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TGFBR2 (Transforming Growth Factor, Beta Receptor II (70/80kDa))

Written2014-02Vadakke Peringode Sivadas, S Kannan
Division of Cancer Research, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapurm - 695011, Kerala, India

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Other namesAAT3
LocusID (NCBI) 7048
Atlas_Id 372
Location 3p24.1
Location_base_pair Starts at 30647994 and ends at 30735633 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]
Fusion genes
(updated 2015)
TGFBR2 (3p24.1) / NR2C2 (3p25.1)TGFBR2 (3p24.1) / ZBTB7A (19p13.3)
Note Ensembl version: ENSG00000163513
SwissProt ID: P37173
ENZYME entry: EC=


Description Length of TGFBR2 gene is 87641 bases. TGFBR2 gene encodes 8 exons. Orientation: plus strand.
Transcription The TGFBR2 gene encodes two well-known protein coding transcripts:
- TGFBR2-001(Ensembl version ENST00000295754.5): Encoded by 7 exons; mRNA length: 4621 bps; Translation length: 567 amino acid residues;
- TGFBR2-002(Ensembl version ENST00000359013.4): Encoded by 8 exons; mRNA length: 4605 bps; Translation length: 592 amino acid residues.


  Structure and the mechanism of TGFBR2 activation: The TGFBR2 consists of an N-terminal extra-cellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic, C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain. On TGFβ ligand mediated activation, TGFBR2 forms hetero tetramers with TGFBR1 and triggers TGFBR1 kinase activity by phosphorylating the GS domain. The activated TGFBR1 kinase can phosphorylate downstream SMAD transcription factors and there by mediate the expression of TGFβ-responsive genes.
Description The TGFBR2 gene encodes two proteins through alternative splicing (592 aa and 567 aa long respectively); both can convey TGFβ signals. TGFBR2 is a transmembrane Serine/Threonine kinase. It has a molecular weight of 70/80kD. TGFBR2 consist of an N-terminal extra-cellular ligand binding ectodomain, a transmembrane region, and a C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain. The ectodomain is formed by nine beta-strands and a single helix stabilised by a network of six intra strand disulphide bonds (Hart et al., 2002).
Expression This protein is ubiquitously expressed in all cell types. Loss of TGFBR2 expression is linked with many pathological conditions involving cancer. The level of expression may vary depending up on cell-type.
Localisation Primarily, it is a transmembrane protein, involved in extra-cellular TGFβ ligand binding. However, ligand binding can trigger internalization of both ligand and receptors. Receptors internalized in endosomes can either be targeted to lysosomes for degradation or be recycled back to the cell surface for re-use (Chen et al., 2009).
Function TGFBR2 is an important member of the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway. The TGFβ signaling controls important cellular activities like cytostasis, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, etc. in a context dependent manner (Massague et al., 2005; Feng and Derynck, 2005). These pleiotropic cytokines are encoded by 42 open reading frames in human. They are divided into two subfamilies, the TGFβ/Activin/Nodal subfamily and the BMP(bone morphogenetic protein)/GDF(growth and differentiation factor)/MIS(Muellerian inhibiting substance) subfamily, as defined by sequence similarity and the specific signaling pathways that they activate (Shi and Massague, 2003). These cytokines are known to convey cellular signals through the serine/threonine kinase family receptors - 7 type I and 5 type II receptors - that are dedicated to TGFβ signaling (Manning et al., 2002). TGFBR2 is the most important and well-characterized type II receptor of TGFβ family.
The TGFβ-SMAD signaling cascade gets activated when TGFβ ligand binds to the TGFBR2 (Massague, 1998; Shi and Massague, 2003). The TGFβ ligand is secreted as latent complex in which the TGFβ dimer is bound to the latency-associated peptide (LAP) (Young and Murphy-Ullrich, 2004). Many latent TGFβ binding proteins (LTBPs) can bind to and sequester this latent complex to extra cellular matrix (ECM) (Derynck et al., 2001). The latent TGFβ is activated by plasmins and MMP2 and MMP9 through proteolytic processing that leads to removal of LAP. The active form of TGF-β is a 25 KDa disulphide linked homodimer. (Derynck et al., 2001; Padua and Massague, 2009). TGFBR2 is a constitutively active kinase that occurs as homodimer (Hart et al., 2002; Shi and Massague, 2003). On ligand binding mediated activation, TGFBR2 forms heteromeric complex with type I TGFβ receptor (TGFBR1) (Luo and Lodish, 1997). TGFBR2 kinase mediated phosphorylation of Glycine/Serine-rich GS domain of TGFBR1 leads to activation of type I receptor kinase. Activated TGFBR1 then phosphorylates downstream SMAD transcription factors.
The pathway restricted SMADs-SMAD2 and SMAD3- are involved in signaling through TGFBR2/TGFBR1 receptor complexes. They are commonly called receptor regulated SMADs or R-SMADs. They bind directly to TGFBR1 and are phosphorylated at a C-terminal SSXS motif, that is exclusive and conserved for R-SMADs (Feng and Derynck, 2005; Schmierer and Hill, 2007). SMAD4 lacks a C-terminal SSXS motif and does not interact directly with TGFBR1. SMAD4 is commonly referred to as co-SMAD and serves as a common partner for all R-SMADs (Shi and Massague, 2003).
The binding of the R-SMAD to the type I receptor is mediated by adaptor proteins like SARA (SMAD anchor for receptor activation), a zinc double finger FYVE domain containing protein. They restrict SMAD2/3 proteins to the plasma membrane and early endosomes and thus facilitate the interaction of SMAD2/3 proteins with activated TGFBR1 (Panopoulou et al., 2002; Chen, 2009). The phosphorylated R-SMADs can form heteromeric complex with the common mediator SMAD (Co-SMAD, SMAD4) and this enables the nuclear translocation of the complex (Wrighton et al., 2009). In the nucleus, the SMAD transcription factors orchestrate the expression of various target genes; depending on the DNA binding partners they associate (Massague, 2008). The DNA binding partners are responsible for the context dependency exhibited by TGFβ signaling (Inman, 2005). Many protein phosphatases are responsible for switching off TGFβ signaling through R-SMAD dephosphorylation and dictate the strength and duration of TGFβ signaling (Wrighton et al., 2009). The inhibitory SMADs (SMAD 6 and SMAD 7) are responsible for feedback repression of this signaling pathway (Xu, 2006). SMAD7 acts through competition for receptor mediated phosphorylation, and through the recruitment of SMAD ubiquitination regulatory Factors1 or 2 (Smurf1/Smurf2) to R- SMADs (Lönn et al., 2009).
In addition to the canonical signaling through the SMADs, TGFBR2 can activate many non-SMAD pathways like PI3K-Akt, JNK, p38MAPK, ROCK, PKC, PP2A, Ras, Erk1/Erk2 and Rho-like GTPases including RhoA, Rac and Cdc42 (Zhang, 2009). These non-SMAD signaling pathways add greatly towards the context-dependent nature of TGFβ signaling.
Many studies consider TGFβ alterations as a key reason for tumorigenesis (Derynck et al., 2001; Seoane, 2006). These alterations arise at genetic as well as at epigenetic level. While mutations are responsible for major share of genomic level TGFβ aberrations, the microRNA alterations contribute towards a fair share of the epigenetic alterations (Sivadas and Kannan, 2013). Besides, loss of integration of TGFβ signaling with other important pathways such as p53 signaling is an important reason for tumorigenesis (Massague, 2008).
Homology The TGFBR2 gene is conserved in human, chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken and zebra fish. Notably, TGFBR2 of human beings and chimpanzee shows 100% and 99.6% identity, at protein and DNA level respectively. Furthermore, 72 organisms have orthologs with human gene TGFBR2.


