Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

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IGH (Immunoglobulin Heavy)

Written2000-07Marie-Paule Lefranc
IMGT, LIGM, IGH, UPR CNRS 1142, 141 rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier Cedex 5, France

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)IGH@ (Immunoglobulin Heavy)
HGNC Previous nameIGHDY1
LocusID (NCBI) 3492
Atlas_Id 40
Location 14q32.33  [Link to chromosome band 14q32]
  for complete Figure, see: chromosome 14, IMGT (The International ImMunoGeneTics information system ®) © Copyright 1995-2017 IMGT, IMGT is a CNRS trademark
  IGH (Immunoglobulin Heavy) Hybridization with Vysis LSI IGH break apart rearrangement probe (Abbott Molecular, US) showing IGH on 14q32.33 (red-green or a fused yellow signal) - Courtesy Adriana Zamecnikova.
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
Note The human IGH locus is located on the chromosome 14 at band 14q32.33, at the telomeric extremity of the long arm; the orientation of the locus has been determined by the analysis of translocations, involving the IGH locus, in leukemia and lymphoma


V-GENE: Green box: Functional; Yellow box: Open reading frame; Red: Pseudogene; Grey triangle: Not sequenced, not found.
D-GENE: Blue: Functional; Blue open box: Open reading frame.
J-GENE: Grey: Functional .
C-GENE: Blue: Functional; Blue dashed box: Open reading frame; Blue open box: Pseudogene.
GENES NOT RELATED: Purple open box: Pseudogene.
for complete Figure, see: locus IGH, IMGT (The International ImMunoGeneTics information system ®) © Copyright 1995-2017 IMGT, IMGT is a CNRS trademark
  • The human IGH locus at 14q32.33 spans 1250 kilobases (kb). It consists of 123 to 129 IGHV genes, depending from the haplotypes, 27 IGHD segments belonging to 7 subgroups, 9 IGHJ segments, and 11 IGHC genes.
  • Eighty-two to 88 IGHV genes belong to 7 subgroups, whereas 41 pseudogenes, which are too divergent to be assigned to subgroups, have been assigned to 4 clans. Seven non-mapped IGHV genes have been described as insertion/deletion polymorphism but have not yet been precisely located.
  • The most 5' IGHV genes occupy a position very close to the chromosome 14q telomere whereas the IGHC genes are in a more centromeric position.
  • The potentiel genomic IGH repertoire is more limited since it comprises 38-46 functional IGHV genes belonging to 6 or 7 subgroups depending from the haplotypes 23 IGHD, 6 IGHJ, and 9 IGHC genes.
  • Thirty-five IGH genes have been found outside the main locus in other chromosomal localizations. These genes designated as orphons cannot contribute to the synthesis of the immunoglobulin chains, even if they have an Open Reading Frame (ORF). 9 IGHV orphons and 10 IGHD orphons have been described on chromosome 15 (15q11.2), and 16 IGHV orphons on chromosome 16 (16p11.2). In addition, one IGHC processed gene, IGHEP2 is localised on chromosome 9 (9p24.2-p24.1)
  • This is so far the only processed Ig gene described. The total number of human IGH genes per haploid genome is 170 to 176 (206 to 212 genes, if the orphons and the processed gene are included) of which 77 to 84 genes are functional. List of the human IGH genes
  • Protein

  • Proteins encoded by the IGH locus are the immunoglobulin heavy chains. They result from the recombination (or rearrangement), at the DNA level, of three genes: IGHV, IGHD and IGHJ, with deletion of the intermediary DNA to create a rearranged IGHV-D-J gene.
  • The rearranged IGHV-D-J gene is transcribed with the IGHM gene and translated into an immunoglobulin mu chain. The gamma, alpha or epsilon heavy chains, result from a new recombination (or switch), again at the DNA level, between sequences designated as "Switch" and localized upstream of the IGHM and of each of the functional IGHG, IGHA and IGHE constant genes.
  • This recombination, accompanied by the deletion of the intermediary DNA, allows the IGHV-D-J initially transcribed with the IGHM, to be now transcribed with a IGHG, IGHA or IGHE gene, and translated into a gamma, alpha or epsilon chain.
  • Translation of the variable germline genes involved in the IGHV-D-J rearrangements are available at IMGT Repertoire Protein displays. Compared to the germline genes, the rearranged variable genes will acquire somatic mutations during the B cell differentiation in the lymph nodes, which will considerably increase their diversity. These somatic mutations can be analysed using IMGT/V-QUEST tool
  • Mutations

    Note Mutations which correspond to allelic polymorphisms of the functional germline IGHV, IGHD, IGHJ and IGHC genes are described in the IMGT database: (IMGT Repertoire>Alignments of alleles)

