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GHRL (ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide)

Written2001-03Catherine Tomasetto
I.G.B.M.C., BP 163, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch, France

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Other namesMotilin-related peptide (MTLRP)
HGNC (Hugo) GHRL
LocusID (NCBI) 51738
Atlas_Id 327
Location 3p25.3
Location_base_pair Starts at 10327434 and ends at 10334631 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping GHRL.png]
 
  Probe(s) - Courtesy Mariano Rocchi, Resources for Molecular Cytogenetics

DNA/RNA

Transcription 600 bp, two mRNAs are encoded by the same genes, they are identical except for the lack of one codon (CAG) located at an exon intron boundary.

Protein

Description
  • two precursor s of 117 and 116 amino acids encoding preproGhrelin/MTLRP and prepro-des-Gln14-Ghrelin/ delta Gln14 MTLRP, respectively. The 28 amino-acids Ghrelin/MTLRP and the 27 amino-acids des-Gln14-Ghrelin/delta Gln14 MTLRP are modified post-translationally by the addition of a n-octanoic acid on Serine 3.
  • The 28 amino acids Ghrelin/MTLRP is produced from a protein precursor of 117 residues that contains a signal peptide from residues 1to 23, the ghrelin/MTLRP moity from residues 24 to 51, the MTLRP-associated peptide moity from residues 52 to 117.
  • The 27 amino acids des-Gln14-Ghrelin/delta Gln 14 MTLRP is produced from a protein precursor of 116 residues identical to the 117 aa precursor excep that the des-Gln14-Ghrelin/delta Gln14 MTLRP moity corresponds to residues 24 to 50 and accordingly the MTLRP-associated peptide moity from resisues 51 to 116.
  • Expression Ghrelin/MTLRP is mainly expressed by the enteroendocrine cells of the stomach; its expression decreased gradually along the gastro-intestinal tract and a faint expression was also detected in testis. By Immnunochemistry Ghrelin-immuno reactive neurons were found in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.
    Localisation As a peptide hormone Ghrelin/MTLRP is secreted in the blood.
    Function As the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) receptor, Ghrelin/MTLRP is involved in the pulsatile secretion of Growth hormone. In addition to this role Ghrelin/MTLRP is in the regulation of feeding. In rodent In contrast to leptin, Ghrelin/MTLRP promotes food intake and obesity. In addition Ghrelin/MTLRP stimulates motricity of the gastrointestinal tract and acid secretion.
    Homology ppGhrelin/MTLRP share 47% of similarity with the precursor of Motilin. In addition Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) and Motilin receptor (GPR38) share 52% identity.

    Bibliography

    Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach.
    Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K
    Nature. 1999 ; 402 (6762) : 656-660.
    PMID 10604470
     
    Purification and characterization of rat des-Gln14-Ghrelin, a second endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor.
    Hosoda H, Kojima M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 2000 ; 275 (29) : 21995-22000.
    PMID 10801861
     
    Ghrelin stimulates gastric acid secretion and motility in rats.
    Masuda Y, Tanaka T, Inomata N, Ohnuma N, Tanaka S, Itoh Z, Hosoda H, Kojima M, Kangawa K
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2000 ; 276 (3) : 905-908.
    PMID 11027567
     
    Identification and characterization of a novel gastric peptide hormone: the motilin-related peptide.
    Tomasetto C, Karam SM, Ribieras S, Masson R, Lefèbvre O, Staub A, Alexander G, Chenard MP, Rio MC
    Gastroenterology. 2000 ; 119 (2) : 395-405.
    PMID 10930375
     
    Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents.
    Tschöp M, Smiley DL, Heiman ML
    Nature. 2000 ; 407 (6806) : 908-913.
    PMID 11057670
     
    The novel hypothalamic peptide ghrelin stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion.
    Wren AM, Small CJ, Ward HL, Murphy KG, Dakin CL, Taheri S, Kennedy AR, Roberts GH, Morgan DG, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR
    Endocrinology. 2000 ; 141 (11) : 4325-4328.
    PMID 11089570
     
    A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding.
    Nakazato M, Murakami N, Date Y, Kojima M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K, Matsukura S
    Nature. 2001 ; 409 (6817) : 194-198.
    PMID 11196643
     

