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OLFM4 (olfactomedin 4)

Written2010-01Wenli Liu, Griffin P Rodgers
Molecular, Clinical Hematology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 9N115, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Other aliasbA209J19.1
LocusID (NCBI) 10562
Atlas_Id 49730
Location 13q14.3  [Link to chromosome band 13q14]
Location_base_pair Starts at and ends at bp from pter
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
LOXHD1 (18q21.1) / OLFM4 (13q14.3)OLFM4 (13q14.3) / DGUOK (2p13.1)OLFM4 (13q14.3) / OLFM4 (13q14.3)
OLFM4 (13q14.3) / TOP2B (3p24.2)
Note OLFM4 is a member of olfactomedin-related protein family. This gene was originally cloned from human myeloblasts and constitutively expressed in normal bone marrow, stomach, small intestine, colon, prostate and pancreas.


Description OLFM4 gene locus was mapped to chromosome 13q14.3 with five exons spanning 23220 bp.
Transcription OLFM4 is transcribed to 2861 bp mRNA with an open reading frame of 1530 nucleotides. There is no alternative mRNA splicing.
mRNA expression: highly in bone marrow and small intestine; lowly expressed in stomach, colon, pancreas and prostate; no expression is detected in other tissues determined by Northern blot. OLFM4 transcription is regulated by transcription factors, PU1 and NF-kB.


Description OLFM4 encodes a 510 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 55 kD. OLFM4 has a signal peptide and six N-linked glycosylation motifs and forms disulfide-bonded multimers. It has a N-terminal coil-coil domain and C-terminal olfactomedin domain.
Expression OLFM4 protein is endogenously expressed in mature neutrophils and gastric and intestinal epithelial cells. Its expression in bone marrow neutrophils is significantly higher than peripheral blood neutrophils. OLFM4 is more abundantly expressed in intestinal crypts than in surface epithelial cells.
Localisation OLFM4 is localized in multiple subcellular compartments including cytoplasm, mitochondria and membrane. It is also secreted extracellularly.
Function OLFM4 binds to cadherins and lectins and mediates cell adhesion. OLFM4 is a robust marker for stem cells in human intestine.
Homology Human OLFM4 is highly homologous to its mouse homologue (pDP4) with 93% amino acid identity. OLFM4 C-terminal olfactomedin domain has significant homology with other olfactomedin-related proteins including olfactomedin, TIGR, Noelin-1, Noeline-2 and latrophilin-1, etc.


Note No known genetic mutation in normal or cancer tissues.

Implicated in

Entity Stomach cancer
Note OLFM4 mRNA expression is upregulated in gastric cancer patients. OLFM4 protein staining by immunohistochemistry was observed more frequently in well-differentiated cancer tissues and more frequently in stage I/II cases than in stage III/IV cases. Serum OLFM4 is a useful marker for gastric cancer patients.
Entity Colon cancer
Note OLFM4 mRNA is upregulated in colon cancer patients. OLFM4 protein expression is correlated with prognosis for colon cancer patients. Lower or lost OLFM4 protein expression is correlated with more malignancy and poor survival.
Entity Prostate cancer
Note OLFM4 mRNA expression is upregulated in prostate cancer patients. OLFM4 interacts with GRIM-19, a mitochondria pro-apoptosis protein and has an anti-apoptotic function in prostate cancer cells when it is overexpressed.
Entity Pancreatic cancer
Note OLFM4 mRNA is upregulated in pancreatic cancer patients. OLFM4 promotes S-phase transition in proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells.
Entity Breast cancer
Note OLFM4 mRNA is upregulated in breast cancer patients.
Entity Chronic bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis)
Note OLFM4 mRNA expression is upregulated in the intestines of chronic bowel disease patients including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Entity H. pylori gastritis
Note OLFM4 mRNA expression is upregulated in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori infected patients than normal individuals.


