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ORAI3 (ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 3)

Written2014-06Jessy Hasna, Nazim Benzerdjeb, Malika Faouzi, Anne-Sophie Ay, Philippe Kischel, Frédéric Hague, Henri Sevestre, Ahmed Ahidouch, Halima Ouadid-Ahidouch
University of Picardie Jules Verne, UFR Sciences, EA 4667, Laboratory of Cell, Molecular Physiology, SFR CAP-SANTE (FED 4231), Amiens, France (JH, NB, MF, ASA, PK, FH, HS, AA, HOA); University of Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Tumor Bank of Picardie, Amiens, France (NB, HS); Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ibn Zohr, Agadir, Morocco (AA)

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Identity

Alias_namesTMEM142C
transmembrane protein 142C
Alias_symbol (synonym)MGC13024
Other alias
HGNC (Hugo) ORAI3
LocusID (NCBI) 93129
Atlas_Id 51589
Location 16p11.2  [Link to chromosome band 16p11]
Location_base_pair Starts at 30960405 and ends at 30966259 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping ORAI3.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2016)
DPP9 (19p13.3) / ORAI3 (16p11.2)
Note ORAI3 is a member of the ORAI family proteins discovered in 2006 as the essential pore-forming components of the low-conductance, highly Ca2+-selective CRAC channels whose activation is dependent on depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores (Feske et al., 2006; Vig et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2006). In Greek mythology, the ORAI are the keepers of the gates of heaven: Eunomia (Order or Harmony), Dike (Justice) and Eirene (Peace).

DNA/RNA

Description ORAI3 is encoded by the gene TMEM142C (HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee). The ORAI3 gene is located on chromosome 16 in the p11.2.
Transcription Size of ORAI3 transcript: 2.2 kb; NCBI ORAI3 mRNA model: NM_152288.
All three ORAI isoforms are widely expressed at the mRNA level and can be incorporated into the plasma membrane when ectopically expressed. Broad expression of ORAI3 transcripts has been shown by Northern blot analysis: ORAI3 transcripts are expressed in heart, brain, kidney, thymus, lung, spleen, skeletal muscle, small intestine, as well as in primary aortic endothelial cells and bone marrow derived mast cells (Gwack et al., 2007). ORAI3 appears to be the only family member that is strongly expressed at the RNA level in brain. (ORAI2 transcripts are prominent in kidney, lung, and spleen (Gwack et al., 2007)).

Transcripts expression
In immune cells, transcripts taken from isolated primary CD3+/CD4+ cells (Th-lymphocytes), CD3+/CD8+ cells (Tc-lymphocytes), CD19+ cells (B-lymphocytes) and BMMC showed that ORAI3 expression is readily detectable in Th-, Tc-, and B- lymphocytes and BMMC (Gross et al., 2007).
mRNA expression in normal tissues has been assessed by different techniques (microarrays, RNAseq, SAGE). Microarrays analyses show that ORAI3 is overexpressed in prostate, lung, monocytes and whole blood (http://biogps.org/#goto=genereport&id=93129, with overexpression defined as 3 times the mean expression observed in the 83 tissues or cells tested in this study). ORAI3 mRNA expression is least important in pancreas, brain (especially the occipital lobe) and T cells (CD4+ as well as CD8+).

Protein

 
  Schematic representation of ORAI protein structure and organization. Domains of human ORAI1, 2 and 3. P: proline-rich region, R: arginin-rich region, R/K: arginine-lysine-rich region, TM: transmembrane domain, CC: coiled-coil domain (Derler et al., 2012).
Description Description of the protein sequence.
Molecular weight: 31499 Da.
Sequence length: 295 amino acids.
ORAI3 is a plasma membrane protein containing four transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. ORAI3 contains a binding domain for calmodulin in its N-terminus, and a coiled-coil domain for protein interaction in its C-terminus.
Examination of the overall protein sequence of ORAI3 reveals high percentage of homology with the family members: 63.2% with ORAI1 and 66.4% with ORAI2 (60.3% between ORAI1 and ORAI2). These homology percentages increase when the comparison concerns the transmembrane domains: 93.8% with both ORAI1 and ORAI2, (92.5% between ORAI1 and ORAI2) (Feske et al., 2006; Hewavitharana et al., 2007). The pore-forming transmembrane domains of all three ORAI proteins show a high degree (~82%) of conservation.
The amino acid sequence of ORAI3 shows marked differences from its isoforms, particularly in the regions outside of the essential pore-forming domains, which might explain its unique properties and the differences with other isoforms in the modes of regulation and modulation from its isoforms (Shuttleworth, 2012).
The sequence identities between ORAI3 and ORAI1 in the cytosolic N- and C-termini are 34% and 46%, respectively, and is 21% in the extracellular loop between transmembrane domains 3 and 4 (Shuttleworth, 2012).
The N-terminus of ORAI3 comprises ~65 amino acids and has no clusters of prolines and arginines seen in ORAI1 (N-terminus domain containing ~90 amino acids and rich in clusters of prolines and arginines) (Takahashi et al., 2007; Frischauf et al., 2008). ORAI3 has a second extracellular loop linking transmembrane domains 3 and 4 which is longer than that of ORAI1 and ORAI2 (~72 amino acids in ORAI3 compared to only 38 amino acids in ORAI1). ORAI3 has a cluster of 22 positively charged amino acid residues immediately prior to the first transmembrane region which is fully conserved among all three ORAI channels (H44-R66 in ORAI3 and H69-R91 in ORAI1), and has three conserved glutamates located at the C-terminus to which is attributed the fast Ca2+-dependent inactivation of ORAI3 (Lee et al., 2009).
The ORAI3 N-terminus appears critical for switching a store-operated channel to an exclusively arachidonate regulated channel (Thompson et al., 2010).
The residues E81 and E165 in the transmembrane domains 1 and 3, and E85, D87 and E89 in the extracellular 1-2 loop are critical determinants of a high Ca2+ selectivity. Other studies using a cysteine-scanning mutagenesis approach in ORAI3 revealed that Ca2+ selectivity was exclusively determined by the E81 residue alone (McNally et al., 2009).
Replacing the N-terminal cytosolic domain of ORAI3 with the corresponding domain of ORAI1 doubles the magnitude of the measured store-operated Ca2+ currents, whilst the reverse exchange virtually eliminates all currents. N-terminal deletion experiments narrow the critical region essential for the activation of ORAI3 to amino acids 42-62 (Lis et al., 2010). The appearance of significant store-operated currents dependes on a single specific lysine residue K60 in ORAI3, the conservation of this residue in ORAI1 and ORAI3 cannot explain the differences in the magnitude of store-operated Ca2+ currents between these two ORAI family members. N-terminal deletions of residues between W51 and Y55 significantly increase store-operated ORAI3-dependent currents (Bergsmann et al., 2011). The only sequence difference between ORAI1 and ORAI3 in this region is the substitution of a lysine in ORAI1 for an arginine at position 53 in ORAI3.
ORAI3 lacks C195, a reactive cysteine present in ORAI1 that serve as a detection system primarily for changes in the extracellular oxidative environment, and contains two additional cysteines within the extracellular loop between TM3 and TM4. The absence of C195 in ORAI3 makes it resistant to H2O2-inactivation, since pre-incubation with H2O2 of ORAI1/STIM1 expressing cells (HEK; T cells) inhibits activation of ORAI1, but not of ORAI3, and reinsertion of C195 within ORAI3 renders ORAI3 channels redox sensitive (Bogeski et al., 2010).

