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ID2 (Inhibitor Of DNA Binding 2, Dominant Negative Helix-Loop-Helix Protein)

Written2014-06Menno C van Zelm
Dept Immunology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesinhibitor of differentiation 2
inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein
Alias_symbol (synonym)GIG8
bHLHb26
Other aliasID2A
ID2H
HGNC (Hugo) ID2
LocusID (NCBI) 3398
Atlas_Id 436
Location 2p25.1  [Link to chromosome band 2p25]
Location_base_pair Starts at 8681983 and ends at 8684453 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping ID2.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)

DNA/RNA

 
Description The gene spans 5608 bp containing 5 exons of which 2 (exons 3 and 4) are protein-encoding.
Transcription The ID2 gene has 4 transcripts, of which 3 can generate functional protein: ID2-001 (2041bp) contains all 5 exons, ID2-201 (1362 bp) contains 3 exons and ID2-002 contains 2 exons. ID2-003 (474 bp) contains a retained intron.
Pseudogene A pseudogene of ID2 is located on chromosome 3.

Protein

Description ID2 belongs to the helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein family. It is composed by 134 aa and belongs to a subgroup HLH family members (ID1, ID2, ID3, ID4) that lack a basic DNA-binding domain. ID proteins form heterodimers with class I basic HLH-group members such as MyoD (Langlands et al., 1997), NEDD9 (Law et al., 1999), and E2A gene products E12 and E47. ID2 has a main domain located on 38-79 aa responsible for the helix-loop-helix conformation. In addition, Id2 contains a 10 aa motif that is responsible for the nuclear export signaling.
Expression Expression of ID2 is found in the brain, ovary, liver, lung, thyroid gland and prostate and several subsets of leukocytes. ID2 expression is especially high in Natural Killer (NK-) cells, but is also found in CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, monocytes and precursor B cells.
Localisation Nucleus.
Function Although it does not bind directly to DNA, by binding basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors through its HLH motif, ID2 may control tissue-specific genes related to cell growth, proliferation and differentiation (Hara et al., 1994; Iavarone et al., 1994). ID2 functions in cell fate decisions in early leukocyte development. Specifically, ID2 is required for NK-cell, innate lymphoid and lymphoid tissue inducer cells (Boos et al., 2007; Moro et al., 2010; Yokota et al., 1999). Furthermore, ID2 functions in the development of several dendritic cell subsets: Langerhans cells, cutaneous dendritic cells and splenic CD8a+ dendritic cells (Hacker et al., 2003). Although ID2 seems redundant for T-cell development in thymus, ID2 promotes NKT-cell development (Verykokakis et al., 2013), and it is involved in effector differentiation (Masson et al., 2013), as well as γδT cell homeostasis (Zhang et al., 2014). Finally, ID2 inhibits progression of precursor-B-cell development (Hara et al., 1997; Jensen et al., 2013), as well as activation-induced deaminase expression during B-cell responses (Gonda et al., 2003), likely through inhibition of E47 (Sayegh et al., 2003).
Besides leukocytes, ID2 has been found to function in erythrocyte development (Ji et al., 2008), enterocyte precursor and lung epithelial cell differentiation in mice (Rawlins et al., 2009). Furthermore, female mice lacking ID2 show lactation defects (Mori et al., 2000), and male mice have impaired spermatogenesis (Sablitzky et al., 1998).
Homology ID2 is highly conserved in vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and fish.

Mutations

Germinal No germinal mutations have been reported.
Somatic No somatic mutations have been reported.

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Neuroblastoma
Note ID2 functions as a key regulator in the phenotypic transition of neuroblastoma tumor cells (Chakrabarti et al., 2013). Anchorage-dependent (AD) neuroblastoma cells express much higher levels of ID2 than anchorage-independent (AI) cells. Moreover, knockdown of ID2 in AD cells induces an AI phenotype, whereas the opposite is seen upon forced expression of ID2 in AI cells. The function of ID2 in this process is at least in part via negative regulation of the TGFβ/Smad pathway.
  
