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TFAP2A (transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha))

Identity

Other namesAP-2
AP-2alpha
AP2-alpha
AP2TF
BOFS
FLJ51761
TFAP2
HGNC (Hugo) TFAP2A
LocusID (NCBI) 7020
Location 6p24.3
Location_base_pair Starts at 10396916 and ends at 10412607 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]
 
  Figure 1 : TFAP2A human gene including promoter, 7 exons and 6 introns.
Modified from Entrez Gene (Genomic DNA).

DNA/RNA

 
  Figure 2 : Three main transcripts are shown. Exons: red and green. Red: protein-coding sequences; Green: 5' and 3' Untranslated (UTR) regions. Black lines: introns.
Modified from Entrez Gene (Transcripts).
Description The gene encompasses 22.882 kb of DNA; 7 exons.
Transcription mRNA, NM_001042425; NM_003220; NM_001032280.

Protein

 
  Figure 3.
Modified from Williams and Tjian, 1991.
Description The main TFAP2A isoform consists of 437 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 52 kDa. TFAP2A proteins contain a unique, highly conserved helix-span-helix dimerization motif at the C-terminal half of the protein, a central basic region and a less conserved proline- and glutamine-rich domain at the amino terminus. The helix-span-helix motif and the basic region mediate DNA binding and dimerization while the proline- and glutamine-rich region is responsible for transcriptional transactivation (see figure 3).
Expression Ubiquitous. Abnormal expression is found in a variety of human tumours.
Localisation Located predominantly in the nucleus.
Function The TFAP2A proteins are able to form hetero- as well as homo-dimers and bind to GC-rich DNA sequences within regulatory regions of their target genes, mediating both activation and repression of gene transcription. Functional TFAP2 binding sites, such as 5'-GCCN3GGC-3' or 5'-GCCN4GGC-3' or 5'-GCCN3/4GGG-3' or 5'-CCCCAGGC-3' have been identified and regulate genes involved in physiological or pathological processes such as development, cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Examples of activated genes are CDKN1A, TGFA, estrogen receptor, keratinocyte-specific genes, KIT, ERBB2 and IGFBP5 while MCAM/MUC18, C/EBPA, MYC and DCBLD2/ESDN/CLCP1 are repressed by TFAP2A. TFAP2A protein expression is highly cell-type specific, showing different spatial and temporal expression during development and in various tissues. The TFAP2A proteins are essential during embryogenesis as demonstrated by mouse genetic studies. Loss of TFAP2A impairs cranial closure and leads to severe dismorphogenesis of different organs and death at birth. Loss of TFAP2A activity in general alters proliferation and induces premature differentiation and/or apoptosis in various cell types as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro studies. Because of their involvement in these fundamental cellular processes TFAP2A proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of TFAP2A protein levels alter the cell functions in such a drastic way that it can eventually lead to cancer formation and/or progression. In fact, several studies have associated aberrant TFAP2A activity with tumorigenesis (see below).
Homology With the other members of the TFAP2 family: TFAP2B, TFAP2C, TFAP2D, TFAP2E.

Mutations

Note Found in branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS).
A de novo 10529A-G transition in exon 4 of the TFAP2A human gene was found in an 18-year-old man with branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS), a rare autosomal-dominant cleft palate-craniofacial disorder with variable expressivity. The mutation leads to arg255-to-gly (R255G) substitution in a highly conserved residue in the basic region of the DNA-binding domain, a change that replaces a charged polar side chain with a nonpolar side chain with a predicted conformational space change. Four additional BOFS patients were found to have de novo missense mutations in the highly conserved exons 4 and 5. No mutations were found in more than 300 controls. (Milunsky et al., 2008).
A de novo deletion of 18 and insertion of 6 nucleotides, resulting in LPGARR deletion and RI insertion between amino acids 276 and 281, was found within the basic DNA binding and dimerization domains of TFAP2A in a 4-year-old girl with congenital sensorineural deafness associated with inner ear malformation. The girl also had pseudocleft lips, skin defects, auricle abnormalities, and unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney, leading to the diagnosis of branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome. (Tekin et al., 2009).