Post-translational modifications of the protein

Glycosylation:
Unlike ORAI1, ORAI3 does not have a glycosylation site on the asparagine residue (N223) situated between the transmembrane domains TM3 et TM4 (Frischauf et al., 2008; Prakriya et al., 2006).
ORAI1 has a putative N-glycosylation motif (NVS) in its extracellular loop between predicted transmembrane segments 3 and 4. This motif is absent in ORAI2 and 3 (Gwack et al., 2007). ORAI3 migration properties do not change by tunicamycin treatment. Indeed, HEK293 cells stably transfected with FLAG-tagged ORAI and treated with 2μg/ml tunicamycin, showed that ORAI3 migrated at positions close to their predicted molecular masse (32.5 kDa).
Phosphorylation:
Since ORAI3 is a tetraspanning plasma membrane protein, it contains three intracellular regions that can potentially be phosphorylated by intracellular protein kinases: the N-terminus, an intracellular loop between transmembrane domains 2 and 3, and the C-terminus, each intracellular region potentially contains one or more phosphorylation sites. Ser-27 and Ser-30 have been identified as the main phosphorylation sites in ORAI1 within its N-terminus. They are conserved throughout evolution in all mammalian ORAI1 proteins. Mutations at these phosphorylation sites increase store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and CRAC current suggesting that ORAI1 phosphorylation at these residues by protein kinase C (PKC) suppresses SOCE and CRAC channel activation. However, Ser-27 and Ser-30 are not present in ORAI2 and ORAI3.
A phosphorylation of ORAI3 peptide has been revealed by a phosphoproteome analysis of human liver cells (Sui et al., 2008). This phosphorylation site is located in the C-terminus of ORAI3 on a tyrosine residue (Y278). Experimental ORAI3 phosphorylation has also been demonstrated in HEK293 cells (Kawasaki et al., 2010).
To examine in vivo PKC-mediated phosphorylation, HEK293 cells expressing FLAG-tagged ORAI were incubated with 32P monosodium phosphate, and then stimulated with thapsigargin in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Thapsigargin mobilizes Ca2+ from the ER and the extracellular space and activates Ca2+/DAG-dependent PKC isoforms. ORAI1 phosphorylation is enhanced in response to thapsigargin. The levels of ORAI3 phosphorylation have been less than half of that observed for ORAI1 (Kawasaki et al., 2010).
Other phosphorylation sites on ORAI3 were predicted by NetPhos2.0: 13 serine sites (S20, S45, S50, S57, S64, S65, S68, S86, S191, S203, S213, S214 and S20), 3 threonine sites (T26, T183 and T190) and 2 tyrosine sites (Y146 and Y278).

 
  ORAI3 protein sequence of amino acids. ORAI3 protein (1 .. 295) has four helical transmembrane domains: T1 (63 .. 82) (20 amino acids), T2 (95 .. 115) (21 amino acids), T3 (157 .. 177) (21 amino acids), T4 (244 .. 264) (21 amino acids).
Expression ORAI3 is only expressed in mammals (Cai, 2007). ORAI3 seems to be ubiquitously expressed in human (http://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000175938/tissue), and mouse, showing a minor presence in skeletal muscle, spleen and colon (Cordeiro and Strauss, 2011; Gao et al., 2010; Gross et al., 2007). More specifically, ORAI3 expression has been reported in brain, heart, kidney, testis, intestine, placenta, lung (Gwack et al., 2007; Motiani et al., 2013a), vascular smooth muscle cells (Trebak, 2012), airway smooth muscle in human (Peel et al., 2008) and macrophages. ORAI3 mRNA is usually much less expressed compared to ORAI1 in cells of lymphoid origin. ORAI1, ORAI2, and ORAI3 are expressed at similar levels in rat microglia (Hoth and Niemeyer, 2013).
Localisation ORAI3 localizes to the plasma membrane and functions as a Ca2+-selective ion channel (Feske et al., 2006; Vig et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2006; Prakriya et al., 2006). This has been confirmed by immunocytochemistry of tagged proteins expressed in Jurkat T cells and in HEK293 cells. All three ORAI isoforms are expressed and localized at or near the plasma membrane, with little or no overlap with the ER marker ERP72. This localization was not grossly altered after store depletion with thapsigargin (Gwack et al., 2007). During meiosis, ORAI proteins get internalized into intracellular vesicles and store-operated currents are suppressed (Yu et al., 2009).
Function In SOC channels:
ORAI3 presents a single putative channel pore and has a role as a store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) channel. SOC channels are the major route for Ca2+ entry in non-excitable cells, and they include ORAI channels characterized by high selectivity for Ca2+ over monovalent cations, low single-channel conductance (<1 pS), and an inwardly rectifying current-voltage (I-V) relationship. Functional CRAC/SOC channels are formed by a tetrameric assembly of ORAI1/2/3 subunits (Ji et al., 2008; Mignen et al., 2008a; Penna et al., 2008; Maruyama et al., 2009).
ORAI3 is different from its family members, notably because of its exclusive presence in mammals (Cai, 2007) and its receptivity to pharmacological modulation (Schindl et al., 2008). All three isoforms are selective to Ca2+, ORAI3 being more permeant to monovalent cations such as Na+ (DeHaven et al., 2007). Indeed, the ORAI3 currents display a significantly increased permeability to Na+ when measured in the absence of external divalent cations (Lis et al., 2007).
ORAI3 expression is capable of inducing a store-induced conductance, but its magnitude is considerably smaller than that seen with ORAI1.
In HEK293 cells, human SCID T cells and fibroblasts, in which store depletion has been induced with thapsigargin, ORAI1 was shown to be the major regulator of store-operated Ca2+ influx, whereas ORAI3 can complement partially (partly compensate in the absence of functional ORAI1) and ORAI2 has a lesser role (Gwack et al., 2007). Combined overexpression of ORAI3 and STIM1 results in substantial reconstitution of Ca2+ entry in SCID fibroblasts (Gwack et al., 2007). ORAI3 expression also rescues normal store-operated Ca2+ entry in cells in which such entry was reduced by knockdown of ORAI1 (Mercer et al., 2006; DeHaven et al., 2007).
ORAI1, ORAI2, and ORAI3 channels are all similarly inhibited by extracellular Ca2+, indicating similar affinities for Ca2+ within the selectivity filter. ORAI3 channels seem to differ from ORAI1 and ORAI2 in being somewhat resistant to the process of Ca2+ depotentiation (DeHaven et al., 2007). Moreover, like ORAI1, ORAI3 can potentiate store-operated Ca2+ entry in HEK293 cells expressing TRPC6 or TRPC3 (Liao et al., 2007).
ORAI3 and ORAI1 channels participate in store-operated Ca2+ influx in human airway smooth muscle cells (Peel et al., 2008). Cells transfected with siRNA against ORAI3 display abnormal (cyclopiazonic acid) CPA-mediated Ca2+ signals. Both Ca2+ release from the stores and Ca2+ influx are reduced in the ORAI3 knockdown cells, suggesting that cells with reduced ORAI3 expression have a lower Ca2+ store content and that ORAI3 plays a role in regulating basal Ca2+ levels or in Ca2+ release from the stores (Peel et al., 2008). In addition, ORAI genes expression and CRAC activation has also reported in the human retinal pigment epithelium (Potier et al., 2009; Darbellay et al., 2009; Bisaillon et al., 2010).
ORAI3 upregulation contributes to vascular smooth muscle remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia caused by vascular injury.
ORAI3 has been shown to be an important component of store-independent arachidonate-regulated Ca2+ (ARC) entry in HEK293 cells (Mignen and Shuttleworth, 2000), and more recently of a store-independent leukotriene C4-regulated Ca2+ (LRC) entry pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (Zhang et al., 2013).
In ARC channels:
ORAI3 has been identified as an essential component of the store-independent, arachidonic acid activated, Ca2+-selective ARC channels (Mignen and Shuttleworth, 2000; Mignen et al., 2008b). These channels are found in a variety of different cell types, frequently co-existing with store-operated CRAC channels (Mignen et al., 2003; Mignen et al., 2005; Li et al., 2008; Yeung-Yam-Wah et al., 2010), and sharing similar basic biophysical properties. They are pentameric aggregates consisting of three ORAI1 and two ORAI3 subunits that form a functional ARC channel pore (Mignen et al., 2008b; Mignen et al., 2007; Thompson et al., 2010). Two ORAI3 subunits are required within the pentamer to make the ARC channel sensitive to activation by low concentrations of arachidonic acid. ARC channels are characterized by being activated by low concentrations (2-8 μM) of arachidonic acid, insensitive to 2-APB, and with an absolutely dependence on the pool of STIM1 residing in the plasma membrane for their activation (Mignen et al., 2009). The acquisition of selective activation by arachidonic acid depends on the cytosolic N-terminal domain of ORAI3 (Thompson et al., 2010).
The ARC currents are distinguished from the co-existing CRAC channel currents by their store-independent activation, and the absence of any detectible fast inactivation. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of ORAI3 (E81Q) had no effect on store-operated CRAC channel currents, but reduced currents through the store-independent ARC channels to negligible levels (Mignen et al., 2008b).
A recent study indicates a role of ARC channels in insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells (Yeung-Yam-Wah et al., 2010). It has been shown that the known ability of glucose and various insulin stimulants including acetylcholine and cholecystokinin to induce increases in cellular arachidonic acid results in activation of ARC channels in the β cells, increasing cytosolic Ca2+ levels and enhancing the subsequent insulin secretion (Yeung-Yam-Wah et al., 2010).
In LRC channels:
ORAI3 channels are also implicated in store-independent, leukotriene C4 (LTC4)-regulated Ca2+ (LRC) channels. Comparison of AA (arachidonic acid)- and LTC4-activated currents in vascular smooth muscle cells and in HEK293 cells using whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recording shows indistinguishable non-additive LTC4- and AA-activated currents that both require ORAI1 and ORAI3. This suggests that ARC and LRC conductances are mediated by the same channel. Experiments using a non-metabolizable form of AA or an inhibitor of 5-lipooxygenase suggest that ARC and LRC currents in both cell types can be activated by either LTC4 or AA, with LTC4 being more potent. Although the plasma membrane (PM)-STIM1 was required for current activation by LTC4 and AA under whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in both cell types, ER-STIM1 was sufficient with perforated patch recordings. These results demonstrate that ARC and LRC currents are mediated by the same cellular populations of STIM1, ORAI1, and ORAI3 (Zhang et al., 2013).
In summary, ORAI3 proteins contribute to Ca2+ entry into cells through both store-dependent, Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels and store-independent, arachidonic acid (AA)-regulated Ca2+ (ARC) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4)-regulated Ca2+ (LRC) channels (ORAI1/3 heteromultimers).

