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ENC1 (ectodermal-neural cortex (with BTB-like domain))

Written2007-06Shalom Avraham, Seyha Seng, Shuxian Jiang, Hava Karsenty Avraham
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, 4 Blackfan Circle, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Other aliasCCL28
NRP/B (Nuclear Matrix Restricted Protein/Brain)
LocusID (NCBI) 8507
Atlas_Id 40451
Location 5q13.3  [Link to chromosome band 5q13]
Location_base_pair Starts at and ends at bp from pter
  Mapping of human NRP/B/ENC1 to 5q12-13: Chromosome 5 content of each hybrid is shown as a solid bar. Deleted segments of Chromosome 5 are indicated to the right.
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
ENC1 (5q13.3) / ENC1 (5q13.3)ENC1 (5q13.3) / GNAS (20q13.32)ENC1 (5q13.3) / LRBA (4q31.3)
MLLT11 (1q21.3) / ENC1 (5q13.3)PRKCSH (19p13.2) / ENC1 (5q13.3)


Description The NRP/B/ENC1 open reading frame is 1770 bp. The murine NRP/B/ENC1 gene consists of four exons interrupted by three introns that span 7.6 kb of DNA. The complete open reading frame is located in exon 3. Transcription is 5.5 kb of RNA.


  Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of NRP/B/ENC1 were demonstrated by immunostaining with specific anti-NRP/B/ENC1 antibody. Nuclear NRP/B/ENC1: (A) Human normal adult brain (frontal cortex), (B) U87-MG human glioblastoma cells. (C) Cytoplasmic NRP/B/ENC1: primary GBM cells.
Description 589AA and 66130 Da. NRP/B/ENC1 is a member of a growing family of proteins that contains two major structural elements: A BTB/POZ domain in the N-terminus and kelch motif in the C-terminus [See above]. The BTB/POZ domain, consisting of approximately 115 amino acids is found in several members of the kelch family. It is involved in protein-protein interactions and mediates both dimer and heterodimer formation. The kelch domain includes six repeats (each containing about 50 amino acids), which are implicated in actin binding, protein folding and/or protein-protein interactions. NRP/B/ENC1 encodes an unusually evolutionarily conserved protein between mouse and human.
Expression NRP/B/ENC1 is expressed in the nervous system. NRP/B/ENC1 is expressed mostly in primary neurons, but not in primary astrocytes. NRP/B/ENC1 mRNA and protein expression were detected abundantly and observed in human primary brain tumors, including glioblastoma multiformae and astrocytoma, and in human neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32, SK-N-MC, SK-N-SH), in glioblastoma cell lines (A172, T98G, U87-MG, U118-MG, U138-MG and U373-MG), and in neuroglioma (H4) and astrocytoma cell lines (CCF-STTG1 and SW1088).
Localisation Nuclear (Glioblastoma, U87-MG) and Cytosolic (Glioblastoma, GBM).
Function Evidence suggests that NRP/B/ENC1 is involved in multiple cell processes, including nervous system development, neuronal and adipocyte differentiation and brain tumorigenesis. NRP/B/ENC1 functions as an actin-binding protein that may be important in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton during neural fate specification and nervous system development, and plays a crucial role in the regulation of neuronal process formation via association with the hypophosphorylated form of retinoblastoma protein (p110RB).
Homology NRP/B/ENC1 shares significant homology with the "kelch" repeats found in several kelch-related genes, including the Drosophila gene which is essential for oogenesis.


Note p53-induced protein 10 (PIG10) was identified in DLD1 colon cancer cells. PIG10 contains multiple mutations and deletions, and is a variant form of NRP/B/ENC1. It has also been observed that there are a number of mutations and deletions occurred on the BTB, IVS and Kelch domains of NRP/B/ENC1 in human brain tumor cell lines and human brain tumors (GBM) (see tables below). The mutations on the Kelch domain are involved in brain tumor development.