Note Somatic mutations of TGFBR2 is a common event in various cancers (Seoane, 2006), Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, etc. (Loeys et al., 2006; Singh et al., 2006; Stheneur et al., 2008). Deletion of the chromosomal region 3p, that carries TGFBR2 is reported in many solid tumors (Kok et al., 1997).

Implicated in

Entity Lung cancer
Disease Lung cancer is the leading cancer in terms of incidence and death world-wide. The most important subtype of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for ~ 87%, of all lung cancers.
Prognosis The five year survival rate (~15%) is very poor for lung cancer. In the case of advanced lung cancers, the 5-year survival rate is as low as 2%. Moreover, no effective screening strategy is available.
Cytogenetics Cytogenetic abnormalities to chromosomes 3p, 5q, 13q, and 17p are particularly common in small-cell lung carcinoma (Salgia and Skarin, 1998).
Oncogenesis TGFBR2 is regarded as an important tumor suppressor that is altered in lung cancers. Microdeletions in the TGFBR2 gene are reported in non-small cell lung carcinoma (Wang et al., 2007). Further, studies showed decreased expression of TGFBR2, which is associated with the histopathological grading of NSCLCs (Xu et al., 2007). Furthermore, reduced TGFBR2 expression in human NSCLC was found to be associated with smoking, reduced differentiation, increased tumor stage, increased nodal metastasis, and most importantly, reduced survival (Malkoski et al., 2012). These results suggest that loss of this tumor suppressor is an important event in lung tumorigenesis.
Entity Breast cancer
Disease Breast cancer is the second leading cancer in terms of incidence and is at fifth position with regards to cancer-associated mortality. The important sub-types of breast cancer are ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), and invasive or infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC).
Prognosis There is a good five year survival rate (>80%) for breast cancer. This scenario is primarily due to world-wide awareness programmes and improvement of early screening strategies.
Cytogenetics The most consistent chromosomal regions that show gain are on 1q, 20q and 8q, while the most common regions of loss are on 3p and 6q. These chromosomal changes were more frequently found in high grade ductal breast carcinomas with overexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein (Malamou-Mitsi et al., 1999). Notably, gain of 3q is reported to be a stronger predictor of recurrence than grade, mitotic activity index (MAI) and other features in invasive breast cancers (Janssen et al., 2003).
Oncogenesis The TGFβ signaling shows a dual role in breast cancers. Even though it is tumor suppressor initially, this signaling cascade can trigger lung metastasis of advanced breast cancers by inducing angiopoietin-like 4 (Padua et al., 2008). However, mutations in the kinase domain of TGFBR2 are reported in recurrent breast cancers. Since no mutations were observed in the primary tumors, TGFBR2 mutations might have a role in breast cancer recurrence (Lucke et al., 2001). Furthermore, TGFBR2 positivity is an independent prognostic factor for good disease-free survival and overall survival in human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-negative patients (Paiva et al., 2010).
Entity Colorectal cancers
Disease Colon and rectal cancers account for around 9.4% of all cancer cases. These cancers are at third position in terms of incidence and are at fourth position with regards to cancer-associated mortality.
Prognosis There is a good five year survival rate (>80%) for stage 1 & 2 cases. However, the 5-year survival rate is only about 10% in stage IV colorectal cancers.
Cytogenetics Colorectal cancers show frequent gains at 7p, 7q, 8q, 16p, 20p and 20q, while losses are often at 18q. Interestingly, metastatic tumors show frequent gains at 8q and 20q and loss at 18q, suggesting these chromosomal aberrations are linked to the progression of colorectal cancer (Aragane et al., 2001). DNA copy number loss at 18q12.2, involving BRUNOL4 that encodes a splicing factor, is an independent prognostic indicator for colon cancers (Poulogiannis et al., 2010).
Oncogenesis Mutations in at least one member of the TGFβ signaling are demonstrated in ~50% colorectal cancers, there by confirming the tumor suppressor activity of this pathway in these cancers (Seoane, 2006). Mutational inactivation of TGFBR2 in microsatellite unstable colon cancer is a frequent event. Further, in vivo experiments also confirmed the role of TGFBR2 inactivation in the establishment and progression of colorectal cancers (Biswas et al., 2004; Biswas et al., 2008).
Entity Stomach cancers
Disease Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide, with ~988000 cases per year and second among mortality with ~737000 deaths per year.
Prognosis The 5-year survival rate of gastric cancer is poor. Even in developed countries like USA, the five-year survival is only 24%. This is due to the lack of early screening strategies.
