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MAPK9 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 9)

Written2003-01Fei Chen
Health Effects Laboratory Division, NIOSH, 1095 Willowdale Rd, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)JNK2 (C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2)
Stress-activated protein kinase 2 (SAPK2)
HGNC Alias symbJNK2
HGNC Alias nameJun kinase
HGNC Previous namePRKM9
LocusID (NCBI) 5601
Atlas_Id 426
Location 5q35.3  [Link to chromosome band 5q35]
Location_base_pair Starts at 180233143 and ends at 180292083 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping MAPK9.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
MAPK9 (5q35.3)::ITPR1 (3p26.1)MAPK9 (5q35.3)::MAPK9 (5q35.3)MAPK9 (5q35.3)::S100A6 (1q21.3)
MAPK9 (5q35.3)::UBL7 (15q24.1)PRELID2 (5q32)::MAPK9 (5q35.3)RFTN1 (3p25.1)::MAPK9 (5q35.3)


Description The JNK2 gene maps on chromosome 5q35 spanning 58494bp. It contains 17 confirmed introns, 14 of which are alternative.
Transcription By alternative splicing, JNK2 gene encodes 12 types of transcripts that translate to 12 distinct JNK2 isoforms. The molecular weight of JNK2 is about 55 kD.


Description All JNK proteins contain a protein kinase domain that belong to a very extensive family of eukaryotic serine/threonine proteins kinase. A number of conserved regions have been identified in the catalytic domain of JNKs. In the N-terminal extremity of the catalytic domain there is a glycine-rich motif in the vicinity of a lysine residue, which has been shown to be involved in ATP binding. A conserved aspartic acid reside that is critical for the catalytic activity of kinase has also been identified in the central part of the catalytic domain.
Expression JNK1 is ubiquitously expressed.
Localisation Cytoplasmic and nuclear
Function The members of JNK family act as an integration point for multiple intracellular biochemical signals governing a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, transcriptional regulation, and development. JNK targets specific transcription factors and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to various stress signals including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, oxidative stress, protein malfolding in endoplasmic reticulum, osmotical shock, and inflammatory mediators. These transcription factors include AP-1, ATF-2, Elk-1, p53, etc... Several upstream dual specific protein kinases, such as MKK4/SEK1 and MKK7, can activate JNK through phosphorylation of the conversed Thr-Pro-Tyr motif on JNK proteins. In mammalian cells, activated JNK can phosphorylate the N-terminus of c-Jun, which contains both JNK docking site and JNK phosphorylation site (ser63 and ser73), orJunD, which lacks a JNK docking site but contains a JNK phosphorylation site. JNK is unable to phosphorylate JunB due to the lack of a JNK phosphorylation site inJunB, despite there is a functional JNK docking site. Comparison of the binding activity of JNK isoforms demonstrates that JNK2 bind c-Jun approximately 25 times more efficiently than did JNK1. Therefore, individual members of the JNK family may selectively target specific transcription factors in vivo. One of the most important functions of JNK is the regulation of apoptosis. Emerging evidence indicates that JNK activation is obligatory for apoptosis induced by both receptor-mediated "extrinsic" pathway or mitochondria-mediated "intrinsic" pathway. JNK activation may contribute to the initiation of Fas-induced apoptosis, possibly through the amplification of autocrine or paracrine Fas signaling by JNK-dependent Fas ligand (FasL) gene expression. In addition, JNK has been indicated in the apoptosis induced by Daxx, a Fas death domain (FADD) interaction protein. Through its serine/threonine kinase activity, JNK may contribute to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by phosphorylating pro- or anti-apoptoticBcl-2 family proteins. Finally, JNK has also been indicated as an important kinase phosphorylating p53 and subsequently facilitating p53-dependent apoptotic responses. Sustained JNK activation may be responsible for the enhanced apoptosis observed in RelA-/- or Ikkb-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts treated with TNFa. It was suggested that deficiency of RelA or IKKb caused a decreased expression of XIAP or GADD45b, which may antagonize the activation of JNK activation. However, such speculation contradicts the previous observations indicating that both GADD45b and XIAP are activators, rather than inhibitors for JNK activation. Moreover, gene profiling in our recent studies indicated no substantial difference of basal or inducible GADD45b and XIAP mRNA in wild type cells and Ikkb-/- cells.

Implicated in

Entity Obesity, insulin resistance, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation, cancer.


