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SIX1 (sine oculis homeobox homolog 1) (mammalian)

Identity

Other namesHSIX1 (human SIX1)
Sine oculis (Drosophila homolog)
HGNC (Hugo) SIX1
LocusID (NCBI) 6495
Location 14q23.1
Location_base_pair Starts at 61111417 and ends at 61116155 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]

DNA/RNA

 
  View of the SIX1 gene which is composed of 2 exons that are 833 and 543 bps respectively, and a single 2,052 bp intron. Start and stop codon positions are shown.
Description The gene is composed of 2 exons and one intron and can be found on chromosome 14 at location 60,182,506-60,185,933.
Transcription The transcript length is 1,376 base pairs and the start of the transcript is located in Contig AL049874.3.1.193047. The transcript can be detected in a variety of tissues during mouse development (see below for protein expression) and this has also been confirmed at the protein level (using reporter genes). The transcript is further detected throughout normal mouse mammary gland development with levels being the highest in the embryonic mammary gland and decreasing as the mammary gland differentiates in pregnancy and lactation. In the adult human, it is detected in skeletal muscle, pituitary gland, salivary gland, kidney, lung, and trachea.
Pseudogene No

Protein

 
  View of the Six1 protein (total length 284 amino acids) that contains an N-terminal 115 amino acid Six domain (SD), and a 60 amino acid six-type homeodomain (HD). The SD is important for the interaction of Six1 with cofactors and also contributes to DNA binding along with the homeodomain.
Description Six1 belongs to the Six family of homeoproteins. Amino acids: 284. Predicted Molecular Weight: 32210 Dalton. It exists as a phosphoprotein and is hyperphosphorylated in mitosis.
Expression During mouse development, Six1 is expressed in otic vesicles, nasal placodes, branchial arches, Rathke¹s pouch, dorsal root ganglion, proximal cranial ganglia, somites, cranial mesenchyme, nephrogenic cords, and limb mesenchyme. Six1 expression in muscles is present throughout myogenesis and into adulthood.
Localisation Nuclear
Function Six1 is a transcription factor that is known to play a role in the proliferation and survival of precursor cells during normal development in numerous tissues including, amongst others, the kidney, inner ear, and muscle. It is also demonstrated to play a role in the proliferation of cancer cells and in cancer metastasis. It is known to activate several target genes, including cyclin A1, c-MYC, GDNF, and SLC12A2.

Mutations

Germinal Germline mutations of SIX1 are observed in branchio-oto-renal sydrome, an autosomal dominant developmental disorder that is characterized by kidney and urinary tract malformations and hearing loss. The three SIX1 mutations identified to date all interfere with the ability of the Six1 protein to interact with its Eya1 cofactor, and two of the identified mutations additionally affect Six1-DNA binding.
Somatic The SIX1 gene is amplified in about 5% of breast cancers (infiltrating ductal carcinomas). Overexpression of Six1 has been found in breast cancer, in Wilms¹tumors, and in rhabdomyosarcoma.

Implicated in

Entity Six1 is implicated in a number of cancers including breast cancer, rhabdomyosarcomas, and Wilms¹ tumors. It has also been implicated in branchio-oto-renal syndrome.
Note Six1 is overexpressed in approximately 50% of primary breast cancers and 90% of metastatic lesions. Its overexpression in breast cancer has been linked to increased proliferation of breast cancer cells. Six1 is also a critical mediator of metastasis in a mouse rhabdomyosarcoma model.
Disease breast cancer, wilms¹ tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, branchio-oto-renal syndrome,
Cytogenetics The SIX1 gene is amplified in human breast cancer
 
Idiogram of chromosome 14 (A) showing location of the SIX1 gene at 14q23 (clone RP11-1042B17, labeled in SpectrumRed). Clone RPMI-324B11 (labeled in SpectrumGreen) mapped at 14q11.2 was used as control. Metaphase spread (B) and interphase nuclei (C) of the non-malignant, immortalized MCF10A cell line showing two normal copies of chromosome 14 with signals generated by the SIX1 and control FISH probes. Metaphase spread of the mammary carcinoma cell line, 21MT2 (D), showing a normal copy of chromosome 14 with SIX1 (red) and control probe (green), two derivative chromosomes carrying only the SIX1 or the SIX1 and control signals and a copy of the derivative 14 chromosome with SIX1 gene amplification. Interphase nuclei from 21MT2 cells with multiple copies of red and green signals, including a cluster of SIX1 signals representing gene amplification (E).
Oncogenesis SIX1 is overexpressed in several tumor types, including breast cancer, rhabdomyosarcomas, and Wilms¹ tumors. It has been implicated in both the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells.
  