Implicated in

Entity Brain tumor
Note Little is known
Disease Mutations of NRP/B/ENC1 were reported to be related to brain tumor development. NRP/B/ENC1 has been implicated in nervous system and neuronal differentiation, and these mutations of NRP/B/ENC1 may lead to neuropathology.
Oncogenesis The role of NRP/B/ENC1 in oncogenesis has been established. Evidence suggests that both amplification and alteration of NRP/B/ENC1 may lead to brain tumor development.


The BTB/POZ domain: a new protein-protein interaction motif common to DNA- and actin-binding proteins.
Albagli O, Dhordain P, Deweindt C, Lecocq G, Leprince D
Cell growth & differentiation : the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 1995 ; 6 (9) : 1193-1198.
PMID 8519696
The POZ domain: a conserved protein-protein interaction motif.
Bardwell VJ, Treisman R
Genes & development. 1994 ; 8 (14) : 1664-1677.
PMID 7958847
A family of Xenopus BTB-Kelch repeat proteins related to ENC-1: new markers for early events in floorplate and placode development.
Haigo SL, Harland RM, Wallingford JB
Gene expression patterns : GEP. 2003 ; 3 (5) : 669-674.
PMID 12972004
Assignment of the ectodermal-neural cortex 1 gene (Enc1) to mouse chromosome band 13D1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Hernandez M, Andres-Barquin PJ, Israel MA
Cytogenetics and cell genetics. 2000 ; 89 (3-4) : 158-159.
PMID 10965111
Assignment of the ectodermal-neural cortex 1 gene (ENC1) to human chromosome band 5q13 by in situ hybridization.
Hernandez MC, Andres-Barquin PJ, Kuo WL, Israel MA
Cytogenetics and cell genetics. 1999 ; 87 (1-2) : 89-90.
PMID 10640818
The BTB domain of the nuclear matrix protein NRP/B is required for neurite outgrowth.
Kim TA, Jiang S, Seng S, Cha K, Avraham HK, Avraham S
Journal of cell science. 2005 ; 118 (Pt 23) : 5537-5548.
PMID 16306221
NRP/B, a novel nuclear matrix protein, associates with p110(RB) and is involved in neuronal differentiation.
Kim TA, Lim J, Ota S, Raja S, Rogers R, Rivnay B, Avraham H, Avraham S
The Journal of cell biology. 1998 ; 141 (3) : 553-566.
PMID 9566959
Genomic organization, chromosomal localization and regulation of expression of the neuronal nuclear matrix protein NRP/B in human brain tumors.
Kim TA, Ota S, Jiang S, Pasztor LM, White RA, Avraham S
Gene. 2000 ; 255 (1) : 105-116.
PMID 10974570
Genetic alterations of the NRP/B gene are associated with human brain tumors.
Liang XQ, Avraham HK, Jiang S, Avraham S
Oncogene. 2004 ; 23 (35) : 5890-5900.
PMID 15208678
A model for p53-induced apoptosis.
Polyak K, Xia Y, Zweier JL, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B
Nature. 1997 ; 389 (6648) : 300-305.
PMID 9305847
kelch encodes a component of intercellular bridges in Drosophila egg chambers.
Xue F, Cooley L
Cell. 1993 ; 72 (5) : 681-693.
PMID 8453663
Molecular nature of calicin, a major basic protein of the mammalian sperm head cytoskeleton.
von Bülow M, Heid H, Hess H, Franke WW
Experimental cell research. 1995 ; 219 (2) : 407-413.
PMID 7641791


This paper should be referenced as such :
Avraham, S ; Seng, S ; Jiang, S ; Avraham, HK
ENC1 (ectodermal-neural cortex (with BTB-like domain))
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2008;12(1):5-7.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version :

External links

Genomic and cartography
Gene and transcription
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
BioGPS (Tissue expression)8507
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Protein Interaction databases
Ontologies - Pathways
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
canSAR (ICR) (select the gene name)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
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