    Citation

    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Tomasetto, C
    GHRL (ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide)
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2001;5(2):108-109.
    Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
    On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/GhrelinID327.html


    External links

    Nomenclature
    HGNC (Hugo)GHRL   18129
    Cards
    AtlasGhrelinID327
    Entrez_Gene (NCBI)GHRL  51738  ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide
    AliasesMTLRP
    GeneCards (Weizmann)GHRL
    Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000157017 [Gene_View]  chr3:10327434-10334631 [Contig_View]  GHRL [Vega]
    Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000157017 [Gene_View]  chr3:10327434-10334631 [Contig_View]  GHRL [Vega]
    ICGC DataPortalENSG00000157017
    TCGA cBioPortalGHRL
    AceView (NCBI)GHRL
    Genatlas (Paris)GHRL
    WikiGenes51738
    SOURCE (Princeton)GHRL
    Genomic and cartography
    GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)GHRL  -     chr3:10327434-10334631 -  3p25.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
    GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)GHRL  -     3p25.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
    EnsemblGHRL - 3p25.3 [CytoView hg19]  GHRL - 3p25.3 [CytoView hg38]
    Mapping of homologs : NCBIGHRL [Mapview hg19]  GHRL [Mapview hg38]
    OMIM601665   605353   
    Gene and transcription
    Genbank (Entrez)AB029434 AB035700 AJ252278 AY184207 AY359053
    RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001134941 NM_001134944 NM_001134945 NM_001134946 NM_001302821 NM_001302822 NM_001302823 NM_001302824 NM_001302825 NM_016362
    RefSeq genomic (Entrez)NC_000003 NC_018914 NG_011560 NG_033090 NT_022517 NW_004929309
    Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)GHRL
    Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.672979 [ NCBI ]
    CGAP (NCI)Hs.672979
    Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000157017
    Gene ExpressionGHRL [ NCBI-GEO ]   GHRL [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   GHRL [ SEEK ]   GHRL [ MEM ]
    Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)GHRL [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
    SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
    GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
    BioGPS (Tissue expression)51738
    GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)GHRL
    Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
    UniProt/SwissProtQ9UBU3 (Uniprot)
    NextProtQ9UBU3  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
    With graphics : InterProQ9UBU3
    Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ9UBU3 (Swissvar)
    PhosPhoSitePlusQ9UBU3
    Domains : Interpro (EBI)Motilin_assoc    Motilin_ghrelin    Preproghrelin   
    Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Motilin_assoc (PF04643)    Motilin_ghrelin (PF04644)   
    Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam04643    pfam04644   
    DMDM Disease mutations51738
    Blocks (Seattle)GHRL
    PDB (SRS)1P7X   
    PDB (PDBSum)1P7X   
    PDB (IMB)1P7X   
    PDB (RSDB)1P7X   
    Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1P7X   
    SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1P7X   
    CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1P7X   
    SuperfamilyQ9UBU3
    Human Protein AtlasENSG00000157017
    Peptide AtlasQ9UBU3
    HPRD05638
    IPIIPI00008925   IPI00219213   IPI00872504   IPI00924498   IPI00872396   IPI00384741   IPI00925962   IPI00871969   
    Protein Interaction databases
    DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q9UBU3
    IntAct (EBI)Q9UBU3
    FunCoupENSG00000157017
    BioGRIDGHRL
    STRING (EMBL)GHRL
    ZODIACGHRL
    Ontologies - Pathways
    QuickGOQ9UBU3
    Ontology : AmiGOactivation of MAPK activity  G-protein coupled receptor binding  gastric acid secretion  negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation  protein binding  extracellular region  extracellular region  extracellular space  endoplasmic reticulum lumen  cytosol  glucose metabolic process  G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway  G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway  positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration  actin polymerization or depolymerization  adult feeding behavior  response to hormone  hormone-mediated signaling pathway  dendrite development  negative regulation of angiogenesis  growth hormone-releasing hormone activity  growth hormone-releasing hormone activity  growth hormone secretion  protein tyrosine kinase activator activity  axon  ghrelin receptor binding  ghrelin receptor binding  positive regulation of insulin secretion  regulation of response to food  positive regulation of appetite  negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production  secretory granule lumen  negative regulation of locomotion  positive regulation of multicellular organism growth  regulation of cell proliferation  negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, REM sleep  negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process  negative regulation of apoptotic process  cortisol secretion  response to estrogen  negative regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process  positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, non-REM sleep  negative regulation of insulin secretion  decidualization  negative regulation of inflammatory response  cartilage development  positive regulation of corticotropin secretion  positive regulation of cortisol secretion  positive regulation of synapse assembly  excitatory postsynaptic potential  positive regulation of growth hormone secretion  positive regulation of growth hormone receptor signaling pathway  positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity  postsynapse  negative regulation of energy homeostasis  positive regulation of energy homeostasis  