Cytogenetics The recurrent chromosomal abnormalities includes gains at 17q, 20q, 1p, 22q, 17p, 16p, 6p, 20p, 7p, 3q and 13q4 while losses at 18q, 3p, 5q and 9p are common (Wu et al., 2002). In gastric cancers gain of 1q32.3 has a correlation with lymph node status while loss of 18q22.1 was associated with poor survival (Weiss et al., 2004).
Oncogenesis Frameshift mutations in the 10bp poly(A) repeat of TGFBR2 coding regions is frequent in gastric cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). In contrast, gastric adenomas without MSI seldom exhibit TGFBR2 mutations. This suggest that TGFBR2 is the main target of genomic instability during the development of MSI(+) gastric cancers (Song et al., 2010).
Entity Prostate cancers
Disease With ~0.9 million incident cases all over the world, prostate cancers are fifth common cancer in the world. Globally it is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death in men, but it ranks second in the United States.
Prognosis The survival rates of prostate cancer vary among region to region; overall the 5-year survival rate is >90%.
Cytogenetics The most common aberrations are losses in chromosomes 5q, 6q, 8p, 10q, 13q, 16q, 17p, and 18q and gains in 7p/q, 8q, 9p, and Xq. Moreoverr, a chromosomal rearrangement in 21q is observed in over 50% of prostate cancers (Saramaki and Visakorpi, 2007). Further, recurrent breakpoints at 5q11, 8p11, and 10q22 were observed in prostate cancer cell lines, suggesting the importance of tumor suppressor/oncogenes in these regions (Pan et al., 2001).
Oncogenesis The in vivo experiments have demonstrated that the conditional loss of TGFBR2 in prostatic stromal cells can trigger prostate cancer initiation, progression, and invasion (Bhowmick et al., 2004). Silencing of TGFBR2 through CpG methylation at site -140 is a common event in prostate cancers (Zhao et al., 2005). However, TGFβ signaling has been shown to induce vicious cycles of prostate cancer bone metastases by inducing parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) via Gli2 (Kingsley et al., 2007).
Entity Liver cancers
Disease Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death after lung and stomach cancers. It causes ~754000 deaths per year. The most common sub-type of liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma, which accounts for approximately 75% of all primary liver cancers.
Prognosis The 5-year survival rate of liver cancer is just above 50%. This scenario is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis. Because of this delay, less than 40% of individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma are eligible for surgery and transplant.
Cytogenetics Studies suggest deletions are frequent at chromosomal arms 1p, 4q, 6q, 8p, 9p, 11q, 12q and 13q, whereas gains are common at 1q, 6p, 8q, 11q and 17q in samples positive for Hepatitis B and C virus (Tornillo et al., 2000).
Oncogenesis In hepatic cancers, TGFBR2 downregulation is reported to be correlated with larger tumor size, poor differentiation, portal vein invasion, intrahepatic metastasis and shorter recurrence-free survival (Mamiya et al., 2010). Further, in vivo experiments revealed that TGFBR2 loss along with TGF-alpha over expression can cooperate in hepatocarcinogenesis (Baek et al., 2010).
Entity Oral cancers
Disease With an estimated 263000 cases, cancers of the oral cavity account for 2% of the cancer burden worldwide. But they are the second most common cancer in males and the fourth most common cancer in females in Melanesia and South-Central Asia, accounting for 7% of the total cancers diagnosed in this region. The most common type of oral cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which accounts for more than 90% of the cancers of the oral cavity.
Prognosis The overall 5-year disease-specific survival rate for patients is approximately 50% throughout the world and is unchanged over past two decades.
Cytogenetics Recurrent loss of chromosomes 9, 13, 18 and Y are reported in oral cancers whereas the most frequent chromosomal imbalances involves deletions at chromosome arms 3p, 7q, 8p, 11q, 17p. The chromosomal breakpoints in structural rearrangements frequently involve the centromeric regions of chromosomes 1, 3, 8, 14 and 15 as well as bands 1p22, 11q13 and 19p13 (Jin and Mertens, 1993).
Oncogenesis TGFBR2 mutations are frequent in oral cancers, kinase domain mutations being common. The loss of TGFBR2 expression in the tumor is associated with significantly reduced overall survival among oral cancer patients (Sivadas et al., 2013). Further, metastatic oral cancers show significantly lower TGFBR2 expression as compared to primary tumour, indicating its anti-metastatic activity in oral cancers (Paterson et al., 2001).
Entity Pancreatic cancer
Disease Even though pancreatic cancer is at 13th position, contributing only 2% of cancer incidence, it is at 8tth position in terms of mortality and causes 4% of cancer associated deaths. The most common form is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Prognosis Pancreatic cancer shows an extremely poor prognosis. The 5-year relative survival rate is only 6%.
Cytogenetics The chromosomal region 18q21 that bears SMAD4 gene is homozygously deleted in 30% to 37% pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Other important alterations involve genomic gains of 3q, 8q, 11q, 17q, and frequent loss of chromosome 17p, 6q, and 8p (Hahn et al., 1996; Griffin et al., 2007).
