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INGX (inhibitor of growth family, X-linked, pseudogene)

Written2013-12Audrey Mouche, Rémy Pedeux
INSERM U917, Microenvironnement et Cancer, Rennes, France, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes, France (AM, RP); Etablissement Francais du Sang, Rennes, France (RP)

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


inhibitor of growth family, member 2
Alias_symbol (synonym)ING1-like
Other alias
LocusID (NCBI) 27160
Atlas_Id 40976
Location Xq13.1  [Link to chromosome band Xq13]
Location_base_pair Starts at 71491681 and ends at 71492449 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping INGX.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)


  Chromosomal localization of the INGX gene in Homo sapiens.
Description The sex chromosome linked INGX gene, homolog to ING1 has been cloned for the first time by Jäger et al., 1999. The five human ING genes and the pseudogene INGX have been mapped to six different chromosomes. In addition, ING genes are located close to the telomeric region except for ING3 and INGX. This gene has been localised on the human X chromosome at locus Xq13.1 close to the centromeric region (He et al., 2005).
Transcription INGX gene has three transcripts and a unique exon. The sequence of this exon shares 72% of identity with exon 2 of ING1. RT-PCR analysis shows that INGX mRNA is expressed in normal tissue (brain, colon, testis, kidney, liver and breast). However, some tumor cell lines like melanoma or breast cancer showed a loss of INGX mRNA (Jäger et al., 1999).
Pseudogene INGX is the pseudogene of ING1 (He et al., 2005).


  A schematic representation of the different domain of ING1b, ING2 and INGX protein.
Description The amino acid sequence alignment of human ING proteins revealed several conserved regions: a leucine-zipper-like-region (LZL), a novel conserved region (NCR), a nuclear localization signal (NLS), a plant homeo domain (PHD) and a polybasic region (PBR). The ING proteins are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved PHD in their C-terminal part. This domain is commonly found in proteins involved in chromatin modification (Bienz, 2006; Mellor, 2006).
ING proteins are characterized by their PHD domain which is highly conserved. The longest ORF in INGX gene is only 129 bp length and would encode a predicted amino acid sequence of 42 amino acids, but there is no report about an INGX protein produced from a transcript. This INGX sequence has a high homology degree with the PHD amino acid sequence. INGX protein would have a partial PHD domain (He et al., 2005).
  Amino acid sequences alignment of ING1b, ING2 and INGX. Plant homeo domain (PHD) is indicated by box.
Localisation At present, there is no proof about the existence of the production of an INGX protein. Moreover, the predicted protein would not have a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) like the other members of the ING family. It could thus be located in the cytoplasm unlike the other ING proteins (for review, Guérillon et al., 2013).
Function The tumor suppressor ING genes are lost or misregulated in different types of human tumors. Unfortunately, few data about INGX are available. We actually know that INGX, unlike the other ING, is highly truncated. So it would be interesting to determine if it has the potential to act in a dominant negative manner (He et al., 2005).
Homology In databanks, INGX is also referred as ING1-like.

Implicated in

Entity Melanoma and breast cancer
Note Several studies have shown that ING proteins are involved in critical cellular processes such as senescence, apoptosis, DNA repair, growth regulation, cell migration (for review, Guérillon et al., 2013). In tumor, ING expression is mostly lost at mRNA level (For review: Guérillon et al., 2013 and Ythier et al., 2008). Jäger et al., 1999 have shown a loss of INGX mRNA in some tumor cell lines like melanoma or breast cancer.


The PHD finger, a nuclear protein-interaction domain.
Bienz M.
Trends Biochem Sci. 2006 Jan;31(1):35-40. Epub 2005 Nov 16. (REVIEW)
PMID 16297627
The ING tumor suppressor genes: Status in human tumors.
Guerillon C, Bigot N, Pedeux R.
Cancer Lett. 2014 Apr 1;345(1):1-16. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2013.11.016. Epub 2013 Dec 11.
PMID 24333729
Phylogenetic analysis of the ING family of PHD finger proteins.
He GH, Helbing CC, Wagner MJ, Sensen CW, Riabowol K.
Mol Biol Evol. 2005 Jan;22(1):104-16. Epub 2004 Sep 8.
PMID 15356280
Cancer-testis antigens and ING1 tumor suppressor gene product are breast cancer antigens: characterization of tissue-specific ING1 transcripts and a homologue gene.
Jager D, Stockert E, Scanlan MJ, Gure AO, Jager E, Knuth A, Old LJ, Chen YT.
Cancer Res. 1999 Dec 15;59(24):6197-204.
PMID 10626813
It takes a PHD to read the histone code.
Mellor J.
Cell. 2006 Jul 14;126(1):22-4. (REVIEW)
PMID 16839870
The new tumor suppressor genes ING: genomic structure and status in cancer.
Ythier D, Larrieu D, Brambilla C, Brambilla E, Pedeux R.
Int J Cancer. 2008 Oct 1;123(7):1483-90. doi: 10.1002/ijc.23790. (REVIEW)
PMID 18636562


This paper should be referenced as such :
Mouche, A ; Pedeux, R
INGX (inhibitor of growth family, X-linked, pseudogene)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2014;18(8):556-558.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version :

External links

HGNC (Hugo)INGX   6064
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)INGX  27160  inhibitor of growth family, X-linked (pseudogene)
AliasesING1-like; ING2
GeneCards (Weizmann)INGX
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000243468 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000243468 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000243468 [Sequence]  chrX:71491681-71492449 [Contig_View]  INGX [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000243468
Genatlas (Paris)INGX
SOURCE (Princeton)INGX
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)INGX
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)INGX  -     chrX:71491681-71492449 -  Xq13.1   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)INGX  -     Xq13.1   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathINGX - Xq13.1 [CytoView hg19]  INGX - Xq13.1 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIINGX [Mapview hg19]  INGX [Mapview hg38]
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AF149724 BC101123 BC101124 BC117297
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)INGX
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.721806 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.721806
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000243468
Gene ExpressionINGX [ NCBI-GEO ]   INGX [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   INGX [ SEEK ]   INGX [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)INGX [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
BioGPS (Tissue expression)27160
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)INGX
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000243468-INGX [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Conserved Domain (NCBI)INGX
DMDM Disease mutations27160
Blocks (Seattle)INGX
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000243468-INGX [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
Ontologies - Pathways
Huge Navigator INGX [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease27160
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD27160
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA142671659
Clinical trialINGX
canSAR (ICR)INGX (select the gene name)
DataMed IndexINGX
PubMed5 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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