    Implicated in

    Entity Translocations which frequently result from errors of the recombinase enzyme complexe (RAG1, RAG2, etc.), responsable of the Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor V-J and V-D-J rearrangements, or from errors of the switch enzyme. IGHV, IGHD or IGHJ recombination signals or isolated heptamer (first case) or switch sequences (second case) are observed at the breakpoints
    c-Immunoglobulin genes IgH at 14q32.33, in normal cells: PAC 998D24 - Courtesy Mariano Rocchi, Resources for Molecular Cytogenetics.
    Entity ; involve IGH - BCL10 in 1p21
    Disease marginal zone B-cell lymphoma
    Entity ; involve IGH -BCL6 in 3q27
    Disease B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), mainly diffuse large cell lymphoma; adult aggressive lymphoma
    Prognosis controversial
    Entity ; involve IGH - FGFR3 in 4p16
    Disease plasma cell leukaemia and multiple myeloma
    Prognosis yet poorly described
    Entity ; involve IGH - IL3 in 5q31
    Disease B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with hypereosinophilia
    Prognosis prognosis appears to be poor
    Disease B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL);
    Prognosis still unknown
    Entity ; involve IGH - C-MYC in 8q24
    Disease B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL3) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), especially in the Burkitt lymphoma
    Prognosis the prognosis has evolved with new treatments
    Entity ; involve IGH - PAX5 in 9p13
    Disease lymphoplasmatic lymphoma
    Entity ; involve IGH - HOX 11 in 10q24
    Disease B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
    Prognosis not unfavourable
    Entity ; involve IGH - BCL1 in 11q13
    Disease t(11;14) is mainly found in mantle cell lymphoma; B-prolymphocytic leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes, and multiple myeloma other B-cell lymphoproliferations
    Entity ; involve IGH - BCL2 in 18q21
    Disease follicle centre cell lymphoma mainly, and also diffuse large cell lyphoma; rarely in other B-cell lymphoproliferations
    Prognosis the t(14;18) may have little or no prognostic significance
    Entity ; involve IGH - BCL3 in 19q13
    Disease mainly, and other B-cell lymphoproliferations
    Prognosis t(14;19) is an adverse prognostic factor in CLL, compared to the usual prognosis in CLL