  
Entity Colon carcinoma
Note ID2 expression is upregulated by enhanced beta-catenin signaling and subsequent beta-catenin /TCF mediated transcription. The induction of ID2 expression increases anchorage-independent survival of these cells (Rockman et al., 2001).
  
  
Entity Melanoma
Note The transition of melanoma to a more aggressive malignancy is associated with the resistance to growth inhibition by TGF-β (Javelaud et al., 2008). In susceptible cells, TGF-β suppresses ID2 expression and allows p15lnk4b to induce a cell cycle arrest (Schlegel et al., 2009). Upon obtaining resistance to TGF-β, the tumor cells overexpress ID2 and remain in cycle.
  
  
Entity Retinoblastoma
Note ID2 is overexpressed due to transcriptional activation by oncoproteins of the Myc family in retinoblastoma, where it is thought to inhibit Retinoblastoma protein family members (Lasorella et al., 2000; Lasorella et al., 2005).
  
  
Entity Hodgkin's lymphoma
Note The majority of Hodgkin's lymphomas are derived from germinal center B cells. Still, Hodgkin-Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma have a very atypical phenotype. This is the result of overexpression of and Id2, which inhibit the function of the B cell-determining transcription factor E2A (Mathas et al., 2006; Renne et al., 2006). The mechanism resulting in ID2 overexpression, nor the impact of ID2 on cell cycle progression in HRS cells have been demonstrated experimentally yet (Cotta and Medeiros, 2008).
  

Bibliography

Mature natural killer cell and lymphoid tissue-inducing cell development requires Id2-mediated suppression of E protein activity.
Boos MD, Yokota Y, Eberl G, Kee BL.
J Exp Med. 2007 May 14;204(5):1119-30. Epub 2007 Apr 23.
PMID 17452521
 
A mechanism linking Id2-TGFβ crosstalk to reversible adaptive plasticity in neuroblastoma.
Chakrabarti L, Wang BD, Lee NH, Sandler AD.
PLoS One. 2013 Dec 23;8(12):e83521. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083521. eCollection 2013.
PMID 24376712
 
Expression of helix-loop-helix proteins in classical hodgkin lymphoma: a possible explanation for a characteristic immunophenotype.
Cotta CV, Medeiros LJ.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2008 Mar;15(2):97-104. doi: 10.1097/PAP.0b013e3181661363.
PMID 18418090
 
The balance between Pax5 and Id2 activities is the key to AID gene expression.
Gonda H, Sugai M, Nambu Y, Katakai T, Agata Y, Mori KJ, Yokota Y, Shimizu A.
J Exp Med. 2003 Nov 3;198(9):1427-37. Epub 2003 Oct 27.
PMID 14581609
 
Transcriptional profiling identifies Id2 function in dendritic cell development.
Hacker C, Kirsch RD, Ju XS, Hieronymus T, Gust TC, Kuhl C, Jorgas T, Kurz SM, Rose-John S, Yokota Y, Zenke M.
Nat Immunol. 2003 Apr;4(4):380-6. Epub 2003 Feb 24.
PMID 12598895
 
Cdk2-dependent phosphorylation of Id2 modulates activity of E2A-related transcription factors.
Hara E, Hall M, Peters G.
EMBO J. 1997 Jan 15;16(2):332-42.
PMID 9029153
 
Id-related genes encoding helix-loop-helix proteins are required for G1 progression and are repressed in senescent human fibroblasts.
Hara E, Yamaguchi T, Nojima H, Ide T, Campisi J, Okayama H, Oda K.
J Biol Chem. 1994 Jan 21;269(3):2139-45.
PMID 8294468
 
The helix-loop-helix protein Id-2 enhances cell proliferation and binds to the retinoblastoma protein.
Iavarone A, Garg P, Lasorella A, Hsu J, Israel MA.
Genes Dev. 1994 Jun 1;8(11):1270-84.
PMID 7926730
 
Transforming growth factor-beta in cutaneous melanoma.
Javelaud D, Alexaki VI, Mauviel A.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2008 Apr;21(2):123-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2008.00450.x. (REVIEW)
PMID 18426405
 