Systematic search for gastric cancer-specific genes based on SAGE data: melanoma inhibitory activity and matrix metalloproteinase-10 are novel prognostic factors in patients with gastric cancer.
Aung PP, Oue N, Mitani Y, Nakayama H, Yoshida K, Noguchi T, Bosserhoff AK, Yasui W.
Oncogene. 2006 Apr 20;25(17):2546-57.
PMID 16331256
The regulation of OLFM4 expression in myeloid precursor cells relies on NF-kappaB transcription factor.
Chin KL, Aerbajinai W, Zhu J, Drew L, Chen L, Liu W, Rodgers GP.
Br J Haematol. 2008 Nov;143(3):421-32. Epub 2008 Sep 1.
PMID 18764868
Identification of new accessible tumor antigens in human colon cancer by ex vivo protein biotinylation and comparative mass spectrometry analysis.
Conrotto P, Roesli C, Rybak J, Kischel P, Waltregny D, Neri D, Castronovo V.
Int J Cancer. 2008 Dec 15;123(12):2856-64.
PMID 18798264
Olfactomedin 4 promotes S-phase transition in proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells.
Kobayashi D, Koshida S, Moriai R, Tsuji N, Watanabe N.
Cancer Sci. 2007 Mar;98(3):334-40.
PMID 17270022
Specific overexpression of OLFM4(GW112/HGC-1) mRNA in colon, breast and lung cancer tissues detected using quantitative analysis.
Koshida S, Kobayashi D, Moriai R, Tsuji N, Watanabe N.
Cancer Sci. 2007 Mar;98(3):315-20.
PMID 17270020
The glycoprotein hGC-1 binds to cadherin and lectins.
Liu W, Chen L, Zhu J, Rodgers GP.
Exp Cell Res. 2006 Jun 10;312(10):1785-97. Epub 2006 Mar 29.
PMID 16566923
Reduced hGC-1 protein expression is associated with malignant progression of colon carcinoma.
Liu W, Liu Y, Zhu J, Wright E, Ding I, Rodgers GP.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Feb 15;14(4):1041-9.
PMID 18281536
Expression of hGC-1 is correlated with differentiation of gastric carcinoma.
Liu W, Zhu J, Cao L, Rodgers GP.
Histopathology. 2007 Aug;51(2):157-65.
PMID 17650212
Genes involved in invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer identified by array-based hybridization and serial analysis of gene expression.
Oue N, Aung PP, Mitani Y, Kuniyasu H, Nakayama H, Yasui W.
Oncology. 2005;69 Suppl 1:17-22. (REVIEW)
PMID 16210872
Serum olfactomedin 4 (GW112, hGC-1) in combination with Reg IV is a highly sensitive biomarker for gastric cancer patients.
Oue N, Sentani K, Noguchi T, Ohara S, Sakamoto N, Hayashi T, Anami K, Motoshita J, Ito M, Tanaka S, Yoshida K, Yasui W.
Int J Cancer. 2009 Nov 15;125(10):2383-92.
PMID 19670418
pDP4, a novel glycoprotein secreted by mature granulocytes, is regulated by transcription factor PU.1.
Rosenbauer F, Wagner K, Zhang P, Knobeloch KP, Iwama A, Tenen DG.
Blood. 2004 Jun 1;103(11):4294-301. Epub 2004 Feb 12.
PMID 14962908
Upregulation of Reg 1alpha and GW112 in the epithelium of inflamed colonic mucosa.
Shinozaki S, Nakamura T, Iimura M, Kato Y, Iizuka B, Kobayashi M, Hayashi N.
Gut. 2001 May;48(5):623-9.
PMID 11302958
Molecular-pathological prognostic factors of gastric cancer.
Yasui W, Oue N, Aung PP, Matsumura S, Shutoh M, Nakayama H.
Gastric Cancer. 2005;8(2):86-94. (REVIEW)
PMID 15864715
Identification and characterization of a novel member of olfactomedin-related protein family, hGC-1, expressed during myeloid lineage development.
Zhang J, Liu WL, Tang DC, Chen L, Wang M, Pack SD, Zhuang Z, Rodgers GP.
Gene. 2002 Jan 23;283(1-2):83-93.
PMID 11867215
GW112, a novel antiapoptotic protein that promotes tumor growth.
Zhang X, Huang Q, Yang Z, Li Y, Li CY.
Cancer Res. 2004 Apr 1;64(7):2474-81.
PMID 15059901
OLFM4 is a robust marker for stem cells in human intestine and marks a subset of colorectal cancer cells.
van der Flier LG, Haegebarth A, Stange DE, van de Wetering M, Clevers H.
Gastroenterology. 2009 Jul;137(1):15-7. Epub 2009 May 18.
PMID 19450592


This paper should be referenced as such :
Liu, W ; Rodgers, GP
OLFM4 (olfactomedin 4)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(11):1024-1026.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version :

Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  t(3;13)(p24;q14) OLFM4/TOP2B

External links

Genomic and cartography
Gene and transcription
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
BioGPS (Tissue expression)10562
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Protein Interaction databases
Ontologies - Pathways
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
canSAR (ICR) (select the gene name)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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indexed on : Thu Oct 18 17:46:10 CEST 2018

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