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SEMA4D (sema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 4D)

Written2008-10John R Basile
Oncology, Diagnostic Sciences University of Maryland, Baltimore Baltimore College of Dental Surgery 650 West Baltimore Street, 7- North Baltimore, Maryland 21201 USA

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesSEMAJ
C9orf164
chromosome 9 open reading frame 164
sema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 4D
Alias_symbol (synonym)CD100
coll-4
FLJ39737
Other aliasA8
BB18
GR3
M-sema-G
OTTHUMP00000021622
HGNC (Hugo) SEMA4D
LocusID (NCBI) 10507
Atlas_Id 42255
Location 9q22.2  [Link to chromosome band 9q22]
Location_base_pair Starts at 89360791 and ends at 89479696 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping SEMA4D.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
C5 (9q33.2) / SEMA4D (9q22.2)SEMA4D (9q22.2) / RGS3 (9q32)SEMA4D (9q22.2) / SEMA4D (9q22.2)

DNA/RNA

Note Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) was originally identified by Hall., et al. (1996) as a cell surface protein important in B and T lymphocyte activation. Its expression is upregulated in lymphocytes in an immune response (Kumanogoh et al., 2000; Wang et al., 2001). Sema 4D is also expressed in other tissues where it is involved in many motility responses (for review: Artigiani et al., 1999), including regulation of axonal growth cone guidance (Swiercz et al., 2002), regulation of cell-cell contacts and branching morphogenesis in epithelium (Giordano et al., 2002), promotion of angiogenesis (Basile et al., 2004; Conrotto et al., 2005; Basile et al., 2006), and growth and metastasis of tumors (for review: Neufeld et al., 2005).
Description The gene for Sema4D is located at 9q22.2-q31, a locus that includes PTCH and the xeroderma pigmentosum gene XPA. Sema 4D corresponds to open reading frame 164 and spans the positions 91,181,972 to 91,260,688 on the minus strand.
Transcription The mRNA is 4,675 bp in length.

Protein

Note Sema4D is 862 amino acids with a predicted mass of 96.15 kd. Experimentally, Sema4D runs at about 150 kd on a Western blot.
 
