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TPX2 (TPX2, microtubule-associated, homolog (Xenopus laevis))

Written2013-03Italia Anna Asteriti, Giulia Guarguaglini
Institute of Molecular Biology, Pathology, National Research, Council of Italy, c/o Sapienza University of Rome, Via degli Apuli 4, 00185, Rome, Italy

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)C20orf1
HGNC (Hugo) TPX2
HGNC Alias symbp100
HGNC Previous nameC20orf2
HGNC Previous namechromosome 20 open reading frame 1
 TPX2, microtubule-associated, homolog (Xenopus laevis)
 TPX2, microtubule-associated
LocusID (NCBI) 22974
Atlas_Id 42683
Location 20q11.21  [Link to chromosome band 20q11]
Location_base_pair Starts at 31739290 and ends at 31801800 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping TPX2.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
CMIP (16q23.2)::TPX2 (20q11.21)TM9SF4 (20q11.21)::TPX2 (20q11.21)TPX2 (20q11.21)::BCL2L1 (20q11.21)
TPX2 (20q11.21)::DEFB123 (20q11.21)TPX2 (20q11.21)::DUSP15 (20q11.21)TPX2 (20q11.21)::ERGIC1 (5q35.1)
TPX2 (20q11.21)::EYS (6q12)TPX2 (20q11.21)::HM13 (20q11.21)TPX2 (20q11.21)::RALY (20q11.22)
TPX2 (20q11.21)::REM1 (20q11.21)TPX2 (20q11.21)::UNC5D (8p12)


Description The TPX2 locus is on the q arm of chromosome 20; position 30326904 to 30389603, forward strand (NCBI, 22974).
Transcription The 3685 bp mRNA (NCBI Reference Sequence: NM_012112.4) contains 18 exons (16 coding); the processed cDNA is of 2244 bp. Ensembl reports the existence of a second transcript, containing 1 additional exon (ENST00000340513). TPX2 is expressed in proliferating cells; the TPX2 transcript was detected at high levels in human placenta, thymus and testis, while it was barely detectable in brain, heart, lung and pancreas (Manda et al., 1999; Wang et al., 2002; Satow et al., 2010).
Pseudogene No pseudogenes described in humans.