ORAI3 activation and interaction with STIM proteins
ORAI channels are activated by STIM1 or STIM2, single-pass transmembrane proteins localized predominantly in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. STIM proteins have a long C-terminal cytoplasmic region and contain an N-terminal EF-hand located in the ER lumen that functions as a sensor of ER Ca2+ levels (Roos et al., 2005; Liou et al., 2005; Williams et al., 2001; Stathopulos et al., 2006).
The activation of ORAI channels by STIM depends on Ca2+ store depletion and is reversible once the stores are refilled (Luik et al., 2008; Soboloff et al., 2006). STIM1 activates store-operated Ca2+ channels only when it is not fixing Ca2+, e.g. when the stores are depleted (Zhang et al., 2005). One minute after store depletion, STIM proteins are redistributed in puncta in close proximity to the plasma membrane (Liou et al., 2005; Luik et al., 2008; Várnai et al., 2007; Baba et al., 2006), where they co-localize with and activate ORAI channels, allowing Ca2+ influx (Liou et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2006; Muik et al., 2008). This process implies tetramerisation of STIM1 proteins using the N-terminus (Luik et al., 2008). It is thought that within these puncta, STIM1 communicates with and opens CRAC channels located to the plasma membrane (Luik et al., 2006; Parvez et al., 2008).
The initial interaction of STIM1 with the ORAI channels involves their cytosolic C-terminal region (Li et al., 2007; Muik et al., 2008; Frischauf et al., 2009). In all three ORAI subtypes, this region contains a predicted coiled-coil domain that is critical for interactions with STIM1 (Muik et al., 2008).
Truncation analysis identified a cytoplasmic region of STIM1, termed the CRAC activation domain (CAD)/STIM1 ORAI1 activating region (SOAR) to be sufficient to activate ORAI1 (Kawasaki et al., 2009; Muik et al., 2009; Park et al., 2009; Yuan et al., 2009). The cytoplasmic N and C termini of ORAI1 mediate channel opening by interaction with STIM1.
The activation of ORAI3-induced store-operated currents is significantly slower than that seen with ORAI1 and ORAI2 (Lis et al., 2007). Contrary to ORAI1, both ORAI2 and ORAI3 exhibit a 15-17 fold higher coiled-coil probability (Frischauf et al., 2009). A single point mutation in the ORAI1 coiled-coil domain (L273S) abrogates communication with STIM1 C-terminus (Frischauf et al., 2009; Muik et al., 2008). A single point mutation (L285S) within ORAI3 coiled-coil domain results in a partial inhibition of the interaction with STIM1 and subsequent activation of ORAI3 currents. Full inhibition of the ORAI3-induced currents requires incorporation of an additional mutation (L292S) in the coiled-coil domain.
According to Bergsmann, activation of ORAI channels requires coupling of the C terminus of STIM to the N and C termini of ORAI (Bergsmann et al., 2011), since increasing N-terminal truncations causes a progressive decrease of ORAI3 fast inactivation concomitant with diminished binding to calmodulin. Therefore, a fully conserved N-terminal ORAI region (aa 48-65 in ORAI3) is essential for STIM1-dependent STIMulation (Derler et al., 2009; Li et al., 2007; Yuan et al., 2009; Fahrner et al., 2009; Park et al., 2009; Lis et al., 2010). Moreover, a single lysine within this conserved region (K60E in ORAI3) represents a critical residue for store-operated activation (Lis et al., 2010).

