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NDRG2 (NDRG family member 2)

Written2005-06Libo Yao, Lifeng Wang, Jiang Zhang, Na Liu
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, The State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, P.R. China

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Other aliasSYLD
KIAA1248
DKFZp781G1938
HGNC:14460
LocusID (NCBI) 57447
Atlas_Id 41513
Location 14q11.2  [Link to chromosome band 14q11]
Location_base_pair Starts at and ends at bp from pter
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
ATL2 (2p22.2) / NDRG2 (14q11.2)CRYL1 (13q12.11) / NDRG2 (14q11.2)NDRG2 (14q11.2) / BAG6 (6p21.33)
NDRG2 (14q11.2) / CALR (19p13.2)NDRG2 (14q11.2) / DDIT4 (10q22.1)NDRG2 (14q11.2) / ERC1 (12p13.33)
NDRG2 (14q11.2) / KIF3A (5q31.1)NDRG2 (14q11.2) / NDRG2 (14q11.2)NDRG2 (14q11.2) / RABEP1 (17p13.2)
NDRG2 (14q11.2) / RPL38 (17q25.1)NDRG2 (14q11.2) / SEC63 (6q21)NDRG2 (14q11.2) / TRAF4 (17q11.2)
PAPLN (14q24.2) / NDRG2 (14q11.2)

DNA/RNA

Description The gene encompasses 9013 bp of DNA; 16 or 17 exons (the first and second are non-coding).
Transcription Eight splicing mRNAs are found.
  • 2142 bp mRNA; CDS: 174-1289bp ;1113 bp open reading frame
  • 2100 bp mRNA; CDS: 174-1247bp ;1071 bp open reading frame
  • 2033 bp mRNA; CDS: 107-1180bp ;1071 bp open reading frame
  • 2075 bp mRNA; CDS: 107-1222bp ;1113 bp open reading frame
  • 2010 bp mRNA; CDS: 84-1157bp ;1071 bp open reading frame
  • 2052 bp mRNA; CDS: 84-1199bp ;1113 bp open reading frame
  • 2119 bp mRNA; CDS: 151-1266bp ;1113 bp open reading frame
  • 2077 bp mRNA; CDS: 151-1224bp ;1071 bp open reading frame.
  • Protein

    Description 357 amino acids ; another isoform has 371 amino acids ; 40 or 43 kDa ; Thr348 is a Akt phosphorylation site, Ser332 is a PKC teta-phosphorylation site. NDRG2 has the alpha/beta hydrolase fold motif.
    Expression Widely expressed, especially in brain, heart, skeletal muscle and kidney.
    Localisation cytosol
    Function A candidate tumor suppressor gene. Ndrg2 expressed much higher in normal tissues than the tumors (brain, liver, pancreas tissues etc) . Overexpression of ndrg2 can inhibit the proliferation of glioblastoma U373 and U138 cells. NDRG2 upregulation is associated with disease pathogenesis in the human brain. Ndrg2 is expressed during the differentiation of DCs, and the expression is differentially regulated by maturation-inducing stimuli such as LPS and CD40. The expression of ndrg2 in rat frontal cortex was decreased by chronic antidepressant treatment.
    Homology At the amino acid level, human NDRG2 shows 57% identical to NDRG1 and NDRG3, 65% identical to NDRG4-B, 63% identical to NDRG4-Bvar and 61% identical to NDRG4-H respectively. Also human NDRG2 shows 92% identical to mouse NDRG2.