Oncogenesis Even though mutations in TGFBR2 occur at lower rate, the downstream molecule SMAD4 mutation rates are as high as 50% in pancreatic cancers (Venkatasubbarao et al., 1998; Cowgill and Muscarella, 2003). This signifies the importance of TGFβ-signaling in preventing pancreatic tumorigenesis.
Entity Cervical cancers
Disease The high-risk Human papillomavirus types 16, 18, 31 and 45 are the cause of ~90% of the cervical cancer globally. These cancers are at 7th and 8th position in terms of global cancer incidence and deaths respectively.
Prognosis There is a better 5-year survival rate for cervical cancers. The 5-year survival rate for the early stages of cervical cancer is ~92% while the overall 5-year survival rate is about 72%.
Cytogenetics Studies have reported abnormalities of chromosome 1 in up to 95% of cervical cancer samples. The main alterations included are the deletions of chromosome 1 at bands q32, p34, q42, p32, and p22. Further, abnormality of chromosome 4 occurs in 92% cases (Sreekantaiah et al., 1988, Sherwood et al., 2000).
Oncogenesis Though TGFBR2 mutations happen at lower rate in cervical cancers (Chen et al., 1999), in vivo experiments provided evidence that estrogen and HPV E7 proteins cooperate to silence TGFBR2 expression during the induction and progression of cervical neoplasms (Diaz-Chavez et al., 2008).
Entity Leukemias
Disease The haematological neoplasms can be broadly classified into four sub-types: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
Prognosis Prognosis varies from subtype to subtype.
Cytogenetics The well-known chromosomal aberration in CML is a reciprocal translocation between chromosome 9 and 22 designated as t(9;22)(q34;q11). This translocation generates the oncogenic Bcr-Abl fusion protein. Other important translocations involves t(4;11); t(11;14); and t(1;3).
Oncogenesis Mutations in TGFBR2 associated with microsatellite instability was observed in 20% of cell lines derived from hematologic malignancies. Though alterations of the microsatellite regions in the TGFBR2 are not common in CML, but TGFBR2 downregulation was evident in CML cells as compared with the hematopoietic cells of normal donors. Furthermore, decreased TGFBR2 expression was also observed in the other haematological neoplasms (Rooke et al., 1999; Kim and Letterio, 2003).
Entity Ovarian cancers
Disease Majority of ovarian cancers arise in the epithelial surface of the ovary. They comprise ~2% of global cancer incidence and cancer-associated deaths.
Prognosis Because more than 60% of ovarian cancers are diagnosed at a later stage, ovarian cancer has a relatively poor 5-year survival rate of ~47%.
Cytogenetics The deletion of chromosome 3p region carrying TGFBR2 is a frequent event in ovarian cancers (Lounis et al., 1998). Further, abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 11 were found in metastatic effusions of ovarian cancer (Ioakim-Liossi et al., 1999). The breakpoints in regions 1p3 and 11p1 are important early events in ovarian cancers. Particularly, the ovarian cancers with breakpoints at 1p1, 3p1 and 11p1 present poor prognosis (Simon et al., 2000).
Oncogenesis Kinase domain mutations of TGFBR2 in up to 25% of ovarian cancers are reported. Added, loss of TGFBR2 expression was found in >40% of samples (Lynch et al., 2004). Epigenetic silencing of TGFBR2 through promoter methylation could be the reason for the loss of TGFBR2 expression, which is a common event in ovarian cancers (Matsumura et al., 2011).
Entity Renal carcinomas
Disease Kidney cancers are generally originated in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer, causing for 80% of cases.
Prognosis Even though the five year survival rate among stage I patients is around 90%, while the 5-year survival rate is less than 10% for patients presenting with stage IV disease.
Cytogenetics The deletion of the chromosome 3p region is the hallmark of nonpapillary/clear cell RCC (Siebert et al. 1998).
Oncogenesis The downregulation of TGFBR3 and TGFBR2 are the important events during renal carcinogenesis and acquisition of metastatic phenotype respectively (Copland et al., 2003). The reason for the loss of TGFBR2 expression could be due to promoter hypermethylation (Zhang et al., 2005).
Entity Glioblastoma multiforme
Disease Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, involving glial cells and account for more than 50% of all brain tumor cases.
Prognosis The survival rates are very poor, most of the patients die within a period of 1-2 years.
Cytogenetics Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 10q involving PTEN is the most common genetic alteration shown by both primary as well as secondary glioblastomas (Ohgaki et al., 2004).
Oncogenesis p53 mutations are the most common event in glioblastomas. More than 30% of the primary and 65% of the secondary glioblastomas show p53 mutations (Ohgaki et al., 2004). Mutations in the 10 bp poly(A) tract of TGFBR2 are very common (71%) in gliomas with genomic instability. However, TGFBR2 mutation rates are less (3%) in microsatellite stable gliomas (Izumoto et al., 1997).


