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TAL2 (T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia 2)

Written2005-08Katrina Vanura
Medical University of Vienna, Dept. of Medicine I, Div. of Hematology, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A - 1090 Vienna, Austria

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


HGNC (Hugo) TAL2
HGNC Alias symbbHLHa19
HGNC Previous nameT-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 2
LocusID (NCBI) 6887
Atlas_Id 28
Location 9q31.2  [Link to chromosome band 9q31]
Location_base_pair Starts at 105662457 and ends at 105663122 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping TAL2.png]
Local_order from centromere to telomere: CSDUFD1, MGC45564, FCMD, TAL2, C9ort87, ZNF462
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
C2CD5 (12p12.1)::TAL2 (9q31.2)TAL2 (9q31.2)::TRBV20OR9-2 (-)


Description exons 1a, 2, 3, and 1b located 5-8 kb upstream of exon 4; coding region in exon 4 (326 bp)
Transcription various mRNA isoforms were found in SUP-T3 and in the mouse, which also encompass upstream exons; gene products, however, always corresponded to the TAL2 protein encoded by exon 4


Description 108 amino acids; basic Helix Loop Helix motif for protein dimerization and DNA-binding
Expression in adult testes; in developing midbrain, dorsal diencephalon, rostroventral diencaphalic/telencephalic boundary, and anterior pons; pivotal role in the development of the mature central nervous system; not expressed during normal hematopoietic development
Function transcription factor; TAL2 dimerizes with members of the class A subgroup of bHLH proteins (ie E47, E12, E2-2, HEB), as well as LIM-only proteins LMO1 and LMO2; heterodimers are formed intracellularly through stable interaction between bHLH domains of TAL2 and E47; TAL2/E47 heterodimers bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner that is dependent on the E-box element; TAL2/E12 heterodimers also have DNA-binding activity; TAL2 does not bind DNA in absence of E2A proteins; a significant fraction (60%) of TAL2 polypeptides from SUP-T3 exist in phosphorylated form, the rest is unphosphorylated; serine residue 100 of TAL2 is the potential site of phosphorylation by MAP kinases.
Homology TAL1 at 1p31, LYL1 at 19p13; TAL2, TAL1, and LYL1 share more than 85% amino acid identity in the bHLH domain and are thus more related to one other than to other bHLH proteins, for instance c-myc

Implicated in

Entity -->TAL2 -TCRB
Disease T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia found in < 1% of ALL, in 1-2% of T-ALL, rare but recurrent
Hybrid/Mutated Gene Translocation of part of TCRB locus to a breakpoint 33 kb downstream of TAL2 mediated by the V(D)J recombinase via a fortuitous recombination signal sequence (YRSS) on chromosome 9; the translocation results in a signal joint fusion of TAL2 YRSS with the Db1 23-RSS; this gene product was detected in 6 of 10 thymus samples of healthy children with an estimated frequency of 1 in 10 million thymic cells; only upon secondary rearrangement of the TAL2/Db signal joint to the Jb2.6 segment, and deletion of the intervening sequence, the typical TAL2/Jb2.6 T-ALL junctions could be observed which presumably lead to overexpression of TAL2 and development of leukemia.
Abnormal Protein TAL2 placed under control of TCRB enhancer leading to overexpression of TAL2 in T-cells and development of leukemia


TAL1, TAL2 and LYL1: a family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins implicated in T cell acute leukaemia.
Baer R
Seminars in cancer biology. 1993 ; 4 (6) : 341-347.
PMID 8142619
The T cell oncogene Tal2 is necessary for normal development of the mouse brain.
Bucher K, Sofroniew MV, Pannell R, Impey H, Smith AJ, Torres EM, Dunnett SB, Jin Y, Baer R, Rabbitts TH
Developmental biology. 2000 ; 227 (2) : 533-544.
PMID 11071772
Distinct t(7;9)(q34;q32) breakpoints in healthy individuals and individuals with T-ALL.
Marculescu R, Vanura K, Le T, Simon P, Jäger U, Nadel B
Nature genetics. 2003 ; 33 (3) : 342-344.
PMID 12567187
The leukemic oncogene tal-2 is expressed in the developing mouse brain.
Mori S, Sugawara S, Kikuchi T, Tanji M, Narumi O, Stoykova A, Nishikawa SI, Yokota Y
Brain research. Molecular brain research. 1999 ; 64 (2) : 199-210.
PMID 9931488
Consistent breakage between consensus recombinase heptamers of chromosome 9 DNA in a recurrent chromosomal translocation of human T cell leukemia.
Tycko B, Reynolds TC, Smith SD, Sklar J
The Journal of experimental medicine. 1989 ; 169 (2) : 369-377.
PMID 2536065
TAL2, a helix-loop-helix gene activated by the (7;9)(q34;q32) translocation in human T-cell leukemia.
Xia Y, Brown L, Yang CY, Tsan JT, Siciliano MJ, Espinosa R III, Le Beau MM, Baer RJ
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1991 ; 88 (24) : 11416-11420.
PMID 1763056
Products of the TAL2 oncogene in leukemic T cells: bHLH phosphoproteins with DNA-binding activity.
Xia Y, Hwang LY, Cobb MH, Baer R
Oncogene. 1994 ; 9 (5) : 1437-1446.
PMID 8152805