    Implicated in

    Note
      
    Entity Alzheimer's disease
    Disease Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Dementia is a collective name for progressive degenerative brain syndromes, which affect memory, thinking, behavior and emotion. Symptoms may include: 1) lose of memory ; 2) difficulty in finding the right words or understanding what people are saying; 3) difficulty in performing previously routine tasks; 4) personality and mood changes.
    Prognosis The probable outcome is poor. The disorder is usually not acute, but progresses steadily. Total disability is common. Death normally occurs within 15 years, usually from an infection or a failure of other body systems. The duration of illness, from onset of symptoms to death, averages 8 to 10 years
    Hybrid/Mutated Gene NDRG2 is upregulated at both the RNA and protein levels in AD brains. Expression of NDRG2 in affected brains was revealed in : (1) cortical pyramidal neurons, (2) senile plaques and (3) cellular processes of dystrophic neurons. NDRG2 upregulation is associated with disease pathogenesis in the human brain
      
      
    Entity Liver cancers
    Disease Liver cancers are primary liver tumors (hepatoma/hepatocellular carcinoma, bile duct cancer/cholangio-carcinoma) or metastatic liver tumor.
    Oncogenesis Compared with adjacent normal tissues, the expression levels of NDRG2 mRNA in liver cancer tissues reduced significantly, but the mutation in the whole coding region of NDRG2 was not found.
      
      
    Entity Glioblastoma
    Disease Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of the primary brain tumors known collectively as gliomas. These tumors arise from the supporting, glial cells of the brain during childhood and in adults. These growths do not spread throughout the body like other forms of cancer, but cause symptoms by invading the brain.NDRG2 gene was first found in this tissue by using subtraction cloning.
    Oncogenesis Ndrg2 is present at low levels in human GBM tissues and glioblastoma cell lines comparing with normal tissue and cells. Transient transfection exogenous NDRG2 gene will inhibits glioblastoma U373 and U138 cells proliferation.
      
      
    Entity Gastric cancer
    Disease Gastric cancer is the result of cell changes in the lining of the stomach. The most common types of stomach cancer start in the glandular cells of the stomach lining and are known as adenocarcinomas. These are rare cancers that usually start from the cells of the muscle layer of the stomach. The most common type of sarcoma to affect the stomach is a leiomyosarcoma. Another type of sarcoma is a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST).
    Oncogenesis Ndrg2 is present at low level in some stomach cancer tissue and cell lines.
      

    Bibliography

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    N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation.
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    International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2003 ; 106 (3) : 342-347.
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    NDRG2 expression and mutation in human liver and pancreatic cancers.
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    NDRG2: a novel Alzheimer's disease associated protein.
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    Neurobiology of disease. 2004 ; 16 (1) : 48-58.
    PMID 15207261
     
    Identification of new genes ndr2 and ndr3 which are related to Ndr1/RTP/Drg1 but show distinct tissue specificity and response to N-myc.
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    Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1999 ; 266 (1) : 208-215.
    PMID 10581191
     
    Characterization and expression of three novel differentiation-related genes belong to the human NDRG gene family.
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    PMID 11936845
     
    N-myc-dependent repression of ndr1, a gene identified by direct subtraction of whole mouse embryo cDNAs between wild type and N-myc mutant.
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    Characterization of the human NDRG gene family: a newly identified member, NDRG4, is specifically expressed in brain and heart.
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    Citation

    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Yao, L ; Wang, L ; Zhang, J ; Na, Liu N
    NDRG2 (NDRG family member 2)
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2005;9(4):278-279.
    Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
    On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/NDRG2ID41513ch14q11.html


    Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 3 ]
      t(5;14)(q31;q11) NDRG2/KIF3A
    t(6;14)(q21;q11) NDRG2/SEC63
    t(14;17)(q11;p13) NDRG2/RABEP1


    External links

    Nomenclature
    Cards
    AtlasNDRG2ID41513ch14q11.txt
    Aliases
    Genomic and cartography
    Gene and transcription
    RefSeq transcript (Entrez)
    RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
    SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
    BioGPS (Tissue expression)57447
    Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
    Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
    Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
    Protein Interaction databases
    Ontologies - Pathways
    Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
    Miscellaneous
    canSAR (ICR) (select the gene name)
    Probes
    Litterature
    REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed


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    indexed on : Thu Oct 18 17:45:03 CEST 2018

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