    Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
    Conserved Domain (NCBI)PTCH1
    Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000185920-PTCH1 [tissue]
    HPRD03200
    Protein Interaction databases
    BioGRIDPTCH1
    STRING (EMBL)PTCH1
    ZODIACPTCH1
    Ontologies - Pathways
    Litterature
    PubMed305 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
    GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
    EVEXPTCH1
    PTC/PKA"%5BTI%5D%20OR%20"PTCH"%5BTI%5D%20OR%20"patched"%5BTI%5D%20%29%20AND%20REVIEW%5BPT%5D%20AND%20ENGLISH%5BLA%5D&field=titl&dispmax=50>REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    PTC/PKA"%5BTI%5D%20OR%20"PTCH"%5BTI%5D%20OR%20"patched"%5BTI%5D%20%29%20AND%202014:2017[DP]%29&field=titl&dispmax=50>Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

    Search in all EBI   NCBI

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