Interaction between ORAI family members
ORAI3 can multimerize with ORAI1 to form cation channels that conduct Ca2+ to some degree, since HEK293 cells stably expressing FLAG-tagged ORAI2 and ORAI3 revealed co-immunoprecipitation of ORAI2 and ORAI3 with transiently overexpressed Myc-ORAI1. Thus, ORAI members form homomultimers and can also form heteromultimers (Gwack et al., 2007).

Protein Interactions other than STIM
In addition to STIM1, p45 renamed as CRACR2A (CRAC regulator 2A) is also shown to co-immunoprecipitate with ORAI1, ORAI2 and ORAI3, suggesting a conserved binding mechanism with all the ORAI proteins, and that the ORAI channels, STIM1 and CRACR2A may form a ternary complex though direct interaction.
Various other proteins and lipids have been identified to interact with either STIM1 or ORAI3 or both. Among them is calmodulin (Mullins et al., 2009; Parvez et al., 2008; Bergsmann et al., 2011). Calmodulin binds to ORAI3 and, together with STIM, contributes to fast calcium-dependent inactivation; the structural studies show that CRACR2A/B is also able to interact with ORAI3 (Srikanth et al., 2010) but to date there is no evidence of functional regulation, because ORAI3 is able to form some complex with STIM-1 (Faouzi et al., 2011). All proteins that interact with STIM1 are able to modulate ORAI3 function indirectly. Thus, SARAF (Palty et al., 2012), MS4A4B (Howie et al., 2009), Golli (Walsh et al., 2010), adenylyl cyclase type 8 (AC8) (Martin et al., 2009), the polycystin-1 cleavage product P100 (Woodward et al., 2010), caveolin (Yu et al., 2010), SPCA2 (Feng et al., 2010) and the L-type Ca2+ channel (Cav1.2) (Wang et al., 2010) or the phospholipids PIP2 and PIP3 (Korzeniowski et al., 2009; Walsh et al., 2009) are able to modulate indirectly ORAI3 activity.

ORAI3 inactivation
Fast inactivation of ORAI channels is mediated by cooperative interplay of several structures within ORAI proteins, by the CRAC modulatory domain (CMD) of STIM1, and via calmodulin binding to the ORAI N terminus (Parekh and Putney, 2005; Lee et al., 2009; Frischauf et al., 2011; Derler et al., 2009).
ORAI3 currents exhibit a marked fast inactivation within the first 100 ms, while that of ORAI2 or ORAI1 show less robust feedback regulation (Lis et al., 2007; Schindl et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2009). This effect depends on the presence of three conserved glutamates (E281, E283, E284) in the C-terminal region of ORAI3 (Lee et al., 2009). According to Yamashita et al. (2007), fast inactivation is determined by the same acidic residues involved in determining Ca2+ selectivity. A STIM1 C-terminus domain that include an acidic cluster (amino acids 475-483) termed CRAC Modulatory Domain (CMD) is also indispensable for fast ORAI channel inactivation (Derler et al., 2009; Mullins et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2009), since mutations in the CMD results in ORAI3 currents with attenuated or even abolished Ca2+-dependent inactivation (Derler et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2009). On the other hand, Litjens et al. (2004) suggest that fast inactivation may be calmodulin (CaM) dependent and involves a region in the cytosolic N-terminal domain of ORAI3 (S45-K62) that binds CaM in a Ca2+-dependent manner (Mullins et al., 2009; Frischauf et al., 2011). Transient CaM binding is assumed to mediate fast inactivation. The process may be that CaM transiently competes with STIM1 for the N-terminal interaction site on ORAI essential for channel gating.
Not only the C- but also the N-terminus and the second intracellular loop between TM2 and TM3 contribute to ORAI inactivation/gating in a cooperative manner (Frischauf et al., 2011) and modulate fast and slow inactivation as revealed by chimeric and mutational approaches (Srikanth et al., 2010). ORAI fast inactivation also involves the pore region since mutations of negatively charged residues within the pore of ORAI results in attenuation of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (Yamashita et al., 2007).

Pharmacology
To date there is no specific inhibitor of ORAI3 but ORAI3 channels can be blocked by generic blockers of calcium entry channels such as La3+ (50-100 μM) and Gd3+ (1-5 μM). Other non-specific blockers include SKF96365, the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-9 (Smyth et al., 2008), and the bistrifluoromethyl-pyrazole derivative BTP2 (Zitt et al., 2004) can be used.
Another compound extensively studied is 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), originally characterized as an inhibitor of InsP3 receptors (Maruyama et al., 1997; Bilmen and Michelangeli, 2002), later shown to have multiple diverse effects including both the inhibition and activation of various different members of the TRP channel family (Voets et al., 2001; Trebak et al., 2002; Chung et al., 2004; Hu et al., 2004; Li et al., 2006; Juvin et al., 2007), and the inhibition of SERCA pumps (Missiaen et al., 2001; Peppiatt et al., 2003), as well as to affect store-operated Ca2+ entry via CRAC channels (Gregory et al., 2001; Iwasaki et al., 2001; Prakriya and Lewis, 2001).
2-APB displays a bi-functional effect that is dependent on the concentration used. High concentrations of 2-APB were shown to increase store-operated currents in cells expressing STIM1 and ORAI3 (Lis et al., 2007; DeHaven et al., 2008; Peinelt et al., 2008; Schindl et al., 2008), accompanied by marked changes in ion selectivity by increasing ORAI3 channel pore size from ~3.8 Å to more than 5.34 Å, an effect that was apparently dependent on the E165 residue of ORAI3 that lies in the third transmembrane domain (Schindl et al., 2008). The residues that assist in formation of the 2-APB-activated ORAI3 pore are lined by TM1 residues, but also allows for TM3 E165 to approach the central axis of the channel that forms the conducting pathway, or pore (Amcheslavsky et al., 2014). Transmembrane domains 2 and 3, together with the linking intracellular loop, are required for 2-APB to directly activate ORAI3 channels (Zhang et al., 2008).
ORAI3 can be directly activated by high concentrations of 2-APB, in a STIM1- and store depletion-independent manner (DeHaven et al., 2008; Peinelt et al., 2008; Schindl et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2009). These direct 2-APB induced currents display large inward and outward currents (i.e. they show double rectification) and a leftward shift in the reversal potential, features that indicate a marked reduction in Ca2+ selectivity, and an increased permeability to monovalent cations (DeHaven et al., 2008; Peinelt et al., 2008; Schindl et al., 2008; Zhang et al., 2008).
When ORAI3 forms a store operated channel, store-operated ORAI3 currents are potentiated by 2-APB at low concentrations (<10 μM) without affecting ion selectivity (Yamashita et al., 2011). This effect requires the presence of STIM1, and is strictly dependent on store depletion.
The most obvious unique property of the channels involving ORAI3 is their ability to be activated independently of store depletion, either pharmacologically by 2-APB or, physiologically, by agonist-generated increased levels of intracellular arachidonic acid.
A recent study by (Zeng et al., 2014) shows that the ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonist 4-chloro-3-ethylphenol (4-CEP) blocks ORAI1/3 store-operated channels. 4-CEP induces a significant Ca2+ release in rat L6 myoblasts, but inhibits SOCE. The inhibitory effect is concentration-dependent and more potent than the one of its analogues 4-CmC and 4-chlorophenol (4-ClP). In the HEK293 T-REx cells overexpressing STIM1/ORAI1-3, 4-CEP inhibited the ORAI1, ORAI2 and ORAI3 currents evoked by thapsigargin. The 2-APB-induced ORAI3 current was also blocked by 4-CEP. This inhibitory effect was reversible and independent of the Ca2+ release. The two analogues, 4-CmC and 4-ClP, also inhibited the ORAI1-3 channels. Excised patch and intracellular application of 4-CEP demonstrated that the action site was located extracellularly (Zeng et al., 2014).
GSK-7975A and GSK-5503A are selective CRAC channel blockers that inhibit both ORAI1 and ORAI3 currents by acting downstream of STIM1 oligomerization and STIM1/ORAI1 interaction, potentially via an allosteric effect on the selectivity filter of ORAI (Derler et al., 2012). Both GSK compounds fully inhibited ORAI3 currents. Similarly, Synta-66 inhibited ORAI3 currents at a similar rate as the GSK compounds. By contrast, 10 μM La3+ blocked ORAI3 currents more rapidly. The GSK compounds appeared to inhibit ORAI3 currents slightly faster than those of ORAI1. Overall these GSK compounds were equally effective at blocking ORAI1 and ORAI3, and inhibition occurred at a substantially slower rate than La3+. Inhibition of ORAI currents by GSK compounds is not readily reversible: neither ORAI1 nor ORAI3 currents showed substantial recovery from block by GSK-7975A or GSK-5503A over a 4-5 min wash-out period.
2-APB stimulated ORAI3 currents are less susceptible to GSK-7975A. 10 μM GSK-7975A was totally ineffective in inhibiting these ORAI3 currents in contrast to those activated via STIM1. 50 μM GSK-7975A caused 50% inhibition and 100 μM GSK-7975A caused full inhibition. The GSK CRAC channel blockers did not differentiate between ORAI1 and ORAI3 channels consistent with the conserved pore geometry and selectivity filter among the ORAI isoforms.