    A processed human immunoglobulin epsilon gene has moved to chromosome 9.
    Battey J, Max EE, McBride WO, Swan D, Leder P
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1982 ; 79 (19) : 5956-5960.
    PMID 6964396
    Sequence of the CH1 and hinge-CH2 exons of the human immunoglobulin IGHA2 A2m(2) allele: comparison with the nonallelic and allelic IGHA genes.
    Bensmana M, Chuchana P, Lefranc G, Lefranc MP
    Cytogenetics and cell genetics. 1991 ; 56 (2) : page 128.
    PMID 1901541
    The use of chromosomal translocations to study human immunoglobulin gene organization: mapping DH segments within 35 kb of the C mu gene and identification of a new DH locus.
    Buluwela L, Albertson DG, Sherrington P, Rabbitts PH, Spurr N, Rabbitts TH
    The EMBO journal. 1988 ; 7 (7) : 2003-2010.
    PMID 3138112
    The human immunoglobulin VH repertoire.
    Cook GP, Tomlinson IM
    Immunology today. 1995 ; 16 (5) : 237-242.
    PMID 7779254
    Sequence of the human immunoglobulin diversity (D) segment locus: a systematic analysis provides no evidence for the use of DIR segments, inverted D segments, minor D segments or D-D recombination.
    Corbett SJ, Tomlinson IM, Sonnhammer EL, Buck D, Winter G
    Journal of molecular biology. 1997 ; 270 (4) : 587-597.
    PMID 9245589
    Chromosomal location of the genes for human immunoglobulin heavy chains.
    Croce CM, Shander M, Martinis J, Cicurel L, D'Ancona GG, Dolby TW, Koprowski H
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1979 ; 76 (7) : 3416-3419.
    PMID 114999
    Nucleotide sequence of a human immunoglobulin C gamma 4 gene.
    Ellison J, Buxbaum J, Hood L
    DNA (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.). 1981 ; 1 (1) : 11-18.
    PMID 6299662
    Linkage and sequence homology of two human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region genes.
    Ellison J, Hood L
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1982 ; 79 (6) : 1984-1988.
    PMID 6804948
    The nucleotide sequence of a human immunoglobulin C gamma1 gene.
    Ellison JW, Berson BJ, Hood LE
    Nucleic acids research. 1982 ; 10 (13) : 4071-4079.
    PMID 6287432
    Arrangement of human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes implies evolutionary duplication of a segment containing gamma, epsilon and alpha genes.
    Flanagan JG, Rabbitts TH
    Nature. 1982 ; 300 (5894) : 709-713.
    PMID 6817141
    Sequence of a human immunoglobulin gamma 3 heavy chain constant region gene: comparison with the other human C gamma genes.
    Huck S, Fort P, Crawford DH, Lefranc MP, Lefranc G
    Nucleic acids research. 1986 ; 14 (4) : 1779-1789.
    PMID 3081877
    A human immunoglobulin IGHG3 allele (Gmb0,b1,c3,c5,u) with an IGHG4 converted region and three hinge exons.
    Huck S, Lefranc G, Lefranc MP
    Immunogenetics. 1989 ; 30 (4) : 250-257.
    PMID 2571587
    Organization of human immunoglobulin heavy chain diversity gene loci.
    Ichihara Y, Matsuoka H, Kurosawa Y
    The EMBO journal. 1988 ; 7 (13) : 4141-4150.
    PMID 3243276
    Human immunoglobulin heavy chain genes map to a region of translocations in malignant B lymphocytes.
    Kirsch IR, Morton CC, Nakahara K, Leder P
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 1982 ; 216 (4543) : 301-303.
    PMID 6801764
    Nomenclature of the human immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) genes.
    Lefranc MP
    Experimental and clinical immunogenetics. 2001 ; 18 (2) : 100-116.
    PMID 11340299
    The Immunoglobulin FactsBook (Review)
    Lefranc MP and Lefranc G
    Academic Press, London, UK (458 pages), 2001. ISBN: 012441351X
    Instability of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region locus indicated by different inherited chromosomal deletions.
    Lefranc MP, Lefranc G, de Lange G, Out TA, van den Broek PJ, van Nieuwkoop J, Radl J, Helal AN, Chaabani H, van Loghem E
    Molecular biology & medicine. 1983 ; 1 (2) : 207-217.
    PMID 6438434
    The complete nucleotide sequence of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region locus.
    Matsuda F, Ishii K, Bourvagnet P, Kuma K, Hayashida H, Miyata T, Honjo T
    The Journal of experimental medicine. 1998 ; 188 (11) : 2151-2162.
    PMID 9841928
    Duplication and deletion in the human immunoglobulin epsilon genes.
    Max EE, Battey J, Ney R, Kirsch IR, Leder P
    Cell. 1982 ; 29 (2) : 691-699.
    PMID 6288268
    Localization of human variable and constant region immunoglobulin heavy chain genes on subtelomeric band q32 of chromosome 14.
    McBride OW, Battey J, Hollis GF, Swan DC, Siebenlist U, Leder P
    Nucleic acids research. 1982 ; 10 (24) : 8155-8170.
    PMID 6819544
    The human immunoglobulin heavy variable genes.
    Pallarès N, Lefebvre S, Contet V, Matsuda F, Lefranc MP
    Experimental and clinical immunogenetics. 1999 ; 16 (1) : 36-60.
    PMID 10087405
    Human immunoglobulin heavy chain genes: evolutionary comparisons of C mu, C delta and C gamma genes and associated switch sequences.
    Rabbitts TH, Forster A, Milstein CP
    Nucleic acids research. 1981 ; 9 (18) : 4509-4524.
    PMID 6795593
    Structure of the human immunoglobulin mu locus: characterization of embryonic and rearranged J and D genes.
    Ravetch JV, Siebenlist U, Korsmeyer S, Waldmann T, Leder P
    Cell. 1981 ; 27 (3 Pt 2) : 583-591.
    PMID 6101209
    The human immunoglobulin heavy diversity (IGHD) and joining (IGHJ) segments.
    Ruiz M, Pallarès N, Contet V, Barbi V, Lefranc MP
    Experimental and clinical immunogenetics. 1999 ; 16 (3) : 173-184.
    PMID 10394055
    Protein displays of the human immunoglobulin heavy, kappa and lambda variable and joining regions.
    Scaviner D, Barbié V, Ruiz M, Lefranc MP
    Experimental and clinical immunogenetics. 1999 ; 16 (4) : 234-240.
    PMID 10575277
    Physical map of the 3' region of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus: clustering of autoantibody-related variable segments in one haplotype.
    Shin EK, Matsuda F, Nagaoka H, Fukita Y, Imai T, Yokoyama K, Soeda E, Honjo T
    The EMBO journal. 1991 ; 10 (12) : 3641-3645.
    PMID 1935893
    Human immunoglobulin D: genomic sequence of the delta heavy chain.
    White MB, Shen AL, Word CJ, Tucker PW, Blattner FR
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 1985 ; 228 (4700) : 733-737.
    PMID 3922054