  Fig. 1: Sema4D is composed of a Sema domain, a Cystine Rich domain, an Immunoglobulin-like domain, a transmembrane segment and a short cytoplasmic tail.
Description The semaphorins have been shown to exert control over the proliferation and activation of lymphocytes (Hall et al., 1996; Kumanogoh et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2001) (for review: Bismuth et al., 2002), promote tumor growth and metastasis (Christensen et al., 1998) (for review: Kreuter et al., 2002) and regulate development of the lungs (Ito et al., 2000) and the heart and vasculature (Behar et al., 1996; Brown et al., 2001; Feiner et al., 2001; Torres-Vazquez et al., 2004). There are more than 20 known semaphorins grouped into eight classes: classes 1 and 2 are invertebrate semaphorins, classes 3 to 7 are found in vertebrates, and an eighth class, class V, has been identified in some non-neurotropic DNA viruses (for review: Semaphorin Nomenclature Committee, 1999).
Sema4D is composed of a Sema domain, a Cystine Rich domain (also called the Plexin Repeat Domain or the Met Related Sequence), an Immunoglobulin-like domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail (Fig. 1). The Sema domain, a seven-bladed beta-propeller similar in topology to integrins (Love et al., 2003), occurs in the semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, as well as in the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor family members Met and RON (for review: Gherardi et al., 2004). The Cystine Rich domain has an unknown function but is found in several different receptors. Three copies of this repeat are found in Plexin-B1, the receptor for Sema4D (Tamagnone et al., 1999), while the Met receptor contains one copy. Immunoglobulin domain family members include components of immunoglobulins and cell surface glycoproteins such as the T-cell receptors CD2, CD4, and CD8. The function of the Sema4D intracellular domain is not known, but it has been associated with a serine kinase activity, suggesting that bi-directional signaling may take place (Elhabazi et al., 1997).
Expression Sema4D is expressed in many tissues including skeletal muscle, blood and bone marrow, lymphoid tissues such as the spleen and thymus, the testes, kidney, small intestine, prostate, heart, placenta, lung, pancreas and the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as in many carcinomas (Basile et al., 2006) and sarcomas (Ch'ng et al., 2007).
Localisation Sema4D is a transmembrane protein bound to the cell surface, though it is sometimes found in a smaller, secreted form (Elhabazi et al., 2001; Basile et al., 2007b; Zhu et al., 2007).
Function Sema4D is expressed on the surface of T, B and dendritic cells and modulates their function through either Plexin-B1 or CD72, a lower affinity receptor for Sema4D found in lymphoid tissues. (Kumanogoh et al., 2000) (for review: Moretti et al., 2006). There is evidence that the HIV-1 Tat protein upregulates the expression of Sema4D in immature dendritic cells, an effect that likely facilitates the expansion of HIV-1 infection (Izmailova et al., 2003). Sema4D also induces collapse of axonal growth cones during neural development and remodeling by binding and activating Plexin-B1 (Oinuma et al., 2004), which is why when many of the semaphorins were first characterized they were referred to as 'collapsins'.
Sema4D is processed into a slightly smaller form that is shed by some cell types. Elhabazi et al. (2001) observed the release of soluble Sema4D from T lymphocytes upon the cleavage of the membrane bound protein at a cysteine residue located immediately adjacent to the transmembrane domain. Zhu, et al. (2007) have demonstrated that platelets express Sema4D, Plexin-B1, and CD72, and that Sema4D is gradually shed from the surface following platelet activation by ADAM17 (also called tumor-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) converting enzyme, or TACE) in a process that promotes formation of a thrombus. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells secrete a soluble form of Sema4D that promotes tumor-induced angiogenesis, in this case cleaved by the membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, also called MMP14) (Basile et al, 2006). Upregulation of the MMPs occurs in cancer cells and has, in fact, been linked to the acquisition of an aggressive, more vascular and more invasive phenotype.
Ligation of plexins by semaphorins initiates a signaling cascade that involves the G-protein-mediated pathways. For example, Plexin-A1 and Plexin-B1 are known to act as R-Ras GAPs (GTPase-activating proteins) when bound by their respective semaphorins (Oinuma et al., 2004). There is also data to suggest that Plexin-B1 may compete for Rac binding with PAK (p21-activated kinase) (Vikis et al., 2002). Therefore, in addition to inhibiting Ras signaling through its Ras GAP activity, Plexin-B1 may sequester Rac and inhibit PAK activation. The Rho specific GEFs (guanine nucleotide-exchange factors) LARG (leukemia-associated RhoGEF) and PRG (PDZ-RhoGEF) bind to the PDZ-binding motif at the C-terminus of Plexin-B1 and mediate activation of the small GTPase RhoA, and subsequently its downstream effector Rho Kinase (ROK), in response to Sema4D ligation (Driessens et al., 2001; Aurandt et al., 2002; Hirotani et al., 2002; Perrot et al., 2002; Swiercz et al., 2002; Basile et al., 2004; Basile et al., 2007a). Indeed, Sema4D-Plexin-B1 binding contributes to coordination of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during organogenesis via modulation of RhoA signaling (Korostylev et al., 2008).
Plexin-B1-mediated signaling begins with phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue in the intracellular Sex-Plex domain upon Sema4D binding (for review: Castellani et al., 2002). However, it was not known how Plexin-B1 or its downstream target proteins are phosphorylated, since Plexin-B1 is devoid of intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. A search for the kinase associated with Plexin-B1 revealed that in MLP29 liver progenitor cells, Plexin-B1 interacted with the extracellular domain of the scatter factor receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met (Giordano et al., 2002). In fact, this Plexin-B1/ c-Met interaction may be responsible for a pro-migratory, angiogenic response observed in Sema4D treated endothelial cells (Conrotto et al., 2005) (Fig. 2A). Sema4D-mediated activation of Plexin-B1 also may promote cell migration by stimulating an intracellular kinase cascade that begins with the recruitment of PDZ RhoGEF and LARG to the C-terminal PDZ binding motif of Plexin-B1. This induces activation of RhoA and ROK and the subsequent phosphorylation and activation of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase PYK2, which then phosphorylates Plexin-B1 in the intracellular Sex-Plex domain in a step necessary for a cellular response (Basile et al., 2005) (Fig. 2B). In this model, signaling proceeds through Src, Akt and ERK and results in reorganization of the cytoskeleton (Basile et al., 2005; Aurandt et al., 2006; Basile et al., 2007a)(Fig. 2B). Interestingly, a recent study has shown that inhibition of migration may be elicited by Sema4D under certain conditions where Plexin-B1 preferentially associates with the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB-2 instead of Met (Swiercz et al., 2008) (Fig. 2C).
 