Implicated in

Entity Various cancers
Note TFAP2A has been implicated in various cancers, first of all in melanoma and breast tumors. However several evidences link deregulation of TFAP2A to prostate and ovarian carcinomas as well as gliomas.
  
Entity Melanoma
Note Malignant melanoma follows the transformation and proliferation of melanocytes, normally present in the basal cell layer of the epidermis. Tumor growth consists of a horizontal or radial initial growth phase (RGP) followed by a subsequent vertical growth phase (VGP) corresponding to the infiltration of the dermis and hypodermis (biphasic growth). Alternatively the growth pattern can be only vertical (monophasic growth). When the lesion enters the vertical growth phase, the expression of adhesion molecules changes as the tumor enters the dermis and acquires the capacity to metastasize. Deregulated expression or activity of a number of transcription factors and their downstream target genes (including those involved in invasion and motility) has been found and TFAP2A is one of them. In fact, in cutaneous malignant melanoma, reduced nuclear TFAP2A expression has been associated with aggressive clinicopathological outcomes. Moreover low TFAP2A levels predict shorter recurrence-free survival. In melanoma cell lines, loss of TFAP2A associates with enhanced invasion, metastasis formation as well as angiogenesis as tested in mouse models, due to events such as overexpression of the cell adhesion molecule MCAM/MUC18, protease protease-activated receptor 1 (F2R/PAR1), MMP2 as well as downregulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor KIT. On the other hand TFAP2A re-expression in melanoma cells suppresses tumorigenicity and metastatic potential.
  
Entity Breast cancer
Note TFAP2A nuclear or total expression is significantly reduced in invasive carcinomas compared to benign breast epithelium (BBE) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and associates with adverse clinicopathological parameters suggesting a tumor suppressor function for this transcription factor. However, there are reports showing increased TFAP2A expression in breast tumors. Discrepancies could be related to the low specificity of the tools (mostly antibodies) used to analyze TFAP2A expression. In fact, other TFAP2-family members with biological or pathological functions, could have been identified in those experiments. One possible mechanism by which TFAP2A could function as a tumor suppressor is by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis via induction of p21WAF1 expression, inhibition of MYC-related transactivation and BCL2 expression. TFAP2A expression in breast cancer has also been related to high sensitiveness to chemotherapeutic drugs due to massive induction of apoptosis in TFAP2A highly expressing cells.
  
Entity Prostate cancer
Note TFAP2A expression is associated with luminal differentiation of normal prostate tissues but its expression is lost early when prostate adenocarcinomas develop. Increase cell proliferation has been observed in prostate tumors with low cytoplasmic TFAP2A expression. In TFAP2A-negative prostate cancer cells, TFAP2A expression inhibits tumorigenicity and leads to deregulation of relevant genes such as VEGF.
  
Entity Ovarian cancer
Note Reduced cytoplasmic TFAP2A expression predicts poor overall survival of epithelial ovarian tumors and in ovarian cancer cells this transcription factor suppresses cell proliferation and invasion parallel to decreased phosphorylation of HER2, AKT and ERK pathways, reduced pro-MMP2 levels and increased CDH1/ECAD expression.
  
Entity Gliomas
Note High nuclear levels of TFAP2A associate with better differentiation of human gliomas, absence of MMP2 and VEGF expression and offer some survival advantage to the patients.
  