    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Lefranc, MP
    IGH (immunoglobulin heavy)
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2000;4(3):107-110.
    Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

    Other Leukemias implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 117 ]
      3q27 rearrangements (BCL6) in non Hodgkin lymphoma::t(3;Var)(q27;Var) in non Hodgkin lymphoma
    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Hypereosinophilia
    Classification of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL)
    B-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia
    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL)
    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)
    Primary cutaneous DLBCL, leg type
    Double Hit Lymphoma (DHL)::Triple Hit Lymphoma (THL)
    EBV positive DLBCL, NOS
    Florid follicular hyperplasia PTLD
    Follicular dendritic cell in lymphomas of follicular origin
    Follicular lymphoma (FL)
    Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL) and Hairy Cell Leukemia Variant (HCL-V)
    Interdigitating Dendritic Cell Sarcoma
    t(7;14)(q35;q32.1) TRB::TCL1A::inv(14)(q11q32.1) TRA-TRD::TCL1A::t(14;14)(q11;q32.1) TRA-TRD::TCL1A
    Langerhans cell histiocytosis
    Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma
    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Down syndrome
    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma
    Mantle cell lymphoma
    Marginal Zone B-cell lymphoma
    Multiple Myeloma
    Ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphoma (OAMZL)
    Pediatric-type Follicular Lymphoma
    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL)
    Plasmacytoma (Solitary bone plasmacytoma, extramedullary plasmacytoma)
    +X solely in ALL
    Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphomas
    Small lymphocytic lymphoma
    Splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes (SLVL) in 2005
    t(1;14)(p35;q32) LAPTM5::IGH
    t(1;14)(q21;q32) BCL9::IGH::t(1;22)(q21;q11) IGL::BCL9
    t(1;14)(q21;q32) FCGR2B::IGH
    t(1;14)(q21;q32) FCRL4::IGH
    t(1;14)(q21;q32) MUC1::IGH
    t(1;14)(q25;q32) IGH::LHX4
    t(2;14)(p13-16;q32) IGH::BCL11A
    t(3;7)(q27;q32) MIR29A::BCL6
    t(3;14)(p14;q32) IGH::FOXP1
    t(3;14)(q27;q32) HSP90AA1::BCL6
    t(4;14)(p16;q32) IGH::FGFR3 and WHSC1
    t(6;14)(p21;q32) IGH::CCND3
    t(6;14)(p22;q32) IGH::ID4
    t(7;14)(q21;q32) ERVW-1::IgH
    t(2;7)(p11;q21) IGK::CDK6::t(7;14)(q21;q32) IGH::CDK6::t(7;22)(q21;q11) IGL::CDK6::t(7;14)(q21;q11) TRA::CDK6
    t(8;14)(q24;q32) IGH::MYC::t(2;8)(p12;q24) IGK::MYC::t(8;22)(q24;q11) IGL::MYC
    t(8;14)(q11;q32) IGH::CEBPD
    t(9;14)(p13;q32) PAX5::IGH
    t(9;14)(q33;q32) IGH::LHX2
    t(X;14)(p22;q32) or t(Y;14)(p11;q32) IGH::CRLF2
    t(10;14)(q24;q32) NFKB2::IGH
    t(11;14)(q13;q32) IGH::CCND1
    t(11;14)(q13;q32) IGH::CCND1 in multiple myeloma
    t(11;14)(p13;q32) IGH::CD44
    t(11;14)(q23;q32) KMT2A::CEP170B
    t(11;14)(q24;q32) IGH::MIR125B1
    t(1;2)(p22;p12) IGK::BCL10::t(1;14)(p22;q32) IGH::BCL10
    t(12;14)(p13;q32) IGH::ETV6
    t(2;12)(p12;p13) IGK::CCND2::t(12;14)(p13;q32) IGH::CCND2::t(12;22)(p13;q11) IGL::CCND2
    t(14;14)(q11;q32) CEBPE::IGH::inv(14)(q11q32) CEBPE::IGH
    t(14;15)(q32;q11) IGH::NBEAP1
    t(14;16)(q32;q23) IGH::MAF
    t(14;17)(q32;q21) IGH::IGF2BP1
    t(14;18)(q32;q21) IGH::BCL2::t(2;18)(p11;q21) IGK::BCL2::t(18;22)(q21;q11) IGL::BCL2
    t(14;18)(q32;q21) IGH::MALT1
    t(2;19)(p12;q13.3) IGK::BCL3::t(14;19)(q32;q13.3) IGH::BCL3::t(19;22)(q13.3;q11) BCL3::IGL
    t(14;19)(q32;p13) IGH::EPOR::t(14;19)(q32;p13) IGH::BRD4 ?
    t(14;19)(q32;q13) IGH::CEBPA
    t(14;19)(q32;q13) IGH::Various Partners
    t(14;20)(q32;q12) IGH::MAFB in Plasma Cell Myeloma
    t(14;20)(q32;q13) IGH::CEBPB
    t(14;22)(q32;q11) IGH::IGL
    t(3;14)(q27;q32) IGH::BCL6::t(2;3)(p12;q27) IGK::BCL6::t(3;22)(q27;q11) IGL::BCL6
    t(5;14)(q31;q32) IGH::IL3
    t(2;6)(p12;p25) IRF4::IGK::t(6;14)(p25;q32) IRF4::IGH::t(6;22)(p25;q11) IRF4::IGL
    T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)
    del(14)(q24q32) ZFP36L1::IGH
    inv(14)(q11q32) TRA-D::IGH
    t(1;14)(p13;q32) IGH::BCAS2
    t(2;14)(p24;q32) IGH::MYCN
    t(2;14)(q22;q32) IGH::ZEB2
    t(4;14)(q35;q32) DUX4::IGH
    t(4;14)(q35;q32) IGH::DUX4
    t(5;14)(p15;q32) IGH::TERT
    t(5;14)(q22;q32) IGH::DCP2
    t(5;14)(q33;q32) IGH::EBF1
    t(6;14)(p25;q32) IGH::IRF4
    t(7;14)(p11;q32) IGH::EGFR
    t(7;14)(p14;q32) TRG::IGH
    t(7;14)(q21;q32) IGH::ERVW-1
    t(7;14)(q31;q32) IGH::IMMP2L
    t(10;14)(p12;q32) IGH::BMI1
    t(11;14)(q23;q32) IGH::DDX6
    t(11;14)(q23;q32) PAFAH1B2::IGH
    t(11;14)(q23;q32) PCSK7::IGH
    t(11;14)(q23;q32) IGH::PCSK7
    t(11;14)(q23;q32) IGH::PAFAH1B2
    t(12;14)(p12;q32) IGH::SOX5
    t(12;14)(q23;q32) IGH::CHST11
    t(14;14)(q11;q32) IGH::CEBPE
    inv(14)(q11q32):t(14;14)(q11;q32) IGH::TRA
    t(14;15)(q32;q25) IGH::BCL2A1
    t(14;16)(q32;q24) IGH::CBFA2T3
    t(14;16)(q32;q24) IGH::IRF8
    t(14;17)(q32;p13) IGH::TNFSF13
    t(14;18)(q32;q12) IGH::NOL4
    t(14;19)(q32;q13) IGH::BRD4
    t(14;19)(q32;q13) IGH::CEBPG
    t(14;19)(q32;q13) IGH::SPIB
    Histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma
    t(X;14)(p11.4;q32.33) IGH::GPR34
    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (published in 2002)
    Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