Description 747 aa; MW: 85653 Da.
Human TPX2 was initially identified as a nuclear protein of apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa expressed in proliferating cells, and named p100 (Heidebrecht et al., 1997); it was subsequently re-isolated in the search for mitotic targets of RanGTP as the homolog of X. laevis TPX2 (Gruss et al., 2001).
Human TPX2 harbours distinct functional domains:
- TPX2 is a microtubule-associated protein; both the full length protein and the N-terminus (amino acids 1-352) are able to bind microtubules in vitro (Schatz et al., 2003; Trieselmann et al., 2003). Additional regions in the C-terminus of TPX2 are involved in direct or indirect binding to microtubules in cells (Trieselmann et al., 2003). Domain characterisation of the Xenopus homolog also indicates the presence of one or more microtubule-binding domains in the N-terminus of TPX2; the C-terminal region has no direct affinity for microtubules but is required for localisation to spindle poles (Brunet et al., 2004).
- A non canonical nuclear localisation signal (NLS) centered around amino acids 314-315 (Schatz et al., 2003) mediates binding of TPX2 to importin alpha. Structural work has confirmed the association of the corresponding residues 284-287 in the Xenopus homolog protein to the "minor" NLS-binding site of importin alpha and has shown a second region (residues 327-330 of Xenopus TPX2) contacting the "major" NLS-binding site (Giesecke and Stewart, 2010).
- A KEN box (87-89) degradation motif is required for recognition by APC/CCdh1 (Stewart and Fang, 2005).
- The N-terminal region (residues 1-43; Bayliss et al., 2003) is required for the interaction with, and activation of, the Aurora-A kinase.
- An evolutionary conserved region of 35 amino acids at the C-terminus has been shown both in Xenopus and mouse TPX2 to bind the Eg5 kinesin (Eckerdt et al., 2008; Ma et al., 2010).
Expression TPX2 is expressed in a cell cycle-regulated manner; it appears in S phase and protein levels remain high in G2 and mitosis, until telophase when TPX2 is down-regulated via APC/CCdh1-dependent degradation (Heidebrecth et al., 1997; Gruss et al., 2001; Stewart and Fang, 2005). TPX2 is differentially expressed in tumor vs non-transformed cells (see below).
Localisation TPX2 localises to nuclei of interphase cells (S and G2); after nuclear envelope breakdown it associates with spindle microtubules; in late anaphase and telophase it also localises to the spindle mid-zone (Heidebrecht et al., 1997; Gruss et al., 2002; Garrett et al., 2002; figure 1).
  Figure 1. TPX2 localisation in human cells. Immunofluorescence images of U2OS osteosarcoma cells stained with DAPI (blue), anti-alpha-tubulin (green) and anti-TPX2 (red) antibodies show the nuclear localisation of TPX2 in interphase and TPX2 association to spindle microtubules in different mitotic stages. Scale bar: 10 μm.
Function Spindle assembly: TPX2 is a RanGTP-regulated spindle assembly factor (Gruss et al., 2001). An important contribution to the understanding of the mechanisms through which TPX2 acts in spindle assembly has been provided by studies that made use of the Xenopus egg extract system (Gruss and Vernos, 2004 and references therein).