Other Leukemias implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

Leukemias 11q23ChildAMLID1615

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)TFAP2A   11742
Cards
AtlasTFAP2AID42526ch6p24
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)TFAP2A  7020  transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha)
GeneCards (Weizmann)TFAP2A
Ensembl (Hinxton)ENSG00000137203 [Gene_View]  chr6:10396916-10412607 [Contig_View]  TFAP2A [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000137203
cBioPortalTFAP2A
AceView (NCBI)TFAP2A
Genatlas (Paris)TFAP2A
WikiGenes7020
SOURCE (Princeton)NM_001032280 NM_001042425 NM_003220
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath (UCSC)TFAP2A  -  6p24.3   chr6:10396916-10412607 -  6pter-p22.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblTFAP2A - 6pter-p22.3 [CytoView]
Mapping of homologs : NCBITFAP2A [Mapview]
OMIM107580   113620   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK296737 BC017754 BC071713 CB990517 DQ891099
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001032280 NM_001042425 NM_003220
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)AC_000138 NC_000006 NC_018917 NG_016151 NT_007592 NW_001838973 NW_004929326
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)TFAP2A
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.519880 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.519880
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0026297
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000137203
Gene ExpressionTFAP2A [ NCBI-GEO ]     TFAP2A [ SEEK ]   TFAP2A [ MEM ]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP05549 (Uniprot)
NextProtP05549  [Medical]
With graphics : InterProP05549
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP05549 (Swissvar)
Domains : Interpro (EBI)TF_AP2 [organisation]   TF_AP2_alpha_N [organisation]   TF_AP2_C [organisation]  
Related proteins : CluSTrP05549
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)TF_AP-2 (PF03299)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam03299   
DMDM Disease mutations7020
Blocks (Seattle)P05549
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000137203 [gene] [tissue] [antibody] [cell] [cancer]
Peptide AtlasP05549
HPRD00128
IPIIPI00844409   IPI00946131   IPI00472844   IPI00009453   IPI00640894   IPI00181288   IPI00945016   IPI00945156   IPI00930487   IPI00922739   IPI00945616   IPI00946611   IPI00945970   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P05549
IntAct (EBI)P05549
FunCoupENSG00000137203
BioGRIDTFAP2A
InParanoidP05549
Interologous Interaction database P05549
IntegromeDBTFAP2A
STRING (EMBL)TFAP2A
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOnegative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding  sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity  core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in negative regulation of transcription  RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity  RNA polymerase II transcription corepressor activity  kidney development  outflow tract morphogenesis  keratinocyte development  optic vesicle morphogenesis  optic cup structural organization  chromatin binding  transcription coactivator activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleus  nucleolus  cytoplasm  Golgi apparatus  centrosome  transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  sensory perception of sound  negative regulation of cell proliferation  embryonic pattern specification  embryonic body morphogenesis  positive regulation of gene expression  retina layer formation  negative regulation of transcription by competitive promoter binding  negative regulation of transcription by competitive promoter binding  neural crest cell development  anterior neuropore closure  trigeminal nerve development  oculomotor nerve formation  forebrain neuron development  positive regulation of cell migration  positive regulation of bone mineralization  embryonic forelimb morphogenesis  negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway  inner ear morphogenesis  protein homodimerization activity  negative regulation of apoptotic process  intracellular membrane-bounded organelle  negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process  sequence-specific DNA binding  transcription regulatory region DNA binding  regulation of cell differentiation  regulation of neuron differentiation  negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  protein dimerization activity  sympathetic nervous system development  embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis  epidermis morphogenesis  palate development  lens induction in camera-type eye  face morphogenesis  bone morphogenesis  eyelid development in camera-type eye  cornea development in camera-type eye  positive regulation of tooth mineralization  cellular response to iron ion  basement membrane organization  metanephric nephron development  negative regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  
Ontology : EGO-EBInegative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding  sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity  core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription  RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in negative regulation of transcription  RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity  RNA polymerase II transcription corepressor activity  kidney development  outflow tract morphogenesis  keratinocyte development  optic vesicle morphogenesis  optic cup structural organization  chromatin binding  transcription coactivator activity  protein binding  nucleus  nucleus  nucleolus  cytoplasm  Golgi apparatus  centrosome  transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  sensory perception of sound  negative regulation of cell proliferation  embryonic pattern specification  embryonic body morphogenesis  positive regulation of gene expression  retina layer formation  negative regulation of transcription by competitive promoter binding  negative regulation of transcription by competitive promoter binding  neural crest cell development  anterior neuropore closure  trigeminal nerve development  oculomotor nerve formation  forebrain neuron development  positive regulation of cell migration  positive regulation of bone mineralization  embryonic forelimb morphogenesis  negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway  inner ear morphogenesis  protein homodimerization activity  negative regulation of apoptotic process  intracellular membrane-bounded organelle  negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process  sequence-specific DNA binding  transcription regulatory region DNA binding  regulation of cell differentiation  regulation of neuron differentiation  negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  protein dimerization activity  sympathetic nervous system development  embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis  epidermis morphogenesis  palate development  lens induction in camera-type eye  face morphogenesis  bone morphogenesis  eyelid development in camera-type eye  cornea development in camera-type eye  positive regulation of tooth mineralization  cellular response to iron ion  basement membrane organization  metanephric nephron development  negative regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  
Protein Interaction DatabaseTFAP2A
Wikipedia pathwaysTFAP2A
Gene fusion - rearrangments
Polymorphisms : SNP, mutations, diseases
SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)TFAP2A
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease7020
SNP (GeneSNP Utah)TFAP2A
SNP : HGBaseTFAP2A
Genetic variants : HAPMAPTFAP2A
Exome VariantTFAP2A
1000_GenomesTFAP2A 
ICGC programENSG00000137203 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICTFAP2A 
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisTFAP2A 
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDTFAP2A
Genomic VariantsTFAP2A  TFAP2A [DGVbeta]
dbVarTFAP2A
ClinVarTFAP2A
Pred. of missensesPolyPhen-2  SIFT(SG)  SIFT(JCVI)  Align-GVGD  MutAssessor  Mutanalyser  
Pred. splicesGeneSplicer  Human Splicing Finder  MaxEntScan  
Diseases
OMIM107580    113620   
MedgenTFAP2A
GENETestsTFAP2A
Disease Genetic AssociationTFAP2A
Huge Navigator TFAP2A [HugePedia]  TFAP2A [HugeCancerGEM]
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneTFAP2A
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)TFAP2A
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamTFAP2A
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD7020
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA36459
Clinical trialTFAP2A
Cancer Resource (Charite)ENSG00000137203
Other databases
Probes
Litterature
PubMed166 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
CoreMineTFAP2A
iHOPTFAP2A
OncoSearchTFAP2A