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)SIX1   10887
Cards
AtlasSIX1ID42302ch14q23
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)SIX1  6495  SIX homeobox 1
GeneCards (Weizmann)SIX1
Ensembl (Hinxton) [Gene_View]  chr14:61111417-61116155 [Contig_View]  SIX1 [Vega]
cBioPortalSIX1
AceView (NCBI)SIX1
Genatlas (Paris)SIX1
WikiGenes6495
SOURCE (Princeton)NM_005982
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath (UCSC)SIX1  -  14q23.1   chr14:61111417-61116155 -  14q23.1   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblSIX1 - 14q23.1 [CytoView]
Mapping of homologs : NCBISIX1 [Mapview]
OMIM113650   601205   605192   608389   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)BC008874 BT007083 X91868
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_005982
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)AC_000146 NC_000014 NC_018925 NG_008231 NT_026437 NW_001838111 NW_004929393
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)SIX1
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.633506 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.633506
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0009408
Gene ExpressionSIX1 [ NCBI-GEO ]     SIX1 [ SEEK ]   SIX1 [ MEM ]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ15475 (Uniprot)
NextProtQ15475  [Medical]
With graphics : InterProQ15475
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ15475 (Swissvar)
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)HOMEOBOX_1 (PS00027)    HOMEOBOX_2 (PS50071)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Homeobox_CS [organisation]   Homeobox_dom [organisation]   Homeodomain-like [organisation]  
Related proteins : CluSTrQ15475
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Homeobox (PF00046)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00046   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)HOX (SM00389)  
DMDM Disease mutations6495
Blocks (Seattle)Q15475
PDB (SRS)4EGC   
PDB (PDBSum)4EGC   
PDB (IMB)4EGC   
PDB (RSDB)4EGC   
Peptide AtlasQ15475
HPRD03125
IPIIPI00017506   IPI01025253   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q15475
IntAct (EBI)Q15475
BioGRIDSIX1
InParanoidQ15475
Interologous Interaction database Q15475
IntegromeDBSIX1
STRING (EMBL)SIX1
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOnegative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  ureteric bud development  branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  organ induction  kidney development  outflow tract morphogenesis  DNA binding  chromatin binding  sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity  sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity  protein binding  nucleus  transcription factor complex  nucleolus  cytoplasm  transcription, DNA-templated  regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  apoptotic process  pattern specification process  skeletal muscle tissue development  sensory perception of sound  regulation of synaptic growth at neuromuscular junction  facial nerve morphogenesis  epithelial cell differentiation  thyroid gland development  regulation of protein localization  protein localization to nucleus  aorta morphogenesis  inner ear morphogenesis  middle ear morphogenesis  negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  sequence-specific DNA binding  transcription regulatory region DNA binding  regulation of neuron differentiation  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  thymus development  neuron fate specification  generation of neurons  embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis  embryonic skeletal system morphogenesis  inner ear development  myoblast migration  pharyngeal system development  otic vesicle development  metanephric mesenchyme development  regulation of branch elongation involved in ureteric bud branching  positive regulation of ureteric bud formation  mesonephric tubule formation  ureter smooth muscle cell differentiation  positive regulation of secondary heart field cardioblast proliferation  cochlea morphogenesis  positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  negative regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation involved in ureter development  
Ontology : EGO-EBInegative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  ureteric bud development  branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  organ induction  kidney development  outflow tract morphogenesis  DNA binding  chromatin binding  sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity  sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity  protein binding  nucleus  transcription factor complex  nucleolus  cytoplasm  transcription, DNA-templated  regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  apoptotic process  pattern specification process  skeletal muscle tissue development  sensory perception of sound  regulation of synaptic growth at neuromuscular junction  facial nerve morphogenesis  epithelial cell differentiation  thyroid gland development  regulation of protein localization  protein localization to nucleus  aorta morphogenesis  inner ear morphogenesis  middle ear morphogenesis  negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  sequence-specific DNA binding  transcription regulatory region DNA binding  regulation of neuron differentiation  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  thymus development  neuron fate specification  generation of neurons  embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis  embryonic skeletal system morphogenesis  inner ear development  myoblast migration  pharyngeal system development  otic vesicle development  metanephric mesenchyme development  regulation of branch elongation involved in ureteric bud branching  positive regulation of ureteric bud formation  mesonephric tubule formation  ureter smooth muscle cell differentiation  positive regulation of secondary heart field cardioblast proliferation  cochlea morphogenesis  positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  negative regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation involved in ureter development  
Pathways : KEGGTranscriptional misregulation in cancer   
Protein Interaction DatabaseSIX1
Wikipedia pathwaysSIX1
Gene fusion - rearrangments
Polymorphisms : SNP, mutations, diseases
SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)SIX1
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease6495
SNP (GeneSNP Utah)SIX1
SNP : HGBaseSIX1
Genetic variants : HAPMAPSIX1
Exome VariantSIX1
1000_GenomesSIX1 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICSIX1 
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisSIX1 
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDSIX1
Genomic VariantsSIX1  SIX1 [DGVbeta]
dbVarSIX1
ClinVarSIX1
Pred. of missensesPolyPhen-2  SIFT(SG)  SIFT(JCVI)  Align-GVGD  MutAssessor  Mutanalyser  
Pred. splicesGeneSplicer  Human Splicing Finder  MaxEntScan  
Diseases
OMIM113650    601205    605192    608389   
MedgenSIX1
GENETestsSIX1
Disease Genetic AssociationSIX1
Huge Navigator SIX1 [HugePedia]  SIX1 [HugeCancerGEM]
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneSIX1
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)SIX1
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamSIX1
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD6495
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA35787
Clinical trialSIX1
Other databases
Probes
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=181266&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206381&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206383&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206384&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206385&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206394&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206414&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206415&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206416&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206417&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206418&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206419&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1206420&term=human+Six1
Probehttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/probe/reports/probereport.cgi?uid=1217428&term=human+Six1
Litterature
PubMed67 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
CoreMineSIX1
iHOPSIX1
OncoSearchSIX1