Increased ID2 levels in adult precursor B cells as compared with children is associated with impaired Ig locus contraction and decreased bone marrow output.
Jensen K, Rother MB, Brusletto BS, Olstad OK, Dalsbotten Aass HC, van Zelm MC, Kierulf P, Gautvik KM.
J Immunol. 2013 Aug 1;191(3):1210-9. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1203462. Epub 2013 Jul 3.
PMID 23825313
 
Id2 intrinsically regulates lymphoid and erythroid development via interaction with different target proteins.
Ji M, Li H, Suh HC, Klarmann KD, Yokota Y, Keller JR.
Blood. 2008 Aug 15;112(4):1068-77. doi: 10.1182/blood-2008-01-133504. Epub 2008 Jun 3.
PMID 18523151
 
Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors.
Langlands K, Yin X, Anand G, Prochownik EV.
J Biol Chem. 1997 Aug 8;272(32):19785-93.
PMID 9242638
 
Id2 mediates tumor initiation, proliferation, and angiogenesis in Rb mutant mice.
Lasorella A, Rothschild G, Yokota Y, Russell RG, Iavarone A.
Mol Cell Biol. 2005 May;25(9):3563-74.
PMID 15831462
 
Dimerization of the docking/adaptor protein HEF1 via a carboxy-terminal helix-loop-helix domain.
Law SF, Zhang YZ, Fashena SJ, Toby G, Estojak J, Golemis EA.
Exp Cell Res. 1999 Oct 10;252(1):224-35.
PMID 10502414
 
Id2-mediated inhibition of E2A represses memory CD8+ T cell differentiation.
Masson F, Minnich M, Olshansky M, Bilic I, Mount AM, Kallies A, Speed TP, Busslinger M, Nutt SL, Belz GT.
J Immunol. 2013 May 1;190(9):4585-94. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1300099. Epub 2013 Mar 27.
PMID 23536629
 
Intrinsic inhibition of transcription factor E2A by HLH proteins ABF-1 and Id2 mediates reprogramming of neoplastic B cells in Hodgkin lymphoma.
Mathas S, Janz M, Hummel F, Hummel M, Wollert-Wulf B, Lusatis S, Anagnostopoulos I, Lietz A, Sigvardsson M, Jundt F, Johrens K, Bommert K, Stein H, Dorken B.
Nat Immunol. 2006 Feb;7(2):207-15. Epub 2005 Dec 20.
PMID 16369535
 
Lactation defect in mice lacking the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2.
Mori S, Nishikawa SI, Yokota Y.
EMBO J. 2000 Nov 1;19(21):5772-81.
PMID 11060028
 
Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells.
Moro K, Yamada T, Tanabe M, Takeuchi T, Ikawa T, Kawamoto H, Furusawa J, Ohtani M, Fujii H, Koyasu S.
Nature. 2010 Jan 28;463(7280):540-4. doi: 10.1038/nature08636. Epub 2009 Dec 20.
PMID 20023630
 
The Id2+ distal tip lung epithelium contains individual multipotent embryonic progenitor cells.
Rawlins EL, Clark CP, Xue Y, Hogan BL.
Development. 2009 Nov;136(22):3741-5. doi: 10.1242/dev.037317.
PMID 19855016
 
Aberrant expression of ID2, a suppressor of B-cell-specific gene expression, in Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Renne C, Martin-Subero JI, Eickernjager M, Hansmann ML, Kuppers R, Siebert R, Brauninger A.
Am J Pathol. 2006 Aug;169(2):655-64.
PMID 16877363
 
Id2 is a target of the beta-catenin/T cell factor pathway in colon carcinoma.
Rockman SP, Currie SA, Ciavarella M, Vincan E, Dow C, Thomas RJ, Phillips WA.
J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 30;276(48):45113-9. Epub 2001 Sep 25.
PMID 11572874
 