Evidence obtained in mammalian cells support the notion that TPX2 plays a key role in spindle formation and function. Mitotic functions of TPX2 are negatively regulated by the binding to importin alpha and beta; the presence of RanGTP, by dissociating the complex between TPX2 and import receptors, induces the release of active TPX2 (Gruss et al., 2001). Indeed, excess TPX2 is able to rescue spindle pole organisation defects induced by importin beta overexpression in human cells (Ciciarello et al., 2004), pointing out the functional antagonism between TPX2 and import receptors in spindle assembly.
TPX2 acts in spindle organisation by:
i) its direct ability to induce microtubule assemblies and to bundle microtubules (Schatz et al., 2003);
ii) its targeting function: TPX2 recruits several mitotic regulators to the spindle, i.e. the Aurora-A kinase (Kufer et al., 2002), the kinesins hklp2 (Vanneste et al., 2009; Tanenbaum et al., 2009) and Eg5 (Ma et al., 2011b) and the scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A; Ma et al., 2011a);
iii) regulation of specific mitotic factors: TPX2 interacts with the Aurora-A kinase and activates it, by stabilising it in the active conformation (Bayliss et al., 2003); in addition, TPX2 modulates Aurora-A protein stability, by counteracting proteasome-dependent Aurora-A degradation (Giubettini et al., 2011). TPX2 also regulates the activity of the Eg5 kinesin: in vitro assays show that TPX2 reduces the rate of Eg5-dependent microtubule gliding and microtubule-microtubule sliding (Ma et al., 2011).
Consistently, its inactivation in cultured mammalian cells impairs microtubule nucleation from chromosomes, and to a lesser extent from centrosomes, as well as organisation of microtubules within the spindle and cohesion of spindle poles (Garrett et al., 2002; Gruss et al., 2002; De Luca et al., 2006; Tulu et al., 2006; Bird and Hyman, 2008).
Neurogenesis in vertebrate brain: Neural progenitor cells in the apical-most region of the neuroepithelium, or ventricular zone, exhibit interkinetic nuclear migration (INM): their nuclei migrate apically in synchrony with cell cycle progression, so that mitosis occurs at the apical surface of the ventricular zone. TPX2 has been recently reported to promote interkinetic nuclear migration in mouse neural cells, by re-organising apical microtubules during the G2 phase (Kosodo et al., 2011).
DNA damage response (DDR): recent data show that TPX2 is involved in DDR to ionising radiations, by modulating the levels of γ-H2AX; TPX2 localises to DNA double strand breaks and interacts with DDR factors such as MDC1 (Neumayer et al., 2012). Previous data suggested a link between TPX2 and DDR: i) TPX2 is a putative substrate of the ATM/ATR kinases, as revealed in a large-scale proteomic screening (Matsuoka et al., 2007); ii) a functional interplay has been shown between Xenopus TPX2, the Aurora-A kinase and the p53 oncosuppressor (Pascreau et al., 2009).
Homology TPX2 orthologs have been identified in all classes of vertebrates, with Xenopus, mouse and human TPX2 being the best characterised. TPX2-like proteins have been described in plants (Vos et al., 2008; Evrard et al., 2009), C. elegans (Ozlü et al., 2005) and Drosophila melanogaster (Goshima, 2011).