This paper should be referenced as such :
Vanura, K
TAL2 (T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia 2)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2005;9(4):319-320.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

Other Leukemias implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 3 ]
  Pediatric T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
t(7;9)(q34;q32) TRB::TAL2
T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)

External links


HGNC (Hugo)TAL2   11557
Atlas Explorer : (Salamanque)TAL2
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)TAL2    TAL bHLH transcription factor 2
GeneCards (Weizmann)TAL2
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000186051 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000186051 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000186051 [Sequence]  chr9:105662457-105663122 [Contig_View]  TAL2 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000186051
TCGA cBioPortalTAL2
AceView (NCBI)TAL2
Genatlas (Paris)TAL2
SOURCE (Princeton)TAL2
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)TAL2
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)TAL2  -     chr9:105662457-105663122 +  9q31.2   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)TAL2  -     9q31.2   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathTAL2 - 9q31.2 [CytoView hg19]  TAL2 - 9q31.2 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBITAL2 [Mapview hg19]  
OMIM186855   613065   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AA767775 BC069422 BC126373 BC126375
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_005421
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)TAL2
Gene ExpressionTAL2 [ NCBI-GEO ]   TAL2 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   TAL2 [ SEEK ]   TAL2 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)TAL2 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of TAL2 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)6887
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)TAL2
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000186051-TAL2 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ16559   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ16559  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ16559
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)BHLH (PS50888)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)bHLH_dom    HLH_DNA-bd_sf    TAL-like   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)HLH (PF00010)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00010   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)HLH (SM00353)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)TAL2
AlphaFold pdb e-kbQ16559   
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000186051-TAL2 [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)Q16559
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOchromatin  RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding  DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific  DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific  DNA binding  protein binding  regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  post-embryonic development  thalamus development  midbrain development  multicellular organism growth  protein dimerization activity  
Ontology : EGO-EBIchromatin  RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding  DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific  DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific  DNA binding  protein binding  regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  post-embryonic development  thalamus development  midbrain development  multicellular organism growth  protein dimerization activity  
NDEx NetworkTAL2
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkTAL2
Wikipedia pathwaysTAL2
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000186051
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamTAL2
Homologs : HomoloGeneTAL2
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)TAL2
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanTRB::TAL2 [-/9q31.2]  
Fusion : QuiverTAL2
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerTAL2 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)TAL2
Exome Variant ServerTAL2
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000186051
Varsome BrowserTAL2
ACMGTAL2 variants
Genomic Variants (DGV)TAL2 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERTAL2 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisTAL2 
ICGC Data PortalTAL2 
TCGA Data PortalTAL2 
Broad Tumor PortalTAL2
OASIS PortalTAL2 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Cancer Gene: CensusTAL2 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICTAL2  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC3DTAL2
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDTAL2
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)[gene] [transcripts] [variants]
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)TAL2
DoCM (Curated mutations)TAL2
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)TAL2
NCG (London)TAL2
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
OMIM186855    613065   
Genetic Testing Registry TAL2
NextProtQ16559 [Medical]
Target ValidationTAL2
Huge Navigator TAL2 [HugePedia]
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Protein Interactions : CTDTAL2
Pharm GKB GenePA36327
Clinical trialTAL2
DataMed IndexTAL2
PubMed17 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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indexed on : Mon Jan 17 15:42:22 CET 2022

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