Bibliography

Characterization of a dimerization motif in AP-2 and its function in heterologous DNA-binding proteins.
Williams T, Tjian R.
Science. 1991 Mar 1;251(4997):1067-71.
PMID 1998122
 
The developmentally regulated transcription factor AP-2 is involved in c-erbB-2 overexpression in human mammary carcinoma.
Bosher JM, Williams T, Hurst HC.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jan 31;92(3):744-7.
PMID 7846046
 
Transcriptional activation by Myc is under negative control by the transcription factor AP-2.
Gaubatz S, Imhof A, Dosch R, Werner O, Mitchell P, Buettner R, Eilers M.
EMBO J. 1995 Apr 3;14(7):1508-19.
PMID 7729426
 
A family of AP-2 proteins regulates c-erbB-2 expression in mammary carcinoma.
Bosher JM, Totty NF, Hsuan JJ, Williams T, Hurst HC.
Oncogene. 1996 Oct 17;13(8):1701-7.
PMID 8895516
 
Transcription factor AP-2 essential for cranial closure and craniofacial development.
Schorle H, Meier P, Buchert M, Jaenisch R, Mitchell PJ.
Nature. 1996 May 16;381(6579):235-8.
PMID 8622765
 
Transcription factor AP-2 controls transcription of the human transforming growth factor-alpha gene.
Wang D, Shin TH, Kudlow JE.
J Biol Chem. 1997 May 30;272(22):14244-50.
PMID 9162057
 
AP2 inhibits cancer cell growth and activates p21WAF1/CIP1 expression.
Zeng YX, Somasundaram K, el-Deiry WS.
Nat Genet. 1997 Jan;15(1):78-82.
PMID 8988173
 
Loss of AP-2 results in downregulation of c-KIT and enhancement of melanoma tumorigenicity and metastasis.
Huang S, Jean D, Luca M, Tainsky MA, Bar-Eli M.
EMBO J. 1998 Aug 3;17(15):4358-69.
PMID 9687504
 
Downregulation of transcription factor AP-2 predicts poor survival in stage I cutaneous malignant melanoma.
Karjalainen JM, Kellokoski JK, Eskelinen MJ, Alhava EM, Kosma VM.
J Clin Oncol. 1998 Nov;16(11):3584-91.
PMID 9817279
 