    External links

    HGNC (Hugo)IGH   5477
    Entrez_Gene (NCBI)IGH    immunoglobulin heavy locus
    AliasesIGD1; IGH.1@; IGH@; IGHD@; 
    GeneCards (Weizmann)IGH
    Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton) [Gene_View]
    Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton) [Gene_View]   [Sequence]  - [Contig_View]  IGH [Vega]
    TCGA cBioPortalIGH
    AceView (NCBI)IGH
    Genatlas (Paris)IGH
    SOURCE (Princeton)IGH
    Genetics Home Reference (NIH)IGH
    Genomic and cartography
    GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)IGH  -  
    GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)IGH  -  
    GoldenPathIGH - [CytoView hg19]  IGH - [CytoView hg38]
    Genome Data Viewer NCBIIGH [Mapview hg19]  
    OMIM146910   147010   147070   
    Gene and transcription
    Genbank (Entrez)AK123975 AK125079 AK126352 BC066594 BX538066
    RefSeq transcript (Entrez)
    Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)IGH
    Gene ExpressionIGH [ NCBI-GEO ]   IGH [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   IGH [ SEEK ]   IGH [ MEM ]
    Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)IGH [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
    GenevisibleExpression of IGH in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
    BioGPS (Tissue expression)3492
    GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)IGH
    Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
    Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
    Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
    Conserved Domain (NCBI)IGH
    Protein Interaction databases
    Ontologies - Pathways
    PubMed133 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
    GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
    REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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    indexed on : Fri Oct 8 21:20:07 CEST 2021

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