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Leukemia. 2003 Sep;17(9):1731-7. (REVIEW)
PMID 12970772
Mechanisms of TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus.
Shi Y, Massague J.
Cell. 2003 Jun 13;113(6):685-700. (REVIEW)
PMID 12809600
Stromal fibroblasts in cancer initiation and progression.
Bhowmick NA, Neilson EG, Moses HL.
Nature. 2004 Nov 18;432(7015):332-7. (REVIEW)
PMID 15549095
Transforming growth factor beta receptor type II inactivation promotes the establishment and progression of colon cancer.
Biswas S, Chytil A, Washington K, Romero-Gallo J, Gorska AE, Wirth PS, Gautam S, Moses HL, Grady WM.
Cancer Res. 2004 Jul 15;64(14):4687-92.
PMID 15256431
Genetic pathways to glioblastoma: a population-based study.
Ohgaki H, Dessen P, Jourde B, Horstmann S, Nishikawa T, Di Patre PL, Burkhard C, Schuler D, Probst-Hensch NM, Maiorka PC, Baeza N, Pisani P, Yonekawa Y, Yasargil MG, Lutolf UM, Kleihues P.
Cancer Res. 2004 Oct 1;64(19):6892-9.
PMID 15466178
Genomic alterations in primary gastric adenocarcinomas correlate with clinicopathological characteristics and survival.
Weiss MM, Kuipers EJ, Postma C, Snijders AM, Pinkel D, Meuwissen SG, Albertson D, Meijer GA.
Cell Oncol. 2004;26(5-6):307-17.
PMID 15623941
Molecular interactions that confer latency to transforming growth factor-beta.
Young GD, Murphy-Ullrich JE.
J Biol Chem. 2004 Sep 3;279(36):38032-9. Epub 2004 Jun 18.
PMID 15208302
Specificity and versatility in tgf-beta signaling through Smads.
Feng XH, Derynck R.
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2005;21:659-93. (REVIEW)
PMID 16212511
Linking Smads and transcriptional activation.
Inman GJ.
Biochem J. 2005 Feb 15;386(Pt 1):e1-e3.
PMID 15702493
Smad transcription factors.
Massague J, Seoane J, Wotton D.
Genes Dev. 2005 Dec 1;19(23):2783-810. (REVIEW)
PMID 16322555
Restoration of expression of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor in murine renal cell carcinoma (renca) cells by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine.
Zhang Q, Rubenstein JN, Liu VC, Park I, Jang T, Lee C.
Life Sci. 2005 Jan 21;76(10):1159-66.
PMID 15620579
CpG methylation at promoter site -140 inactivates TGFbeta2 receptor gene in prostate cancer.
Zhao H, Shiina H, Greene KL, Li LC, Tanaka Y, Kishi H, Igawa M, Kane CJ, Carroll P, Dahiya R.
Cancer. 2005 Jul 1;104(1):44-52.
PMID 15895377
Aneurysm syndromes caused by mutations in the TGF-beta receptor.
Loeys BL, Schwarze U, Holm T, Callewaert BL, Thomas GH, Pannu H, De Backer JF, Oswald GL, Symoens S, Manouvrier S, Roberts AE, Faravelli F, Greco MA, Pyeritz RE, Milewicz DM, Coucke PJ, Cameron DE, Braverman AC, Byers PH, De Paepe AM, Dietz HC.
N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 24;355(8):788-98.
PMID 16928994
Escaping from the TGFbeta anti-proliferative control.
Seoane J.
Carcinogenesis. 2006 Nov;27(11):2148-56. Epub 2006 May 12. (REVIEW)
PMID 16698802
TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 mutations in patients with features of Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome.
Singh KK, Rommel K, Mishra A, Karck M, Haverich A, Schmidtke J, Arslan-Kirchner M.
Hum Mutat. 2006 Aug;27(8):770-7.
PMID 16799921
Regulation of Smad activities.
Xu L.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov-Dec;1759(11-12):503-13. Epub 2006 Nov 15. (REVIEW)
PMID 17182123
Molecular cytogenetic characterization of pancreas cancer cell lines reveals high complexity chromosomal alterations.
Griffin CA, Morsberger L, Hawkins AL, Haddadin M, Patel A, Ried T, Schrock E, Perlman EJ, Jaffee E.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007;118(2-4):148-56. (REVIEW)
PMID 18000365
Molecular biology of bone metastasis.
Kingsley LA, Fournier PG, Chirgwin JM, Guise TA.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Oct;6(10):2609-17. (REVIEW)
PMID 17938257
Chromosomal aberrations in prostate cancer.
Saramaki O, Visakorpi T.
Front Biosci. 2007 May 1;12:3287-301.
PMID 17485299
TGFbeta-SMAD signal transduction: molecular specificity and functional flexibility.
Schmierer B, Hill CS.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Dec;8(12):970-82. (REVIEW)
PMID 18000526
Novel microdeletion in the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor gene is associated with giant and large cell variants of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma.
Wang JC, Su CC, Xu JB, Chen LZ, Hu XH, Wang GY, Bao Y, Huang Q, Fu SB, Li P, Lu CQ, Zhang RM, Luo ZW.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2007 Feb;46(2):192-201.
PMID 17117417
Defective expression of transforming growth factor beta type II receptor (TGFBR2) in the large cell variant of non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Xu JB, Bao Y, Liu X, Liu Y, Huang S, Wang JC.
Lung Cancer. 2007 Oct;58(1):36-43. Epub 2007 Jun 12.
PMID 17566598