Immunohistochemical analysis reveals a tumour suppressor-like role for the transcription factor AP-2 in invasive breast cancer.
Gee JM, Robertson JF, Ellis IO, Nicholson RI, Hurst HC.
J Pathol. 1999 Dec;189(4):514-20.
PMID 10629551
 
Regulatory roles of AP-2 transcription factors in vertebrate development, apoptosis and cell-cycle control.
Hilger-Eversheim K, Moser M, Schorle H, Buettner R.
Gene. 2000 Dec 30;260(1-2):1-12. (REVIEW)
PMID 11137286
 
AP-2 transcription factors in the regulation of ERBB2 gene transcription by oestrogen.
Perissi V, Menini N, Cottone E, Capello D, Sacco M, Montaldo F, De Bortoli M.
Oncogene. 2000 Jan 13;19(2):280-8.
PMID 10645007
 
Reduced nuclear expression of transcription factor AP-2 associates with aggressive breast cancer.
Pellikainen J, Kataja V, Ropponen K, Kellokoski J, Pietilainen T, Bohm J, Eskelinen M, Kosma VM.
Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Nov;8(11):3487-95.
PMID 12429639
 
Transcriptional regulation of metastasis-related genes in human melanoma.
Nyormoi O, Bar-Eli M.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2003;20(3):251-63. (REVIEW)
PMID 12741683
 
The AP-2 family of transcription factors.
Eckert D, Buhl S, Weber S, Jager R, Schorle H.
Genome Biol. 2005;6(13):246. Epub 2005 Dec 28. (REVIEW)
PMID 16420676
 
Activator protein 2alpha status determines the chemosensitivity of cancer cells: implications in cancer chemotherapy.
Wajapeyee N, Raut CG, Somasundaram K.
Cancer Res. 2005 Oct 1;65(19):8628-34.
PMID 16204029
 
Apoptosis induction by activator protein 2alpha involves transcriptional repression of Bcl-2.
Wajapeyee N, Britto R, Ravishankar HM, Somasundaram K.
J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 16;281(24):16207-19. Epub 2006 Mar 13.
PMID 16533807
 
Activator protein-2 in carcinogenesis with a special reference to breast cancer--a mini review.
Pellikainen JM, Kosma VM.
Int J Cancer. 2007 May 15;120(10):2061-7. (REVIEW)
PMID 17330235
 
Mouse genetic models of cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
Juriloff DM, Harris MJ.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008 Feb;82(2):63-77. (REVIEW)
PMID 18181213
 
Transcriptional control of the melanoma malignant phenotype.
Melnikova VO, Bar-Eli M.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2008 Jul;7(7):997-1003. Epub 2008 Jun 30. (REVIEW)
PMID 18698165
 
TFAP2A mutations result in branchio-oculo-facial syndrome.
Milunsky JM, Maher TA, Zhao G, Roberts AE, Stalker HJ, Zori RT, Burch MN, Clemens M, Mulliken JB, Smith R, Lin AE.
Am J Hum Genet. 2008 May;82(5):1171-7.
PMID 18423521
 
AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma regulate tumor progression via specific genetic programs.
Orso F, Penna E, Cimino D, Astanina E, Maione F, Valdembri D, Giraudo E, Serini G, Sismondi P, De Bortoli M, Taverna D.
FASEB J. 2008 Aug;22(8):2702-14. Epub 2008 Apr 28.
PMID 18443366
 
A complex TFAP2A allele is associated with branchio-oculo-facial syndrome and inner ear malformation in a deaf child.
Tekin M, Sirmaci A, Yuksel-Konuk B, Fitoz S, Sennaroglu L.
Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Mar;149A(3):427-30.
PMID 19206157
 
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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Contributor(s)

Written09-2009Francesca Orso, Daniela Taverna
Molecular Biotechnology Center (MBC) and Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Torino, Via Nizza, 52, 10126 Torino, Italy (FO, DT); Center for Complex Systems in Molecular Biology and Medicine, University of Torino, Via Acc Albertina, 13, 10023 Torino, Italy (FO, DT)

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Orso, F ; Taverna, D
TFAP2A (transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(8):-.
Free online version   Free pdf version   [Bibliographic record ]
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/TFAP2AID42526ch6p24.html

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indexed on : Wed Jul 30 16:54:51 CEST 2014

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