Bibliography

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Development (Cambridge, England). 1995 ; 121 (3) : 693-705.
PMID 7720577
 
Cloning of the human SIX1 gene and its assignment to chromosome 14.
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PMID 8617500
 
Abrogation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint associated with overexpression of HSIX1: a possible mechanism of breast carcinogenesis.
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Expression of myogenin during embryogenesis is controlled by Six/sine oculis homeoproteins through a conserved MEF3 binding site.
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Genomic cloning and characterization of the human homeobox gene SIX6 reveals a cluster of SIX genes in chromosome 14 and associates SIX6 hemizygosity with bilateral anophthalmia and pituitary anomalies.
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Synergistic regulation of vertebrate muscle development by Dach2, Eya2, and Six1, homologs of genes required for Drosophila eye formation.
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Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of the human SIX1 homeodomain protein.
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PMID 10801845
 
Six family genes--structure and function as transcription factors and their roles in development.
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BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology. 2000 ; 22 (7) : 616-626.
PMID 10878574
 
Xenopus Six1 gene is expressed in neurogenic cranial placodes and maintained in the differentiating lateral lines.
Pandur PD, Moody SA
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PMID 10960794
 
The Human Six family of homeobox genes.
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Gene expression in Wilms' tumor mimics the earliest committed stage in the metanephric mesenchymal-epithelial transition.
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The American journal of pathology. 2002 ; 160 (6) : 2181-2190.
PMID 12057921
 
Molecular interaction and synergistic activation of a promoter by Six, Eya, and Dach proteins mediated through CREB binding protein.
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PMID 12215533
 
Six and Eya expression during human somitogenesis and MyoD gene family activation.
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Journal of muscle research and cell motility. 2002 ; 23 (3) : 255-264.
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Altered myogenesis in Six1-deficient mice.
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PMID 12668636
 
Eya protein phosphatase activity regulates Six1-Dach-Eya transcriptional effects in mammalian organogenesis.
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Nature. 2003 ; 426 (6964) : 247-254.
PMID 14628042
 
Signal transduction: an eye on organ development.
Epstein JA, Neel BG
Nature. 2003 ; 426 (6964) : 238-239.
PMID 14628032
 