Mutational inactivation of TGFBR2 in microsatellite unstable colon cancer arises from the cooperation of genomic instability and the clonal outgrowth of transforming growth factor beta resistant cells.
Biswas S, Trobridge P, Romero-Gallo J, Billheimer D, Myeroff LL, Willson JK, Markowitz SD, Grady WM.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008 Feb;47(2):95-106.
PMID 17985359
Down-regulation of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor (TGF-betaRII) protein and mRNA expression in cervical cancer.
Diaz-Chavez J, Hernandez-Pando R, Lambert PF, Gariglio P.
Mol Cancer. 2008 Jan 9;7:3. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-7-3.
PMID 18184435
TGFbeta primes breast tumors for lung metastasis seeding through angiopoietin-like 4.
Padua D, Zhang XH, Wang Q, Nadal C, Gerald WL, Gomis RR, Massague J.
Cell. 2008 Apr 4;133(1):66-77. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.046.
PMID 18394990
Identification of 23 TGFBR2 and 6 TGFBR1 gene mutations and genotype-phenotype investigations in 457 patients with Marfan syndrome type I and II, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and related disorders.
Stheneur C, Collod-Beroud G, Faivre L, Gouya L, Sultan G, Le Parc JM, Moura B, Attias D, Muti C, Sznajder M, Claustres M, Junien C, Baumann C, Cormier-Daire V, Rio M, Lyonnet S, Plauchu H, Lacombe D, Chevallier B, Jondeau G, Boileau C.
Hum Mutat. 2008 Nov;29(11):E284-95. doi: 10.1002/humu.20871.
PMID 18781618
Endocytic regulation of TGF-beta signaling.
Chen YG.
Cell Res. 2009 Jan;19(1):58-70. doi: 10.1038/cr.2008.315. (REVIEW)
PMID 19050695
Regulating the stability of TGFbeta receptors and Smads.
Lonn P, Moren A, Raja E, Dahl M, Moustakas A.
Cell Res. 2009 Jan;19(1):21-35. doi: 10.1038/cr.2008.308. (REVIEW)
PMID 19030025
Roles of TGFbeta in metastasis.
Padua D, Massague J.
Cell Res. 2009 Jan;19(1):89-102. doi: 10.1038/cr.2008.316. (REVIEW)
PMID 19050696
Phospho-control of TGF-beta superfamily signaling.
Wrighton KH, Lin X, Feng XH.
Cell Res. 2009 Jan;19(1):8-20. doi: 10.1038/cr.2008.327.
PMID 19114991
Non-Smad pathways in TGF-beta signaling.
Zhang YE.
Cell Res. 2009 Jan;19(1):128-39. doi: 10.1038/cr.2008.328. (REVIEW)
PMID 19114990
TGF-beta inactivation and TGF-alpha overexpression cooperate in an in vivo mouse model to induce hepatocellular carcinoma that recapitulates molecular features of human liver cancer.
Baek JY, Morris SM, Campbell J, Fausto N, Yeh MM, Grady WM.
Int J Cancer. 2010 Sep 1;127(5):1060-71. doi: 10.1002/ijc.25127.
PMID 20020490
Reduced transforming growth factor-beta receptor II expression in hepatocellular carcinoma correlates with intrahepatic metastasis.
Mamiya T, Yamazaki K, Masugi Y, Mori T, Effendi K, Du W, Hibi T, Tanabe M, Ueda M, Takayama T, Sakamoto M.
Lab Invest. 2010 Sep;90(9):1339-45. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2010.105. Epub 2010 Jun 7.
PMID 20531292
Absence of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor is associated with poorer prognosis in HER2-negative breast tumours.
Paiva CE, Drigo SA, Rosa FE, Moraes Neto FA, Caldeira JR, Soares FA, Domingues MA, Rogatto SR.
Ann Oncol. 2010 Apr;21(4):734-40. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdp518. Epub 2009 Nov 13.
PMID 19914962
Prognostic relevance of DNA copy number changes in colorectal cancer.
Poulogiannis G, Ichimura K, Hamoudi RA, Luo F, Leung SY, Yuen ST, Harrison DJ, Wyllie AH, Arends MJ.
J Pathol. 2010 Feb;220(3):338-47. doi: 10.1002/path.2640.
PMID 19911421
TGFBR2 frameshift mutation in gastric tumors with microsatellite instability.
Song JH, Lee HS, Yoon JH, Kang YH, Nam SW, Lee JY, Park WS.
Mol Cell Toxicol. 2010;6:321-26.
Epigenetic suppression of the TGF-beta pathway revealed by transcriptome profiling in ovarian cancer.
Matsumura N, Huang Z, Mori S, Baba T, Fujii S, Konishi I, Iversen ES, Berchuck A, Murphy SK.
Genome Res. 2011 Jan;21(1):74-82. doi: 10.1101/gr.108803.110. Epub 2010 Dec 14.
PMID 21156726
Loss of transforming growth factor beta type II receptor increases aggressive tumor behavior and reduces survival in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
Malkoski SP, Haeger SM, Cleaver TG, Rodriguez KJ, Li H, Lu SL, Feser WJ, Baron AE, Merrick D, Lighthall JG, Ijichi H, Franklin W, Wang XJ.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Apr 15;18(8):2173-83. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-2557. Epub 2012 Mar 7.
PMID 22399565
Novel mutations and expression alterations in SMAD3/TGFBR2 genes in oral carcinoma correlate with poor prognosis.
Sivadas VP, George NA, Kattoor J, Kannan S.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013 Nov;52(11):1042-52. doi: 10.1002/gcc.22099. Epub 2013 Aug 3.
PMID 23913824
The microRNA networks of TGFβ signaling in cancer.
Sivadas VP, Kannan S.
Tumour Biol. 2014 Apr;35(4):2857-69. doi: 10.1007/s13277-013-1481-9. Epub 2013 Dec 10.
PMID 24323563