Implicated in

Entity Various cancers
Oncogenesis The TPX2 gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 20, in a region that is frequently amplified in cancer. Growing evidence, described in detail in sections below, indicate that TPX2 levels are increased in tumors and suggest that TPX2 is involved in tumorigenesis. An overall evaluation of TPX2 overexpression in different cancer types can be obtained with the Oncomine database (, which collects data from several microarrays; a recent study using Oncomine shows that TPX2 is significantly overexpressed in about 25% of analyses of tumor vs normal tissues and that it ranks among the first 10% overexpressed genes in the vast majority of cases (Asteriti et al., 2010).
Association of increased TPX2 levels, has also been highlighted: TPX2 ranked first in a CIN25 signature, the overexpression of which is predictive of poor clinical outcome (Carter et al., 2006). A TPX2 gene signature has also been recently identified as associated with metastatic progression in breast cancer (Hu et al., 2012).
Entity Brain cancer
Prognosis Analysis of astrocytoma tissue samples showed positive TPX2 staining, while TPX2 was not detected in normal brain tissues; in addition, TPX2 expression levels were higher in high-grade, compared with low-grade, astrocytomas. The median survival of patients correlated with TPX2 levels, with high TPX2 being associated with overall poor survival (Li et al., 2010). TPX2 was also identified among 9 genes which are significantly overexpressed in grade III vs grade I meningiomas (Stuart et al., 2011) and among 14 genes with elevated expression in high-risk neuroblastomas with 1p loss and MYCN amplification (Ooi et al., 2012).
Entity Oral squamous cell carcinoma
Prognosis Expression levels of TPX2 were not related with tumor size, lymph node invasion or histopathologic grading (Fenner et al., 2005).
Oncogenesis TPX2 expression levels, analysed by RT-PCR (Shigeishi et al., 2009a) or immunohistochemistry (Fenner et al., 2005), were significantly higher compared with normal oral tissues.
Entity Salivary gland carcinoma
Oncogenesis Levels of TPX2 mRNA were analysed by RT-PCR in 20 human salivary gland carcinomas compared with 6 normal submandibular glands and resulted higher in all tumor samples (Shigeishi et al., 2009b).
Entity Lung cancer
Note Human bronchial epithelial cells malignantly transformed by anti-BPDE (16HBE-C) displayed abnormal levels of phosphorylated TPX2 on tyrosine residues (Zhang et al., 2008).
Prognosis Three studies indicate the prognostic value of TPX2 overexpression in adenocarcinomas (Kadara et al., 2009; Li et al., 2013) and squamous cell carcinoma (Ma et al., 2006): TPX2 expression is associated with tumor grade and stage and poor survival rates. In particular, TPX2 is among the top genes in prognostic signatures identified as classifiers for overall survival of patients (Kadara et al., 2009; Li et al. 2013).
Oncogenesis Several studies report increased TPX2 expression levels in primary lung tumors (adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma) and lung cancer cell lines, compared to controls (Manda et al., 1999; Tonon et al., 2005; Ma et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2008; Kadara et al., 2009; Li et al., 2013).
Entity Colon cancer
Oncogenesis TPX2 overexpression in colorectal cancer was observed by suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) method applied to a primary stage III rectal adenocarcinoma and the matched non-neoplastic mucosa (Hufton et al., 1999). In addition, protein levels of TPX2 and of its partner Aurora-A correlate significantly with chromosome 20q DNA copy number status: TPX2 and Aurora-A are therefore implicated in the 20q amplicon-driven progression of colorectal adenoma to carcinoma (Sillars-Hardebol et al., 2012).
Entity Liver cancer
Oncogenesis The TPX2 transcript is expressed at high levels in hepatocellular carcinomas, compared with weak expression in paired normal tissues (Wang et al., 2002; Satow et al., 2010).
Entity Pancreatic cancer
Prognosis Increased expression of TPX2 was associated with poor survival and significantly correlated with histological grade in two independent cohorts (from Germany and Maryland; Zhang et al., 2012). When cohorts were combined, and stratified by resection margin status (positive vs negative), TPX2 was associated with cancer-specific mortality in resection margin-positive patients and with prognosis in resection margin-negative patients.
Oncogenesis Low copy-number amplification of TPX2, associated with increased mRNA and protein levels, was observed in pancreatic cancer cell lines (Warner et al., 2009); the TPX2 gene is also included in an amplicon identified by microarray analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (Tonon et al., 2005). Immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays showed increased TPX2 levels in pancreatic tumors compared with the normal counterparts (Warner et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2012).
Entity Ovarian cancer
Note The Aurora-A kinase, which interacts with, and is regulated by, TPX2 is also differentially expressed in ovarian carcinomas vs adenomas (Scharer et al., 2008).
Prognosis A comparative analysis revealed a stronger (15 to 27 fold) overexpression of TPX2 in primary ovarian carcinomas compared with non-malignant adenomas (Scharer et al., 2008).
Oncogenesis A high resolution genome wide copy number analysis combined with matching expression data from primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas of various histotypes showed that TPX2 is among the most significantly differentially expressed genes in a chromosome 20 region frequently amplified in ovarian cancer (Ramakrishna et al., 2010).
Entity Cervical cancer
Prognosis TPX2 expression levels in cervical squamous cell carcinoma positively correlate with tumor stage and grade, and lymph node metastasis (Chang et al., 2012).
Oncogenesis Copy number increase of chromosome 20q, where the TPX2 gene is located, is frequently observed in cervical cancers; indeed TPX2 is reported among the 26 genes that are significantly overexpressed as consequence of 20q gain (Scotto et al., 2008). TPX2 mRNA and protein are highly expressed in cervical cancer, while its expression is almost absent in normal cervical tissues (Chang et al., 2012).
Entity Bladder cancer
Oncogenesis RNA microarrays and RT-PCR analyses showed significant upregulation of TPX2 in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder compared with normal urothelium (Zhou et al., 2013).
Entity Mesothelial tumors
Prognosis Immunostaining of malignant mesothelioma samples compared to benign reactive mesothelial hyperplasia showed significant overexpression of TPX2 in malignant samples, suggesting that TPX2 represents a useful marker in this respect (Taheri et al., 2008).