Homology ORAI3 (encoding gene: MGC13024 located on chromosome 16) has two human homologs: ORAI1 (FLJ14466, chromosome 12) and ORAI2 (C7orf19, chromosome 7) (Feske et al., 2006). ORAI3 made an evolutionary appearance in mammals, evolving from ORAI1 rather than ORAI2 (Cai, 2007) and manifesting conductances that display unique features in their gating, selectivity, regulation and mode of activation (Shuttleworth, 2012).
ORAI3 is the 'newest' ORAI family member in the evolutionary tree (Shuttleworth, 2012). Orthologous ORAI3 genes are found in the following species: chimpanzee (98.98% homology), dog (92.20% homology), cow (90.51% homology), rat (89.83% homology), mice (88.48% homology).

Mutations

Note Understanding of the role of ORAI1, and indeed its initial identification, came from the study of patients carrying functionally critical mutations in this gene. To date, no equivalent identification of patients bearing similar mutations in ORAI3 have been identified. (Diseases associated to absence of ORAI2, ORAI3 or STIM2 function have not been identified in human yet).

Implicated in

Note
Note ORAI3 overexpression is associated with breast, lung, leukemia and prostate cancers.
  
  
Entity Breast cancer
Note ORAI3 channels are reported to be highly expressed in breast cancer (BC) tissues and breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D compared to adjacent non cancerous tissues and non cancerous cell lines, respectively (Faouzi et al., 2011). They are also shown to be involved in proliferation, cell cycle progression and survival of BC cells by regulating the G1 phase and G1/S transition regulatory proteins. Thus, ORAI3 knockdown by specific siRNA inhibits cell proliferation, arrests cell cycle progression in G1 phase, and increases apoptosis in these cells (Faouzi et al., 2011). This phenotype is associated with a reduction in CDK4 and CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinases) and cyclin E and cyclin D1 expression, an accumulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) and p53 (a tumor-suppressor protein) together with an increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Interestingly, these effects seem to be specific to cancer cells, since down-regulation of ORAI3 channels does not affect either cell proliferation or cell survival of normal breast cells. Annexin V and 7-AAD double staining and analysis of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 to the pro-apoptotic protein Bax ratio revealed that the induced cell mortality by ORAI3 knockdown was mainly apoptotic as demonstrated by the increased percentage of Annexin V-positive cells and the increased Bax/Bcl-2.
The same study showed that ORAI3 contributes to Ca2+ influx in BC cells where both Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) amplitude and resting [Ca2+]i decreased significantly with ORAI3 knockdown. The authors concluded that the ORAI3 involvement in cell proliferation/survival and cell cycle progression may be at least partially linked to the calcium influx through the channels since the reduction of external calcium concentration [Ca2+]o to 0.2 mM decreases significantly BC cell proliferation (Faouzi et al., 2011).
A subsequent study highlighted a correlation between ORAI3 and the oncogene c-myc expression in tumor tissues and in BC cell lines: ORAI3 and c-myc were over-expressed in 70% and 80% cases respectively. Expression of c-myc, as assessed by RT-qPCR, is higher in the MCF-7 cancer cell line than in the non-cancerous MCF-10A cell line. A similar over-expression pattern was shown for ORAI3 in these cell lines (Faouzi et al., 2013). ORAI3 down-regulation reduces both c-myc expression and activity levels exclusively in BC cells, whereas ORAI1 (one of the two mammalian homologs to ORAI3) induced an upregulation of c-myc mRNA. The involvement of c-myc in the ORAI3 signaling was demonstrated when silencing c-myc resulted in closely-similar and non-additive effects to the ones induced by ORAI3 downregulation: decreased cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest with a significant accumulation of the cells in the G0/G1 phase, increased cell mortality (Faouzi et al., 2013).
Authors showed that ORAI3 channels affect c-myc, most likely via the MAP Kinase pathway, as demonstrated by decreased phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) after ORAI3 downregulation (Faouzi et al., 2013).
Parallel studies also reported that ORAI3 mediates SOCE in estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) BC cell lines (Motiani et al., 2010), whereas in estrogen-receptor-negative (ER-) BC cell lines, SOCE is mediated by ORAI1. This study was the first to describe SOCE and endogenous calcium release-activated currents (CRAC) that are mediated by native ORAI3 channels and highlights a potential connection between estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and ORAI3 (Motiani et al., 2010). Authors then reported that knockdown of ERα decreases ORAI3 expression level leading to a decrease in ORAI3-mediated SOCE and CRAC current, while activation of ERα increased ORAI3 expression and SOCE in MCF7 cells (Motiani et al., 2013b). Consistently with the above cited studies, ORAI3 knockdown inhibits SOCE-dependent phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). It also decreases the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), which was associated with decreased cell growth and Matrigel invasion of ER+ MCF7 cells in contrast to ER- MDA-MB231 cells where no effects were observed (Motiani et al., 2013b).
  