This paper should be referenced as such :
VP Sivadas, S Kannan
TGFBR2 (Transforming Growth Factor, Beta Receptor II (70/80kDa))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2014;18(10):737-745.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version :

Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)
  Colon: Colorectal adenocarcinoma
Head and Neck: Epidermoid carcinoma
Pancreatic tumors: an overview
Eye: Posterior uveal melanoma

Other Cancer prone implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)
  Hereditary non polyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC Syndrome)

External links

HGNC (Hugo)TGFBR2   11773
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)TGFBR2  7048  transforming growth factor beta receptor II
GeneCards (Weizmann)TGFBR2
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000163513 [Gene_View]  chr3:30647994-30735633 [Contig_View]  TGFBR2 [Vega]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000163513 [Gene_View]  chr3:30647994-30735633 [Contig_View]  TGFBR2 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000163513
Genatlas (Paris)TGFBR2
SOURCE (Princeton)TGFBR2
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)TGFBR2  -     chr3:30647994-30735633 +  3p22   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)TGFBR2  -     3p22   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
EnsemblTGFBR2 - 3p22 [CytoView hg19]  TGFBR2 - 3p22 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBITGFBR2 [Mapview hg19]  TGFBR2 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM133239   190182   610168   614331   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AI279872 AJ786388 AK300383 AK304404 AK314102
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001024847 NM_003242
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)NC_000003 NC_018914 NG_007490 NT_022517 NW_004929309
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)TGFBR2
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.604277 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.604277
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0020667
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000163513
Gene ExpressionTGFBR2 [ NCBI-GEO ]     TGFBR2 [ SEEK ]   TGFBR2 [ MEM ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
BioGPS (Tissue expression)7048
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP37173 (Uniprot)
NextProtP37173  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP37173
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP37173 (Swissvar)
Catalytic activity : Enzyme2.7.11.30 [ Enzyme-Expasy ] [ IntEnz-EBI ] [ BRENDA ] [ KEGG ]   
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP (PS00107)    PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM (PS50011)    PROTEIN_KINASE_ST (PS00108)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Kinase-like_dom    Prot_kinase_dom    Protein_kinase_ATP_BS    Ser/Thr_kinase_AS    TGFB_receptor    Transform_growth_fac-b_typ-2    Transforming_GF_b_rcpt_2_ecto   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)ecTbetaR2 (PF08917)    Pkinase (PF00069)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam08917    pfam00069   
DMDM Disease mutations7048
Blocks (Seattle)TGFBR2
PDB (SRS)1KTZ    1M9Z    1PLO    2PJY    3KFD   
PDB (PDBSum)1KTZ    1M9Z    1PLO    2PJY    3KFD   
PDB (IMB)1KTZ    1M9Z    1PLO    2PJY    3KFD   
PDB (RSDB)1KTZ    1M9Z    1PLO    2PJY    3KFD   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1KTZ    1M9Z    1PLO    2PJY    3KFD   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1KTZ    1M9Z    1PLO    2PJY    3KFD   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1KTZ    1M9Z    1PLO    2PJY    3KFD   
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000163513
Peptide AtlasP37173
IPIIPI00020431   IPI00164934   IPI00909103   IPI00465333   
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)P37173
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOblood vessel development  patterning of blood vessels  vasculogenesis  positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation  positive regulation of tolerance induction to self antigen  positive regulation of B cell tolerance induction  positive regulation of T cell tolerance induction  transmembrane receptor protein serine/threonine kinase activity  receptor signaling protein serine/threonine kinase activity  transforming growth factor beta-activated receptor activity  transforming growth factor beta-activated receptor activity  transforming growth factor beta-activated receptor activity  transforming growth factor beta receptor activity, type II  protein binding  ATP binding  glycosaminoglycan binding  cytosol  plasma membrane  caveola  protein phosphorylation  apoptotic process  transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway  transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway  transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway  transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway  brain development  heart development  positive regulation of cell proliferation  external side of plasma membrane  integral component of membrane  peptidyl-serine phosphorylation  peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation  signal transduction by protein phosphorylation  negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway  activation of protein kinase activity  type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding  type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding  type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding  embryonic hemopoiesis  regulation of growth  regulation of cell proliferation  response to drug  myeloid dendritic cell differentiation  receptor complex  SMAD binding  metal ion binding  embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis  transforming growth factor beta binding  transforming growth factor beta binding  transforming growth factor beta binding  positive regulation of NK T cell differentiation  palate development  pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation  transforming growth factor beta receptor homodimeric complex  response to cholesterol  positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  