Stage- and subcellular-specific expression of Id proteins in male germ and Sertoli cells implicates distinctive regulatory roles for Id proteins during meiosis, spermatogenesis, and Sertoli cell function.
Sablitzky F, Moore A, Bromley M, Deed RW, Newton JS, Norton JD.
Cell Growth Differ. 1998 Dec;9(12):1015-24.
PMID 9869302
 
E-proteins directly regulate expression of activation-induced deaminase in mature B cells.
Sayegh CE, Quong MW, Agata Y, Murre C.
Nat Immunol. 2003 Jun;4(6):586-93. Epub 2003 Apr 28.
PMID 12717431
 
Id2 suppression of p15 counters TGF-beta-mediated growth inhibition of melanoma cells.
Schlegel NC, Eichhoff OM, Hemmi S, Werner S, Dummer R, Hoek KS.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009 Aug;22(4):445-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2009.00571.x. Epub 2009 Apr 24.
PMID 19368689
 
Essential functions for ID proteins at multiple checkpoints in invariant NKT cell development.
Verykokakis M, Krishnamoorthy V, Iavarone A, Lasorella A, Sigvardsson M, Kee BL.
J Immunol. 2013 Dec 15;191(12):5973-83. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301521. Epub 2013 Nov 15.
PMID 24244015
 
Development of peripheral lymphoid organs and natural killer cells depends on the helix-loop-helix inhibitor Id2.
Yokota Y, Mansouri A, Mori S, Sugawara S, Adachi S, Nishikawa S, Gruss P.
Nature. 1999 Feb 25;397(6721):702-6.
PMID 10067894
 