  
Entity Lung cancer
Note An overexpression of ORAI3 was observed in 66.7% of human tumor samples as compared to the human non-tumoral samples (40/60) as revealed by immunohistochemistry. The 60 lung adenocarcinomas were classified according to grading system proposed by Yoshizawa et al. 2011 (low, intermediate and high grades). The ORAI3 staining score is reported to be highly expressed in higher tumor grade (high grade; n= 16) as compared to low tumor grades (Ay et al., 2013).
ORAI3 is also expressed in non small cell lung carcinoma cells (NSCLCC) such as NCI-H23, NCI-H460, A549 and Calu-1. In NCI-H23 and NCI-H460 cells, ORAI3 is a major actor of Store Operated Calcium Entry (Ay et al., 2013). Ay et al. (2013) demonstrated that ORAI3 is involved in NSCLCC proliferation. Indeed, ORAI3 inhibition induces a strong decrease in NSCLCC proliferation, accumulating cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. This accumulation in G0/G1 phase is associated with a decrease in Cyclin D1/cdk4 and Cyclin E/cdk2 proteins level. No effect is observed on apoptosis. The same study demonstrated that SOCE induces Akt phosphorylation in NSCLCC and ORAI3 inhibition decreases this activation demonstrating ORAI3 can promote proliferation through SOCE by activating Akt pathway. They also showed that neither ORAI1 nor ORAI2 are involved in SOCE in NSCLC cell lines, suggesting that ORAI3 is the main component of SOCE in those cells (Ay et al., 2013).
The same type of mechanism is observed with TRPC1 in NSCLCC. Indeed Tajeddine and Gailly (2012) have demonstrated that TRPC1 is involved in G1/S transition in A549 NSCLC cell line through SOCE. They showed that cell cycle arrest after TRPC1 inhibition induces a decrease in EGFR activation and subsequent signaling (PI3K/Akt, MAPK).
Those two studies suggest that SOCE is an important mechanism in proliferation of NSCLCC. Indeed, EGFR signaling is overactivated in NSCLCC either by constitutive activation of EGFR or K-Ras mutation. ORAI3, able to activate this pathway, hence can be a potential target for anti-cancer drug.
  
  
Entity Myeloid leukemia
Note The mRNA levels of ORAI3 in both human leukemia and human myeloma tipifarnib-sensitive cell lines were significantly higher than in the tipifarnib-insensitive human myeloma cells. Tipifarnib is a new apoptotic agent that inhibits farnesyltransferase responsible for the transfer of a farnesyl group to Ras protein. Tipifarnib activates ORAI3-mediated SOC leading to [Ca2+]i increase. Moreover, ORAI3 functional expression was higher in 2-APB-sensitive leukemia and myeloid cells as compared to 2-APB-insensitive myeloid cells (Yanamadra et al., 2011). These results suggest that Tipifarnib-resistant cells express less ORAI3 ORAI3 conferring protection against apoptotic effect of Tipifarnib (Yanamadra et al., 2011).
  
  
Entity Prostate cancer
Note ORAI3 mRNA expression levels are significantly reduced in tumours when compared to non-tumour tissues from 13 prostate cancer patients. mRNA expression levels of ORAI3 are decreased in both androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line (LNCaP) and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell line (DU145), when compared to human prostate epithelial cells from healthy tissue. The pharmacological effects of 2-APB on CRAC channels in prostate cancer cells differ from those in human prostate epithelial cells, and siRNA based knock-down experiments indicate changed ORAI3 channel levels are underlying the altered pharmacological profile (Holzmann et al., 2013).
  

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Store-operated calcium channels.
Parekh AB, Putney JW Jr.
Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr;85(2):757-810. (REVIEW)
PMID 15788710
 
STIM1 clusters and activates CRAC channels via direct binding of a cytosolic domain to Orai1.
Park CY, Hoover PJ, Mullins FM, Bachhawat P, Covington ED, Raunser S, Walz T, Garcia KC, Dolmetsch RE, Lewis RS.
Cell. 2009 Mar 6;136(5):876-90. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2009.02.014. Epub 2009 Feb 26.
PMID 19249086
 
STIM2 protein mediates distinct store-dependent and store-independent modes of CRAC channel activation.
Parvez S, Beck A, Peinelt C, Soboloff J, Lis A, Monteilh-Zoller M, Gill DL, Fleig A, Penner R.
FASEB J. 2008 Mar;22(3):752-61. Epub 2007 Sep 28.
PMID 17905723
 
ORAI and store-operated calcium influx in human airway smooth muscle cells.
Peel SE, Liu B, Hall IP.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008 Jun;38(6):744-9. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2007-0395OC. Epub 2008 Jan 31.
PMID 18239188
 
2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate directly facilitates and indirectly inhibits STIM1-dependent gating of CRAC channels.
Peinelt C, Lis A, Beck A, Fleig A, Penner R.
J Physiol. 2008 Jul 1;586(13):3061-73. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.151365. Epub 2008 Apr 10.
PMID 18403424
 
The CRAC channel consists of a tetramer formed by Stim-induced dimerization of Orai dimers.
Penna A, Demuro A, Yeromin AV, Zhang SL, Safrina O, Parker I, Cahalan MD.
Nature. 2008 Nov 6;456(7218):116-20. doi: 10.1038/nature07338. Epub 2008 Sep 28.
PMID 18820677
 
2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) antagonises inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release, inhibits calcium pumps and has a use-dependent and slowly reversible action on store-operated calcium entry channels.
Peppiatt CM, Collins TJ, Mackenzie L, Conway SJ, Holmes AB, Bootman MD, Berridge MJ, Seo JT, Roderick HL.
Cell Calcium. 2003 Jul;34(1):97-108.
PMID 12767897
 
Evidence for STIM1- and Orai1-dependent store-operated calcium influx through ICRAC in vascular smooth muscle cells: role in proliferation and migration.
Potier M, Gonzalez JC, Motiani RK, Abdullaev IF, Bisaillon JM, Singer HA, Trebak M.
FASEB J. 2009 Aug;23(8):2425-37. doi: 10.1096/fj.09-131128. Epub 2009 Apr 13.
PMID 19364762
 
Orai1 is an essential pore subunit of the CRAC channel.
Prakriya M, Feske S, Gwack Y, Srikanth S, Rao A, Hogan PG.
Nature. 2006 Sep 14;443(7108):230-3. Epub 2006 Aug 20.
PMID 16921383
 
STIM1, an essential and conserved component of store-operated Ca2+ channel function.
Roos J, DiGregorio PJ, Yeromin AV, Ohlsen K, Lioudyno M, Zhang S, Safrina O, Kozak JA, Wagner SL, Cahalan MD, Velicelebi G, Stauderman KA.
J Cell Biol. 2005 May 9;169(3):435-45. Epub 2005 May 2.
PMID 15866891
 
2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate alters selectivity of Orai3 channels by increasing their pore size.
Schindl R, Bergsmann J, Frischauf I, Derler I, Fahrner M, Muik M, Fritsch R, Groschner K, Romanin C.
J Biol Chem. 2008 Jul 18;283(29):20261-7. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M803101200. Epub 2008 May 21.
PMID 18499656
 