Ontology : EGO-EBIblood vessel development  patterning of blood vessels  vasculogenesis  positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation  positive regulation of tolerance induction to self antigen  positive regulation of B cell tolerance induction  positive regulation of T cell tolerance induction  transmembrane receptor protein serine/threonine kinase activity  receptor signaling protein serine/threonine kinase activity  transforming growth factor beta-activated receptor activity  transforming growth factor beta-activated receptor activity  transforming growth factor beta-activated receptor activity  transforming growth factor beta receptor activity, type II  protein binding  ATP binding  glycosaminoglycan binding  cytosol  plasma membrane  caveola  protein phosphorylation  apoptotic process  transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway  transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway  transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway  transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway  brain development  heart development  positive regulation of cell proliferation  external side of plasma membrane  integral component of membrane  peptidyl-serine phosphorylation  peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation  signal transduction by protein phosphorylation  negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway  activation of protein kinase activity  type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding  type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding  type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding  embryonic hemopoiesis  regulation of growth  regulation of cell proliferation  response to drug  myeloid dendritic cell differentiation  receptor complex  SMAD binding  metal ion binding  embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis  transforming growth factor beta binding  transforming growth factor beta binding  transforming growth factor beta binding  positive regulation of NK T cell differentiation  palate development  pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation  transforming growth factor beta receptor homodimeric complex  response to cholesterol  positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  
Pathways : BIOCARTATGF beta signaling pathway [Genes]    NFkB activation by Nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae [Genes]    ALK in cardiac myocytes [Genes]    CTCF: First Multivalent Nuclear Factor [Genes]    Role of Tob in T-cell activation [Genes]   
Pathways : KEGGMAPK signaling pathway    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction    FoxO signaling pathway    Endocytosis    TGF-beta signaling pathway    Osteoclast differentiation    Hippo signaling pathway    Adherens junction    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)    HTLV-I infection    Pathways in cancer    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer    Colorectal cancer    Pancreatic cancer    Chronic myeloid leukemia   
REACTOMEP37173 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-2173791 TGF-beta receptor signaling in EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition) [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-3642279 TGFBR2 MSI Frameshift Mutants in Cancer [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-3304356 SMAD2/3 Phosphorylation Motif Mutants in Cancer [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-3645790 TGFBR2 Kinase Domain Mutants in Cancer [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-3315487 SMAD2/3 MH2 Domain Mutants in Cancer [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-2173788 Downregulation of TGF-beta receptor signaling [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-3656532 TGFBR1 KD Mutants in Cancer [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-2173789 TGF-beta receptor signaling activates SMADs [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-3656535 TGFBR1 LBD Mutants in Cancer [pathway]
Protein Interaction DatabaseTGFBR2
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkTGFBR2
Wikipedia pathwaysTGFBR2
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000163513
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamTGFBR2
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanTGFBR2/NR2C2 [3p24.1/3p25.1]  
Fusion : MitelmanTGFBR2/ZBTB7A [3p24.1/19p13.3]  [t(3;19)(p24;p13)]  
Fusion: TCGATGFBR2 3p24.1 NR2C2 3p25.1 LUAD
Polymorphisms : SNP, variants
NCBI Variation ViewerTGFBR2 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)TGFBR2
Exome Variant ServerTGFBR2
Genetic variants : HAPMAPTGFBR2
Genomic Variants (DGV)TGFBR2 [DGVbeta]
ICGC Data PortalTGFBR2 
TCGA Data PortalTGFBR2 
Broad Tumor PortalTGFBR2
OASIS PortalTGFBR2 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICTGFBR2 
intOGen PortalTGFBR2
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
BioMutasearch TGFBR2
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)TGFBR2
DoCM (Curated mutations)TGFBR2 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)TGFBR2 (select a term)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] 
DECIPHER (Syndromes)3:30647994-30735633
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisTGFBR2 
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDTGFBR2
OMIM133239    190182    610168    614331   
NextProtP37173 [Medical]
Huge Navigator TGFBR2 [HugePedia]  TGFBR2 [HugeCancerGEM]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease7048
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneTGFBR2
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)TGFBR2
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD7048
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA36486
Clinical trialTGFBR2
Other databases
Other databaseUMD-TGFBR2 (transforming growth factor beta receptor II - Cancers, Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections "TAAD2"). Curator: G. Collod-Béroud
PubMed405 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

Search in all EBI   NCBI

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indexed on : Thu Feb 11 09:51:05 CET 2016

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