To be noted

Growing evidence highlights the therapeutic potential of TPX2 inactivation. Two RNAi-based screenings identified TPX2 among essential genes for tumor survival and hence the most promising target candidates for anti-cancer strategies (Morgan-Lappe et al., 2007; Martens-de Kemp et al., 2013). Several studies provide direct demonstration of the anti-proliferative effects of TPX2 inactivation in cancer cells of different tumor types (Morgan-Lappe et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2008; Warner et al., 2009; Li et al., 2010; Satow et al., 2010; Chang et al., 2012; Vainio et al., 2012; Martens-de Kemp et al., 2013). In addition, TPX2 inactivation significantly reduced tumor growth in xenografts models based on inoculation in nude mice of pancreatic or hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Warner et al., 2009; Satow et al., 2010).


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Characterization of the TPX2 domains involved in microtubule nucleation and spindle assembly in Xenopus egg extracts.
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PMID 21969468
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PMID 12727873
Identification of copy number gain and overexpressed genes on chromosome arm 20q by an integrative genomic approach in cervical cancer: potential role in progression.
Scotto L, Narayan G, Nandula SV, Arias-Pulido H, Subramaniyam S, Schneider A, Kaufmann AM, Wright JD, Pothuri B, Mansukhani M, Murty VV.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008 Sep;47(9):755-65. doi: 10.1002/gcc.20577.
PMID 18506748
Expression of TPX2 in salivary gland carcinomas.
Shigeishi H, Ohta K, Hiraoka M, Fujimoto S, Minami M, Higashikawa K, Kamata N.
Oncol Rep. 2009b Feb;21(2):341-4.
PMID 19148505
TPX2 and AURKA promote 20q amplicon-driven colorectal adenoma to carcinoma progression.
Sillars-Hardebol AH, Carvalho B, Tijssen M, Belien JA, de Wit M, Delis-van Diemen PM, Ponten F, van de Wiel MA, Fijneman RJ, Meijer GA.
Gut. 2012 Nov;61(11):1568-75. Epub 2011 Dec 29.
PMID 22207630
Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome controls the stability of TPX2 during mitotic exit.
Stewart S, Fang G.
Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Dec;25(23):10516-27.
PMID 16287863
Identification of gene markers associated with aggressive meningioma by filtering across multiple sets of gene expression arrays.
Stuart JE, Lusis EA, Scheck AC, Coons SW, Lal A, Perry A, Gutmann DH.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011 Jan;70(1):1-12. doi: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e3182018f1c.
PMID 21157382
The diagnostic value of Ki-67 and repp86 in distinguishing between benign and malignant mesothelial proliferations.
Taheri ZM, Mehrafza M, Mohammadi F, Khoddami M, Bahadori M, Masjedi MR.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Apr;132(4):694-7. doi: 10.1043/1543-2165(2008)132[694:TDVOKA]2.0.CO;2.
PMID 18384222
Kif15 cooperates with eg5 to promote bipolar spindle assembly.
Tanenbaum ME, Macurek L, Janssen A, Geers EF, Alvarez-Fernandez M, Medema RH.
Curr Biol. 2009 Nov 3;19(20):1703-11. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.08.027. Epub 2009 Oct 8.
PMID 19818618
High-resolution genomic profiles of human lung cancer.