Plasticity in Ca2+ selectivity of Orai1/Orai3 heteromeric channel.
Schindl R, Frischauf I, Bergsmann J, Muik M, Derler I, Lackner B, Groschner K, Romanin C.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 17;106(46):19623-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0907714106. Epub 2009 Nov 3.
PMID 19887627
 
Orai3--the 'exceptional' Orai?
Shuttleworth TJ.
J Physiol. 2012 Jan 15;590(Pt 2):241-57. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2011.220574. Epub 2011 Oct 31. (REVIEW)
PMID 22041188
 
Ca2+-store-dependent and -independent reversal of Stim1 localization and function.
Smyth JT, Dehaven WI, Bird GS, Putney JW Jr.
J Cell Sci. 2008 Mar 15;121(Pt 6):762-72. doi: 10.1242/jcs.023903. Epub 2008 Feb 19.
PMID 18285445
 
Calcium signals mediated by STIM and Orai proteins--a new paradigm in inter-organelle communication.
Soboloff J, Spassova MA, Dziadek MA, Gill DL.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1161-8. Epub 2006 Sep 20. (REVIEW)
PMID 17084918
 
The intracellular loop of Orai1 plays a central role in fast inactivation of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels.
Srikanth S, Jung HJ, Ribalet B, Gwack Y.
J Biol Chem. 2010 Feb 12;285(7):5066-75. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.072736. Epub 2009 Dec 10.
PMID 20007711
 
Stored Ca2+ depletion-induced oligomerization of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) via the EF-SAM region: An initiation mechanism for capacitive Ca2+ entry.
Stathopulos PB, Li GY, Plevin MJ, Ames JB, Ikura M.
J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 24;281(47):35855-62. Epub 2006 Oct 3.
PMID 17020874
 
Phosphoproteome analysis of the human Chang liver cells using SCX and a complementary mass spectrometric strategy.
Sui S, Wang J, Yang B, Song L, Zhang J, Chen M, Liu J, Lu Z, Cai Y, Chen S, Bi W, Zhu Y, He F, Qian X.
Proteomics. 2008 May;8(10):2024-34. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200700896.
PMID 18491316
 
TRPC1 protein channel is major regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.
Tajeddine N, Gailly P.
J Biol Chem. 2012 May 11;287(20):16146-57. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.340034. Epub 2012 Mar 26.
PMID 22451676
 
Essential role of the N-terminus of murine Orai1 in store-operated Ca2+ entry.
Takahashi Y, Murakami M, Watanabe H, Hasegawa H, Ohba T, Munehisa Y, Nobori K, Ono K, Iijima T, Ito H.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 27;356(1):45-52. Epub 2007 Feb 28.
PMID 17343823
 
The N-terminal domain of Orai3 determines selectivity for activation of the store-independent ARC channel by arachidonic acid.
Thompson J, Mignen O, Shuttleworth TJ.
Channels (Austin). 2010 Sep-Oct;4(5):398-410. doi: 10.4161/chan.4.5.13226. Epub 2010 Sep 1.
PMID 20818184
 
Comparison of human TRPC3 channels in receptor-activated and store-operated modes. Differential sensitivity to channel blockers suggests fundamental differences in channel composition.
Trebak M, Bird GS, McKay RR, Putney JW Jr.
J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 14;277(24):21617-23. Epub 2002 Apr 9.
PMID 11943785
 
STIM/Orai signalling complexes in vascular smooth muscle.
Trebak M.
J Physiol. 2012 Sep 1;590(Pt 17):4201-8. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2012.233353. Epub 2012 May 28. (REVIEW)
PMID 22641780
 
Visualization and manipulation of plasma membrane-endoplasmic reticulum contact sites indicates the presence of additional molecular components within the STIM1-Orai1 Complex.
Varnai P, Toth B, Toth DJ, Hunyady L, Balla T.
J Biol Chem. 2007 Oct 5;282(40):29678-90. Epub 2007 Aug 7.
PMID 17684017
 
CRACM1 is a plasma membrane protein essential for store-operated Ca2+ entry.
Vig M, Peinelt C, Beck A, Koomoa DL, Rabah D, Koblan-Huberson M, Kraft S, Turner H, Fleig A, Penner R, Kinet JP.
Science. 2006 May 26;312(5777):1220-3. Epub 2006 Apr 27.
PMID 16645049
 
CaT1 and the calcium release-activated calcium channel manifest distinct pore properties.
Voets T, Prenen J, Fleig A, Vennekens R, Watanabe H, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ, Droogmans G, Penner R, Nilius B.
J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 21;276(51):47767-70. Epub 2001 Oct 30.
PMID 11687570
 
Role of phosphoinositides in STIM1 dynamics and store-operated calcium entry.
Walsh CM, Chvanov M, Haynes LP, Petersen OH, Tepikin AV, Burgoyne RD.
Biochem J. 2009 Dec 14;425(1):159-68. doi: 10.1042/BJ20090884.
PMID 19843011
 
Evidence for an interaction between Golli and STIM1 in store-operated calcium entry.
Walsh CM, Doherty MK, Tepikin AV, Burgoyne RD.
Biochem J. 2010 Sep 15;430(3):453-60. doi: 10.1042/BJ20100650.
PMID 20629634
 
The calcium store sensor, STIM1, reciprocally controls Orai and CaV1.2 channels.
Wang Y, Deng X, Mancarella S, Hendron E, Eguchi S, Soboloff J, Tang XD, Gill DL.
Science. 2010 Oct 1;330(6000):105-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1191086.
PMID 20929813
 
Identification and characterization of the STIM (stromal interaction molecule) gene family: coding for a novel class of transmembrane proteins.
Williams RT, Manji SS, Parker NJ, Hancock MS, Van Stekelenburg L, Eid JP, Senior PV, Kazenwadel JS, Shandala T, Saint R, Smith PJ, Dziadek MA.
Biochem J. 2001 Aug 1;357(Pt 3):673-85.
PMID 11463338
 
Identification of a polycystin-1 cleavage product, P100, that regulates store operated Ca entry through interactions with STIM1.
Woodward OM, Li Y, Yu S, Greenwell P, Wodarczyk C, Boletta A, Guggino WB, Qian F.
PLoS One. 2010 Aug 23;5(8):e12305. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012305.
PMID 20808796
 
Ca2+ store depletion causes STIM1 to accumulate in ER regions closely associated with the plasma membrane.
Wu MM, Buchanan J, Luik RM, Lewis RS.
J Cell Biol. 2006 Sep 11;174(6):803-13.
PMID 16966422
 
Competitive modulation of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel gating by STIM1 and 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate.
Yamashita M, Somasundaram A, Prakriya M.
J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 18;286(11):9429-42. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.189035. Epub 2010 Dec 30.
PMID 21193399
 
Tipifarnib-induced apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma cells depends on Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels.
Yanamandra N, Buzzeo RW, Gabriel M, Hazlehurst LA, Mari Y, Beaupre DM, Cuevas J.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Jun;337(3):636-43. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.172809. Epub 2011 Mar 4.
PMID 21378206
 