    Ontology : EGO-EBIactivation of MAPK activity  G-protein coupled receptor binding  gastric acid secretion  negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation  protein binding  extracellular region  extracellular region  extracellular space  endoplasmic reticulum lumen  cytosol  glucose metabolic process  G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway  G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway  positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration  actin polymerization or depolymerization  adult feeding behavior  response to hormone  hormone-mediated signaling pathway  dendrite development  negative regulation of angiogenesis  growth hormone-releasing hormone activity  growth hormone-releasing hormone activity  growth hormone secretion  protein tyrosine kinase activator activity  axon  ghrelin receptor binding  ghrelin receptor binding  positive regulation of insulin secretion  regulation of response to food  positive regulation of appetite  negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production  secretory granule lumen  negative regulation of locomotion  positive regulation of multicellular organism growth  regulation of cell proliferation  negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, REM sleep  negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process  negative regulation of apoptotic process  cortisol secretion  response to estrogen  negative regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process  positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, non-REM sleep  negative regulation of insulin secretion  decidualization  negative regulation of inflammatory response  cartilage development  positive regulation of corticotropin secretion  positive regulation of cortisol secretion  positive regulation of synapse assembly  excitatory postsynaptic potential  positive regulation of growth hormone secretion  positive regulation of growth hormone receptor signaling pathway  positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity  postsynapse  negative regulation of energy homeostasis  positive regulation of energy homeostasis  
    Pathways : BIOCARTAGhrelin: Regulation of Food Intake and Energy Homeostasis [Genes]   
    NDEx Network
    Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkGHRL
    Wikipedia pathwaysGHRL
    Orthology - Evolution
    OrthoDB51738
    GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000157017
    Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamGHRL
    Homologs : HomoloGeneGHRL
    Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)GHRL
    Gene fusions - Rearrangements
    Polymorphisms : SNP, variants
    NCBI Variation ViewerGHRL [hg38]
    dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)GHRL
    dbVarGHRL
    ClinVarGHRL
    1000_GenomesGHRL 
    Exome Variant ServerGHRL
    ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)GHRL (select the gene name)
    Genetic variants : HAPMAP51738
    Genomic Variants (DGV)GHRL [DGVbeta]
    Mutations
    ICGC Data PortalGHRL 
    TCGA Data PortalGHRL 
    Broad Tumor PortalGHRL
    OASIS PortalGHRL [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
    Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICGHRL 
    LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
    LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
    LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)MSeqDR-LSDB Mitochondrial Disease Locus Specific Database
    BioMutasearch GHRL
    DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)GHRL
    DoCM (Curated mutations)GHRL (select the gene name)
    CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)GHRL (select a term)
    intoGenGHRL
    Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] 
    Diseases
    DECIPHER (Syndromes)3:10327434-10334631  ENSG00000157017
    CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisGHRL 
    Mutations and Diseases : HGMDGHRL
    OMIM601665    605353   
    MedgenGHRL
    Genetic Testing Registry GHRL
    NextProtQ9UBU3 [Medical]
    TSGene51738
    GENETestsGHRL
    Huge Navigator GHRL [HugePedia]
    snp3D : Map Gene to Disease51738
    BioCentury BCIQGHRL
    ClinGenGHRL
    Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
    Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD51738
    Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA142671740
    Clinical trialGHRL
    Miscellaneous
    canSAR (ICR)GHRL (select the gene name)
    Probes
    ProbeCancer Cytogenetics (Bari)
    Litterature
    PubMed499 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
    GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
    CoreMineGHRL
    EVEXGHRL
    GoPubMedGHRL
    iHOPGHRL
    REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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    indexed on : Sat May 28 11:33:17 CEST 2016

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