Tonon G, Wong KK, Maulik G, Brennan C, Feng B, Zhang Y, Khatry DB, Protopopov A, You MJ, Aguirre AJ, Martin ES, Yang Z, Ji H, Chin L, Depinho RA.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 5;102(27):9625-30. Epub 2005 Jun 27.
PMID 15983384
Ran modulates spindle assembly by regulating a subset of TPX2 and Kid activities including Aurora A activation.
Trieselmann N, Armstrong S, Rauw J, Wilde A.
J Cell Sci. 2003 Dec 1;116(Pt 23):4791-8.
PMID 14600264
Molecular requirements for kinetochore-associated microtubule formation in mammalian cells.
Tulu US, Fagerstrom C, Ferenz NP, Wadsworth P.
Curr Biol. 2006 Mar 7;16(5):536-41.
PMID 16527751
High-throughput transcriptomic and RNAi analysis identifies AIM1, ERGIC1, TMED3 and TPX2 as potential drug targets in prostate cancer.
Vainio P, Mpindi JP, Kohonen P, Fey V, Mirtti T, Alanen KA, Perala M, Kallioniemi O, Iljin K.
PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39801. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039801. Epub 2012 Jun 28.
PMID 22761906
The role of Hklp2 in the stabilization and maintenance of spindle bipolarity.
Vanneste D, Takagi M, Imamoto N, Vernos I.
Curr Biol. 2009 Nov 3;19(20):1712-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.09.019. Epub 2009 Oct 8.
PMID 19818619
The plant TPX2 protein regulates prospindle assembly before nuclear envelope breakdown.
Vos JW, Pieuchot L, Evrard JL, Janski N, Bergdoll M, de Ronde D, Perez LH, Sardon T, Vernos I, Schmit AC.
Plant Cell. 2008 Oct;20(10):2783-97. doi: 10.1105/tpc.107.056796. Epub 2008 Oct 21.
PMID 18941054
Large scale identification of human hepatocellular carcinoma-associated antigens by autoantibodies.
Wang Y, Han KJ, Pang XW, Vaughan HA, Qu W, Dong XY, Peng JR, Zhao HT, Rui JA, Leng XS, Cebon J, Burgess AW, Chen WF.
J Immunol. 2002 Jul 15;169(2):1102-9.
PMID 12097419
Validation of TPX2 as a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer cells.
Warner SL, Stephens BJ, Nwokenkwo S, Hostetter G, Sugeng A, Hidalgo M, Trent JM, Han H, Von Hoff DD.
Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 1;15(21):6519-28. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0077. Epub 2009 Oct 27.
PMID 19861455
DPEP1 inhibits tumor cell invasiveness, enhances chemosensitivity and predicts clinical outcome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Zhang G, Schetter A, He P, Funamizu N, Gaedcke J, Ghadimi BM, Ried T, Hassan R, Yfantis HG, Lee DH, Lacy C, Maitra A, Hanna N, Alexander HR, Hussain SP.
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31507. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031507. Epub 2012 Feb 20.
PMID 22363658
TPX2 in malignantly transformed human bronchial epithelial cells by anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide.
Zhang L, Huang H, Deng L, Chu M, Xu L, Fu J, Zhu Y, Zhang X, Liu S, Zhou Z, Wang Y.
Toxicology. 2008 Oct 30;252(1-3):49-55. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2008.07.059. Epub 2008 Aug 3.
PMID 18723071
The investigational Aurora kinase A inhibitor MLN8237 induces defects in cell viability and cell-cycle progression in malignant bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Zhou N, Singh K, Mir MC, Parker Y, Lindner D, Dreicer R, Ecsedy JA, Zhang Z, Teh BT, Almasan A, Hansel DE.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Apr 1;19(7):1717-28. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-2383. Epub 2013 Feb 12.
PMID 23403633