Id3 and Id2 act as a dual safety mechanism in regulating the development and population size of innate-like γδ T cells.
Zhang B, Lin YY, Dai M, Zhuang Y.
J Immunol. 2014 Feb 1;192(3):1055-63. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1302694. Epub 2013 Dec 30.
PMID 24379125
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Zelm MC van
ID2 (Inhibitor Of DNA Binding 2, Dominant Negative Helix-Loop-Helix Protein)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2015;19(3):168-171.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/ID2ID436ch2p25.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)ID2   5361
Cards
AtlasID2ID436ch2p25
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)ID2  3398  inhibitor of DNA binding 2, HLH protein
AliasesGIG8; ID2A; ID2H; bHLHb26
GeneCards (Weizmann)ID2
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000115738 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000115738 [Gene_View]  chr2:8681983-8684453 [Contig_View]  ID2 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000115738
TCGA cBioPortalID2
AceView (NCBI)ID2
Genatlas (Paris)ID2
WikiGenes3398
SOURCE (Princeton)ID2
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)ID2
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)ID2  -     chr2:8681983-8684453 +  2p25.1   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)ID2  -     2p25.1   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblID2 - 2p25.1 [CytoView hg19]  ID2 - 2p25.1 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIID2 [Mapview hg19]  ID2 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM600386   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK222682 AK311988 AY634687 BC030639 BE222494
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_002166
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)ID2
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.726053 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.726053
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000115738
Gene ExpressionID2 [ NCBI-GEO ]   ID2 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   ID2 [ SEEK ]   ID2 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)ID2 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)3398
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)ID2
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000115738-ID2 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ02363   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ02363  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ02363
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ02363
PhosPhoSitePlusQ02363
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)BHLH (PS50888)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)bHLH_dom    DNA-bd_prot-inh   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)HLH (PF00010)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00010   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)HLH (SM00353)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)ID2
DMDM Disease mutations3398
Blocks (Seattle)ID2
PDB (SRS)4AYA   
PDB (PDBSum)4AYA   
PDB (IMB)4AYA   
PDB (RSDB)4AYA   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase4AYA   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)4AYA   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)4AYA   
SuperfamilyQ02363
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000115738-ID2 [tissue]
Peptide AtlasQ02363
HPRD02664
IPIIPI00294210   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q02363
IntAct (EBI)Q02363
FunCoupENSG00000115738
BioGRIDID2
STRING (EMBL)ID2
ZODIACID2
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOQ02363
Ontology : AmiGOnegative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  metanephros development  natural killer cell differentiation  thigmotaxis  membranous septum morphogenesis  bundle of His development  protein binding  nucleus  cytoplasm  cytoplasm  cytosol  transcription, DNA-templated  multicellular organism development  adult locomotory behavior  positive regulation of gene expression  negative regulation of gene expression  oligodendrocyte development  regulation of lipid metabolic process  olfactory bulb development  circadian regulation of gene expression  mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation  regulation of circadian rhythm  entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod  protein complex  enucleate erythrocyte differentiation  negative regulation of DNA binding  negative regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity  ion channel binding  locomotor rhythm  negative regulation of B cell differentiation  positive regulation of fat cell differentiation  positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation  positive regulation of macrophage differentiation  negative regulation of neuron differentiation  negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation  positive regulation of blood pressure  negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  protein dimerization activity  cell maturation  Peyer's patch development  embryonic digestive tract morphogenesis  positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation  neuron fate commitment  cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation  positive regulation of astrocyte differentiation  negative regulation f olag/dendrocyte differentiation  adipose tissue development  mammary gland alveolus development  epithelial cell differentiation involved in mammary gland alveolus development  endodermal digestive tract morphogenesis  positive regulation of cell cycle arrest  cellular response to lithium ion  positive regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle  cellular senescence  regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle  negative regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation  
Ontology : EGO-EBInegative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  metanephros development  natural killer cell differentiation  thigmotaxis  membranous septum morphogenesis  bundle of His development  protein binding  nucleus  cytoplasm  cytoplasm  cytosol  transcription, DNA-templated  multicellular organism development  adult locomotory behavior  positive regulation of gene expression  negative regulation of gene expression  oligodendrocyte development  regulation of lipid metabolic process  olfactory bulb development  circadian regulation of gene expression  mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation  regulation of circadian rhythm  entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod  protein complex  enucleate erythrocyte differentiation  negative regulation of DNA binding  negative regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity  ion channel binding  locomotor rhythm  negative regulation of B cell differentiation  positive regulation of fat cell differentiation  positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation  positive regulation of macrophage differentiation  negative regulation of neuron differentiation  negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation  positive regulation of blood pressure  negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  protein dimerization activity  cell maturation  Peyer's patch development  embryonic digestive tract morphogenesis  positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation  neuron fate commitment  cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation  positive regulation of astrocyte differentiation  negative regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation  adipose tissue development  mammary gland alveolus development  epithelial cell differentiation involved in mammary gland alveolus development  endodermal digestive tract morphogenesis  positive regulation of cell cycle arrest  cellular response to lithium ion  positive regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle  cellular senescence  regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle  negative regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation  
Pathways : KEGGTGF-beta signaling pathway    Hippo signaling pathway    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer   
NDEx NetworkID2
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkID2
Wikipedia pathwaysID2
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB3398
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000115738
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamID2
HOVERGENQ02363
HOGENOMQ02363
Homologs : HomoloGeneID2
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)ID2
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerID2 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)ID2
dbVarID2
ClinVarID2
1000_GenomesID2 
Exome Variant ServerID2
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ENSG00000115738
GNOMAD BrowserENSG00000115738
Genetic variants : HAPMAP3398
Genomic Variants (DGV)ID2 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERID2 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisID2 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalID2 
TCGA Data PortalID2 
Broad Tumor PortalID2
OASIS PortalID2 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICID2  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDID2
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch ID2
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)ID2
DoCM (Curated mutations)ID2 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)ID2 (select a term)
intoGenID2
NCG5 (London)ID2
Cancer3DID2(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM600386   
Orphanet
MedgenID2
Genetic Testing Registry ID2
NextProtQ02363 [Medical]
TSGene3398
GENETestsID2
Target ValidationID2
Huge Navigator ID2 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease3398
BioCentury BCIQID2
ClinGenID2
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD3398
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA29609
Clinical trialID2
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)ID2 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed135 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineID2
EVEXID2
GoPubMedID2
iHOPID2
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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