Signal transduction by the JNK group of MAP kinases.
Davis RJ
Cell. 2000 ; 103 (2) : 239-252.
PMID 11057897
Induction of gadd45beta by NF-kappaB downregulates pro-apoptotic JNK signalling.
De Smaele E, Zazzeroni F, Papa S, Nguyen DU, Jin R, Jones J, Cong R, Franzoso G
Nature. 2001 ; 414 (6861) : 308-313.
PMID 11713530
Stress-induced Fas ligand expression in T cells is mediated through a MEK kinase 1-regulated response element in the Fas ligand promoter.
Faris M, Latinis KM, Kempiak SJ, Koretzky GA, Nel A
Molecular and cellular biology. 1998 ; 18 (9) : 5414-5424.
PMID 9710625
JNK targets p53 ubiquitination and degradation in nonstressed cells.
Fuchs SY, Adler V, Buschmann T, Yin Z, Wu X, Jones SN, Ronai Z
Genes & development. 1998 ; 12 (17) : 2658-2663.
PMID 9732264
Multiple docking sites on substrate proteins form a modular system that mediates recognition by ERK MAP kinase.
Jacobs D, Glossip D, Xing H, Muslin AJ, Kornfeld K
Genes & development. 1999 ; 13 (2) : 163-175.
PMID 9925641
JNK2 contains a specificity-determining region responsible for efficient c-Jun binding and phosphorylation.
Kallunki T, Su B, Tsigelny I, Sluss HK, Dérijard B, Moore G, Davis R, Karin M
Genes & development. 1994 ; 8 (24) : 2996-3007.
PMID 8001819
Ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein promotes proteasomal degradation of caspase-3 and enhances its anti-apoptotic effect in Fas-induced cell death.
Suzuki Y, Nakabayashi Y, Takahashi R
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2001 ; 98 (15) : 8662-8667.
PMID 11447297
A family of stress-inducible GADD45-like proteins mediate activation of the stress-responsive MTK1/MEKK4 MAPKKK.
Takekawa M, Saito H
Cell. 1998 ; 95 (4) : 521-530.
PMID 9827804
Inhibition of JNK activation through NF-kappaB target genes.
Tang G, Minemoto Y, Dibling B, Purcell NH, Li Z, Karin M, Lin A
Nature. 2001 ; 414 (6861) : 313-317.
PMID 11713531
Daxx, a novel Fas-binding protein that activates JNK and apoptosis.
Yang X, Khosravi-Far R, Chang HY, Baltimore D
Cell. 1997 ; 89 (7) : 1067-1076.
PMID 9215629


This paper should be referenced as such :
Chen, F
MAPK9 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 9)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2003;7(2):90-91.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

Other Leukemias implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 2 ]
  del(5q) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
dic(9;17)(p13;q11) PAX5::TAOK1

External links

HGNC (Hugo)MAPK9   6886
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)MAPK9    mitogen-activated protein kinase 9
AliasesJNK-55; JNK2; JNK2A; JNK2ALPHA; 
GeneCards (Weizmann)MAPK9
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000050748 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000050748 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000050748 [Sequence]  chr5:180233143-180292083 [Contig_View]  MAPK9 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000050748
TCGA cBioPortalMAPK9
Genatlas (Paris)MAPK9
SOURCE (Princeton)MAPK9
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)MAPK9
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)MAPK9  -     chr5:180233143-180292083 -  5q35.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)MAPK9  -     5q35.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathMAPK9 - 5q35.3 [CytoView hg19]  MAPK9 - 5q35.3 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBIMAPK9 [Mapview hg19]  
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB451302 AB451355 AB451433 AK289638 BC032539
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001135044 NM_001308244 NM_001364607 NM_001364608 NM_001364609 NM_001364610 NM_001364611 NM_001364612 NM_001364613 NM_002752 NM_139068 NM_139069 NM_139070
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)MAPK9
Gene ExpressionMAPK9 [ NCBI-GEO ]   MAPK9 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   MAPK9 [ SEEK ]   MAPK9 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)MAPK9 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of MAPK9 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)5601
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)MAPK9
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000050748-MAPK9 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Conserved Domain (NCBI)MAPK9
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000050748-MAPK9 [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
Ontologies - Pathways
PubMed260 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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indexed on : Fri Oct 8 21:20:40 CEST 2021

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