This paper should be referenced as such :
Asteriti, IA ; Guarguaglini, G
TPX2 (TPX2, microtubule-associated, homolog (Xenopus laevis))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2013;17(9):623-629.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

External links


HGNC (Hugo)TPX2   1249
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)TPX2    TPX2 microtubule nucleation factor
AliasesC20orf1; C20orf2; DIL-2; DIL2; 
FLS353; GD:C20orf1; HCA519; HCTP4; REPP86; p100
GeneCards (Weizmann)TPX2
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000088325 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000088325 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000088325 [Sequence]  chr20:31739290-31801800 [Contig_View]  TPX2 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000088325
TCGA cBioPortalTPX2
AceView (NCBI)TPX2
Genatlas (Paris)TPX2
SOURCE (Princeton)TPX2
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)TPX2
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)TPX2  -     chr20:31739290-31801800 +  20q11.21   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)TPX2  -     20q11.21   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathTPX2 - 20q11.21 [CytoView hg19]  TPX2 - 20q11.21 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBITPX2 [Mapview hg19]  
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB024704 AB027467 AF098158 AF146731 AF244547
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_012112
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)TPX2
Gene ExpressionTPX2 [ NCBI-GEO ]   TPX2 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   TPX2 [ SEEK ]   TPX2 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)TPX2 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of TPX2 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)22974
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)TPX2
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000088325-TPX2 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ9ULW0   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ9ULW0  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ9ULW0
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Aurora-A-bd    TPX2_C    TPX2_central_dom    TPX2_fam   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Aurora-A_bind (PF09041)    TPX2 (PF06886)    TPX2_importin (PF12214)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam09041    pfam06886    pfam12214   
Conserved Domain (NCBI)TPX2
PDB (RSDB)1OL5    3E5A    3HA6    4C3P    5LXM    6BJC    6VPG    6VPH    6VPI    6VPJ    6VPL    6VPM    6XKA   
PDB Europe1OL5    3E5A    3HA6    4C3P    5LXM    6BJC    6VPG    6VPH    6VPI    6VPJ    6VPL    6VPM    6XKA   
PDB (PDBSum)1OL5    3E5A    3HA6    4C3P    5LXM    6BJC    6VPG    6VPH    6VPI    6VPJ    6VPL    6VPM    6XKA   
PDB (IMB)1OL5    3E5A    3HA6    4C3P    5LXM    6BJC    6VPG    6VPH    6VPI    6VPJ    6VPL    6VPM    6XKA   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1OL5    3E5A    3HA6    4C3P    5LXM    6BJC    6VPG    6VPH    6VPI    6VPJ    6VPL    6VPM    6XKA   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1OL5    3E5A    3HA6    4C3P    5LXM    6BJC    6VPG    6VPH    6VPI    6VPJ    6VPL    6VPM    6XKA   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1OL5    3E5A    3HA6    4C3P    5LXM    6BJC    6VPG    6VPH    6VPI    6VPJ    6VPL    6VPM    6XKA   
AlphaFold pdb e-kbQ9ULW0   
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000088325-TPX2 [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
IntAct (EBI)Q9ULW0
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOmitotic cell cycle  spindle pole  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  spindle  cytosol  nuclear microtubule  apoptotic process  microtubule nucleation  negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization  microtubule binding  regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle  microtubule cytoskeleton  protein kinase binding  protein kinase activator activity  activation of protein kinase activity  axon hillock  intercellular bridge  cell division  regulation of mitotic spindle organization  importin-alpha family protein binding  mitotic spindle  mitotic spindle  mitotic spindle assembly  mitotic spindle assembly  regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator  
Ontology : EGO-EBImitotic cell cycle  spindle pole  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  spindle  cytosol  nuclear microtubule  apoptotic process  microtubule nucleation  negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization  microtubule binding  regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle  microtubule cytoskeleton  protein kinase binding  protein kinase activator activity  activation of protein kinase activity  axon hillock  intercellular bridge  cell division  regulation of mitotic spindle organization  importin-alpha family protein binding  mitotic spindle  mitotic spindle  mitotic spindle assembly  mitotic spindle assembly  regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator  
Pathways : BIOCARTARole of Ran in mitotic spindle regulation [Genes]   
REACTOMEQ9ULW0 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-8854518 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkTPX2
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkTPX2
Wikipedia pathwaysTPX2
Orthology - Evolution
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000088325
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamTPX2
Homologs : HomoloGeneTPX2
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)TPX2
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanTM9SF4::TPX2 [20q11.21/20q11.21]  
Fusion : MitelmanTPX2::DEFB123 [20q11.21/20q11.21]  
Fusion : MitelmanTPX2::DUSP15 [20q11.21/20q11.21]  
Fusion : MitelmanTPX2::EYS [20q11.21/6q12]  
Fusion : MitelmanTPX2::HM13 [20q11.21/20q11.21]  
Fusion : MitelmanTPX2::RALY [20q11.21/20q11.22]  
Fusion : MitelmanTPX2::REM1 [20q11.21/20q11.21]  
Fusion : MitelmanTPX2::UNC5D [20q11.21/8p12]  
Fusion Cancer (Beijing)TPX2 [20q11.21]  -  BCL2L1 [20q11.21]  [FUSC000210]
Fusion : QuiverTPX2
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerTPX2 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)TPX2
Exome Variant ServerTPX2
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000088325
Varsome BrowserTPX2
ACMGTPX2 variants
Genomic Variants (DGV)TPX2 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERTPX2 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisTPX2 
ICGC Data PortalTPX2 
TCGA Data PortalTPX2 
Broad Tumor PortalTPX2
OASIS PortalTPX2 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICTPX2  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC3DTPX2
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDTPX2
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)[gene] [transcripts] [variants]
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)TPX2
DoCM (Curated mutations)TPX2
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)TPX2
NCG (London)TPX2
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [Provean] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Genetic Testing Registry TPX2
NextProtQ9ULW0 [Medical]
Target ValidationTPX2
Huge Navigator TPX2 [HugePedia]
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Protein Interactions : CTDTPX2
Pharm GKB GenePA25638
Clinical trialTPX2
DataMed IndexTPX2
Other database
PubMed168 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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indexed on : Fri Oct 8 21:30:00 CEST 2021

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