Arachidonic acid stimulates extracellular Ca(2+) entry in rat pancreatic beta cells via activation of the noncapacitative arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+) (ARC) channels.
Yeung-Yam-Wah V, Lee AK, Tse FW, Tse A.
Cell Calcium. 2010 Jan;47(1):77-83. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2009.11.007. Epub 2009 Dec 16.
PMID 20018371
 
Constitutive recycling of the store-operated Ca2+ channel Orai1 and its internalization during meiosis.
Yu F, Sun L, Machaca K.
J Cell Biol. 2010 Nov 1;191(3):523-35. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201006022.
PMID 21041445
 
SOAR and the polybasic STIM1 domains gate and regulate Orai channels.
Yuan JP, Zeng W, Dorwart MR, Choi YJ, Worley PF, Muallem S.
Nat Cell Biol. 2009 Mar;11(3):337-43. doi: 10.1038/ncb1842. Epub 2009 Feb 1.
PMID 19182790
 
The ryanodine receptor agonist 4-chloro-3-ethylphenol blocks ORAI store-operated channels.
Zeng B, Chen GL, Daskoulidou N, Xu SZ.
Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Mar;171(5):1250-9. doi: 10.1111/bph.12528.
PMID 24670147
 
Store-dependent and -independent modes regulating Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel activity of human Orai1 and Orai3.
Zhang SL, Kozak JA, Jiang W, Yeromin AV, Chen J, Yu Y, Penna A, Shen W, Chi V, Cahalan MD.
J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 20;283(25):17662-71. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M801536200. Epub 2008 Apr 17.
PMID 18420579
 
Genome-wide RNAi screen of Ca(2+) influx identifies genes that regulate Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel activity.
Zhang SL, Yeromin AV, Zhang XH, Yu Y, Safrina O, Penna A, Roos J, Stauderman KA, Cahalan MD.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 13;103(24):9357-62. Epub 2006 Jun 2.
PMID 16751269
 
STIM1 is a Ca2+ sensor that activates CRAC channels and migrates from the Ca2+ store to the plasma membrane.
Zhang SL, Yu Y, Roos J, Kozak JA, Deerinck TJ, Ellisman MH, Stauderman KA, Cahalan MD.
Nature. 2005 Oct 6;437(7060):902-5.
PMID 16208375
 
Mechanisms of STIM1 activation of store-independent leukotriene C4-regulated Ca2+ channels.
Zhang X, Gonzalez-Cobos JC, Schindl R, Muik M, Ruhle B, Motiani RK, Bisaillon JM, Zhang W, Fahrner M, Barroso M, Matrougui K, Romanin C, Trebak M.
Mol Cell Biol. 2013 Sep;33(18):3715-23. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00554-13. Epub 2013 Jul 22.
PMID 23878392
 
Potent inhibition of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels and T-lymphocyte activation by the pyrazole derivative BTP2.
Zitt C, Strauss B, Schwarz EC, Spaeth N, Rast G, Hatzelmann A, Hoth M.
J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 26;279(13):12427-37. Epub 2004 Jan 12.
PMID 14718545
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
J Hasna, N Benzerdjeb, M Faouzi, AS Ay, P Kischel, F Hague, H Sevestre, A Ahidouch, H Ouadid-Ahidouch
ORAI3 (ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 3)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2015;19(3):176-188.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/ORAI3ID51589ch16p11.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)ORAI3   28185
Cards
AtlasORAI3ID51589ch16p11
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)ORAI3  93129  ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 3
AliasesTMEM142C
GeneCards (Weizmann)ORAI3
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000175938 [Gene_View]  chr16:30960405-30966259 [Contig_View]  ORAI3 [Vega]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000175938 [Gene_View]  chr16:30960405-30966259 [Contig_View]  ORAI3 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000175938
TCGA cBioPortalORAI3
AceView (NCBI)ORAI3
Genatlas (Paris)ORAI3
WikiGenes93129
SOURCE (Princeton)ORAI3
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)ORAI3
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)ORAI3  -     chr16:30960405-30966259 +  16p11.2   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)ORAI3  -     16p11.2   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
EnsemblORAI3 - 16p11.2 [CytoView hg19]  ORAI3 - 16p11.2 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIORAI3 [Mapview hg19]  ORAI3 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM610930   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK298276 BC006126 BC015555 BC016150 BC022786
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_152288
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)NC_000016 NC_018927 NT_187260 NW_004929400
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)ORAI3
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.745104 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.745104
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000175938
Gene ExpressionORAI3 [ NCBI-GEO ]   ORAI3 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   ORAI3 [ SEEK ]   ORAI3 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)ORAI3 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)93129
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)ORAI3
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ9BRQ5   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ9BRQ5  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ9BRQ5
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ9BRQ5
PhosPhoSitePlusQ9BRQ5
Domains : Interpro (EBI)CRAC_channel    Orai-3   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Orai-1 (PF07856)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam07856   
Conserved Domain (NCBI)ORAI3
DMDM Disease mutations93129
Blocks (Seattle)ORAI3
SuperfamilyQ9BRQ5
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000175938
Peptide AtlasQ9BRQ5
HPRD14431
IPIIPI00165252   IPI00910935   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q9BRQ5
IntAct (EBI)Q9BRQ5
FunCoupENSG00000175938
BioGRIDORAI3
STRING (EMBL)ORAI3
ZODIACORAI3
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOQ9BRQ5
Ontology : AmiGOstore-operated calcium entry  protein binding  store-operated calcium channel activity  membrane  integral component of membrane  calcium ion transmembrane transport  
Ontology : EGO-EBIstore-operated calcium entry  protein binding  store-operated calcium channel activity  membrane  integral component of membrane  calcium ion transmembrane transport  
Pathways : KEGGCalcium signaling pathway   
NDEx NetworkORAI3
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkORAI3
Wikipedia pathwaysORAI3
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB93129
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000175938
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamORAI3
HOVERGENQ9BRQ5
HOGENOMQ9BRQ5
Homologs : HomoloGeneORAI3
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)ORAI3
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerORAI3 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)ORAI3
dbVarORAI3
ClinVarORAI3
1000_GenomesORAI3 
Exome Variant ServerORAI3
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ORAI3 (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP93129
Genomic Variants (DGV)ORAI3 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHER (Syndromes)16:30960405-30966259  ENSG00000175938
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisORAI3 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalORAI3 
TCGA Data PortalORAI3 
Broad Tumor PortalORAI3
OASIS PortalORAI3 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICORAI3  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDORAI3
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch ORAI3
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)ORAI3
DoCM (Curated mutations)ORAI3 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)ORAI3 (select a term)
intoGenORAI3
NCG5 (London)ORAI3
Cancer3DORAI3(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM610930   
Orphanet
MedgenORAI3
Genetic Testing Registry ORAI3
NextProtQ9BRQ5 [Medical]
TSGene93129
GENETestsORAI3
Huge Navigator ORAI3 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease93129
BioCentury BCIQORAI3
ClinGenORAI3
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD93129
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA162398465
Clinical trialORAI3
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)ORAI3 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed25 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineORAI3
EVEXORAI3
GoPubMedORAI3
iHOPORAI3
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

Search in all EBI   NCBI

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