Six1 is required for the early organogenesis of mammalian kidney.
Xu PX, Zheng W, Huang L, Maire P, Laclef C, Silvius D
Development (Cambridge, England). 2003 ; 130 (14) : 3085-3094.
PMID 12783782
 
The role of Six1 in mammalian auditory system development.
Zheng W, Huang L, Wei ZB, Silvius D, Tang B, Xu PX
Development (Cambridge, England). 2003 ; 130 (17) : 3989-4000.
PMID 12874121
 
Thymus, kidney and craniofacial abnormalities in Six 1 deficient mice.
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Mechanisms of development. 2003 ; 120 (6) : 669-679.
PMID 12834866
 
Expression of zebrafish six1 during sensory organ development and myogenesis.
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PMID 15254912
 
Expression profiling identifies the cytoskeletal organizer ezrin and the developmental homeoprotein Six-1 as key metastatic regulators.
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Nature medicine. 2004 ; 10 (2) : 175-181.
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Eya1 and Six1 are essential for early steps of sensory neurogenesis in mammalian cranial placodes.
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Development (Cambridge, England). 2004 ; 131 (22) : 5561-5572.
PMID 15496442
 
Genetic determination of nephrogenesis: the Pax/Eya/Six gene network.
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Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2004 ; 19 (3) : 249-255.
PMID 14673635
 
Six1 and Eya1 expression can reprogram adult muscle from the slow-twitch phenotype into the fast-twitch phenotype.
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PMID 15226428
 
Six1 controls patterning of the mouse otic vesicle.
Ozaki H, Nakamura K, Funahashi J, Ikeda K, Yamada G, Tokano H, Okamura HO, Kitamura K, Muto S, Kotaki H, Sudo K, Horai R, Iwakura Y, Kawakami K
Development (Cambridge, England). 2004 ; 131 (3) : 551-562.
PMID 14695375
 
SIX1 mutations cause branchio-oto-renal syndrome by disruption of EYA1-SIX1-DNA complexes.
Ruf RG, Xu PX, Silvius D, Otto EA, Beekmann F, Muerb UT, Kumar S, Neuhaus TJ, Kemper MJ, Raymond RM Jr, Brophy PD, Berkman J, Gattas M, Hyland V, Ruf EM, Schwartz C, Chang EH, Smith RJ, Stratakis CA, Weil D, Petit C, Hildebrandt F
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Six1 promotes a placodal fate within the lateral neurogenic ectoderm by functioning as both a transcriptional activator and repressor.
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PMID 15525662
 
The Six1 homeoprotein stimulates tumorigenesis by reactivation of cyclin A1.
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Gene amplification is a mechanism of Six1 overexpression in breast cancer.
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PMID 15805264
 
New perspectives on eye development and the evolution of eyes and photoreceptors.
Gehring WJ
The Journal of heredity. 2005 ; 96 (3) : 171-184.
PMID 15653558
 
Six1 and Six4 homeoproteins are required for Pax3 and Mrf expression during myogenesis in the mouse embryo.
Grifone R, Demignon J, Houbron C, Souil E, Niro C, Seller MJ, Hamard G, Maire P
Development (Cambridge, England). 2005 ; 132 (9) : 2235-2249.
PMID 15788460
 
Six1 is not involved in limb tendon development, but is expressed in limb connective tissue under Shh regulation.
Bonnin MA, Laclef C, Blaise R, Eloy-Trinquet S, Relaix F, Maire P, Duprez D
Mechanisms of development. 2005 ; 122 (4) : 573-585.
PMID 15804569
 
Slc12a2 is a direct target of two closely related homeobox proteins, Six1 and Six4.
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PMID 15955062
 
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Contributor(s)

Written11-2005Heide L Ford, Aaron N Patrick, Marileila Varella-Garcia
Depts. of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Fitzsimons Campus, Mail stop 8309, P.O. Box 6511, Aurora, CO 80045, USA

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Ford, HL ; Patrick, AN ; Varella-Garcia, M
SIX1 (sine oculis homeobox homolog 1) (mammalian)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2006;10(2):100-102.
Free online version   Free pdf version   [Bibliographic record ]
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/SIX1ID42302ch14q23.html

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indexed on : Fri Aug 8 11:10:46 CEST 2014

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