  Fig. 2: Binding of Sema4D to Plexin-B1 via their Sema domains stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity of Met (A) or ErbB-2 (C), resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of Plexin-B1 in the Sex-Plex domain and initiation of a pro- or anti- migratory response, respectively. Sema4D may also activate an intracellular tyrosine kinase cascade via PDZ RhoGEF or LARG, culminating in a RhoA and ROK-dependent activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase PYK2 (B). In turn, PYK2 tyrosine-phosphorylates Plexin-B1 and activates Src, Akt and ERK to elicit a pro-migratory response.
Homology Sema4D exhibits homology with the semaphorins and c-Met and the Met-like protein tyrosine kinase RON, receptors collectively known as the scatter factor receptors (for review: Comoglio et al., 1996). The scatter factor receptors participate in branching morphogenesis, axonal guidance in neuronal tissues, and normal and aberrant proliferation and enhanced cell motility in many different cell types (for review: Vande Woude et al., 1997; Maina et al., 1998).

Mutations

Note There are no known somatic or germline mutations for Sema4D. Unlike other semaphorins such as Sema3F, whose loss is implicated in lung carcinomas and thus may act as a tumor suppressor (Roche et al., 1996; Tomizawa et al., 2001; Tse et al., 2002), there is no definitive evidence that Sema4D can serve as an oncogene or tumor suppressor.

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Various tumors
Note Acting through Plexin-B1, Sema4D has been shown to promote angiogenesis (Basile et al., 2004; Conrotto et al., 2005; Basile et al., 2006) and also enhance invasive growth and proliferation of tumor cells, while simultaneously offering protection against apoptosis (Granziero et al., 2003; Conrotto et al., 2004; Conrotto et al., 2005). A recent publication shows a correlation between high levels of Sema4D expression in sarcomas and a higher mitotic count, cellularity, and Ki-67 labeling index, when compared to tumors with lower levels of Sema4D expression (Ch'ng et al., 2007). Sema4D is also overexpressed by many different aggressive carcinomas, and its activity on Plexin-B1-expressing endothelial cells promotes enhanced growth and vascularity of tumor xenografts in nude mice in vivo (Basile et al., 2006). Expression of Sema4D by tumor-associated macrophages may also enhance tumor-induced angiogenesis and vessel maturation (Sierra et al., 2008).
Disease There are no known diseases directly related to Sema4D overexpression or mutation. However, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, there is evidence that Sema4D positive leukemic cells may interact with Plexin-B1-expressing bone marrow stromal cells, follicular dendritic cells, and activated T lymphocytes, resulting in enhanced proliferation and survival of the malignant cells (Granziero et al., 2003).
Deletion of the Sema4D locus, which also includes PTCH and XPA, has been observed in the self-healing squamous epithelioma, also known as the keratoacanthoma, and in many squamous cell carcinomas (Waring et al., 1996; Richards et al., 1997; Odeberg et al., 1999), two lesions with a great degree of histological similarity.
Prognosis Higher expression levels of Sema4D are prognostic of poorer overall survival in certain sarcomas (Ch'ng et al., 2007).
  

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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Basile, JR
SEMA4D (sema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig), transmembrane domain (TM), short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 4D)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2009;13(9):660-665.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/SEMA4DID42255ch9q22.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)SEMA4D   10732
Cards
AtlasSEMA4DID42255ch9q22
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)SEMA4D  10507  semaphorin 4D
AliasesC9orf164; CD100; M-sema-G; SEMAJ; 
coll-4
GeneCards (Weizmann)SEMA4D
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000187764 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000187764 [Gene_View]  chr9:89360791-89479696 [Contig_View]  SEMA4D [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000187764
TCGA cBioPortalSEMA4D
AceView (NCBI)SEMA4D
Genatlas (Paris)SEMA4D
WikiGenes10507
SOURCE (Princeton)SEMA4D
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)SEMA4D
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)SEMA4D  -     chr9:89360791-89479696 -  9q22.2   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)SEMA4D  -     9q22.2   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblSEMA4D - 9q22.2 [CytoView hg19]  SEMA4D - 9q22.2 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBISEMA4D [Mapview hg19]  SEMA4D [Mapview hg38]
OMIM601866   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB210030 AI055975 AJ420442 AK090804 AK091601
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001142287 NM_006378 NM_182635
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)SEMA4D
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.494406 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.494406
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000187764
Gene ExpressionSEMA4D [ NCBI-GEO ]   SEMA4D [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   SEMA4D [ SEEK ]   SEMA4D [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)SEMA4D [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)10507
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)SEMA4D
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000187764-SEMA4D [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ92854   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ92854  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ92854
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ92854
PhosPhoSitePlusQ92854
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)IG_LIKE (PS50835)    SEMA (PS51004)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Ig-like_dom    Ig-like_fold    Ig_sub    Ig_sub2    Immunoglobulin    Plexin_repeat    PSI    Semap_dom    Semaphorin    WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)ig (PF00047)    PSI (PF01437)    Sema (PF01403)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00047    pfam01437    pfam01403   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)IG (SM00409)  IGc2 (SM00408)  PSI (SM00423)  Sema (SM00630)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)SEMA4D
DMDM Disease mutations10507
Blocks (Seattle)SEMA4D
PDB (SRS)1OLZ    3OL2   
PDB (PDBSum)1OLZ    3OL2   
PDB (IMB)1OLZ    3OL2   
PDB (RSDB)1OLZ    3OL2   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1OLZ    3OL2   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1OLZ    3OL2   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1OLZ    3OL2   
SuperfamilyQ92854
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000187764-SEMA4D [tissue]
Peptide AtlasQ92854
HPRD03520
IPIIPI00023807   IPI00915390   IPI00167427   IPI00910938   IPI00926816   IPI00926930   IPI00925498   IPI01010225   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q92854
IntAct (EBI)Q92854
FunCoupENSG00000187764
BioGRIDSEMA4D
STRING (EMBL)SEMA4D
ZODIACSEMA4D
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOQ92854
Ontology : AmiGOnegative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  receptor activity  transmembrane signaling receptor activity  receptor binding  protein binding  extracellular space  plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  immune response  cell adhesion  negative regulation of cell adhesion  regulation of cell shape  negative regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity  positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  semaphorin receptor binding  semaphorin receptor binding  positive regulation of cell migration  positive regulation of cell migration  regulation of cell projection organization  negative regulation of apoptotic process  positive regulation of GTPase activity  positive regulation of GTPase activity  ossification involved in bone maturation  negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation  positive regulation of collateral sprouting  regulation of dendrite morphogenesis  positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  negative regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  leukocyte aggregation  semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway  semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway  semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway involved in bone trabecula morphogenesis  
Ontology : EGO-EBInegative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  receptor activity  transmembrane signaling receptor activity  receptor binding  protein binding  extracellular space  plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  immune response  cell adhesion  negative regulation of cell adhesion  regulation of cell shape  negative regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity  positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  semaphorin receptor binding  semaphorin receptor binding  positive regulation of cell migration  positive regulation of cell migration  regulation of cell projection organization  negative regulation of apoptotic process  positive regulation of GTPase activity  positive regulation of GTPase activity  ossification involved in bone maturation  negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation  positive regulation of collateral sprouting  regulation of dendrite morphogenesis  positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  negative regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  leukocyte aggregation  semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway  semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway  semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway involved in bone trabecula morphogenesis  
Pathways : KEGGAxon guidance   
REACTOMEQ92854 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-416700 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkSEMA4D
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkSEMA4D
Wikipedia pathwaysSEMA4D
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB10507
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000187764
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamSEMA4D
HOVERGENQ92854
HOGENOMQ92854
Homologs : HomoloGeneSEMA4D
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)SEMA4D
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanC5/SEMA4D [9q33.2/9q22.2]  [t(9;9)(q22;q33)]  
Fusion : MitelmanSEMA4D/RGS3 [9q22.2/9q32]  [t(9;9)(q22;q32)]  
Fusion: TCGAC5 9q33.2 SEMA4D 9q22.2 PRAD
Fusion: TCGASEMA4D 9q22.2 RGS3 9q32 PRAD
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerSEMA4D [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)SEMA4D
dbVarSEMA4D
ClinVarSEMA4D
1000_GenomesSEMA4D 
Exome Variant ServerSEMA4D
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000187764
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000187764
Genetic variants : HAPMAP10507
Genomic Variants (DGV)SEMA4D [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERSEMA4D [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisSEMA4D 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalSEMA4D 
TCGA Data PortalSEMA4D 
Broad Tumor PortalSEMA4D
OASIS PortalSEMA4D [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICSEMA4D  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDSEMA4D
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch SEMA4D
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)SEMA4D
DoCM (Curated mutations)SEMA4D (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)SEMA4D (select a term)
intoGenSEMA4D
NCG5 (London)SEMA4D
Cancer3DSEMA4D(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM601866   
Orphanet
MedgenSEMA4D
Genetic Testing Registry SEMA4D
NextProtQ92854 [Medical]
TSGene10507
GENETestsSEMA4D
Target ValidationSEMA4D
Huge Navigator SEMA4D [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease10507
BioCentury BCIQSEMA4D
ClinGenSEMA4D
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD10507
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA35654
Clinical trialSEMA4D
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)SEMA4D (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed76 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineSEMA4D
EVEXSEMA4D
GoPubMedSEMA4D
iHOPSEMA4D
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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