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PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen)

Written2011-10Ivaylo Stoimenov, Thomas Helleday
Department of Genetics Microbiology, Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden (IS, TH); Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology & Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK (TH)

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Other namesMGC8367
HGNC (Hugo) PCNA
LocusID (NCBI) 5111
Atlas_Id 41670
Location 20p13  [Link to chromosome band 20p13]
Location_base_pair Starts at 5095599 and ends at 5107268 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping PCNA.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2016)
LOC254128 () / PCNA (20p13)PCNA (20p13) / PCNA (20p13)

DNA/RNA

 
  The localisation of the PCNA gene (in red) at the interface between 20p12.3 and 20p13 histological bands on chromosome 20.
Description The PCNA gene is situated on human chromosome 20 and it spans about 12 kb. It is a single-copy gene, however, several pseudogenes have been noted. The precise localization of the PCNA gene is at the border of two histological G-bands (p12.3 and p13) (Webb et al., 1990), thus it is reported in both locations depending on the probe used. The human PCNA gene was first cloned and characterized in 1989 by Travali and co-workers (Travali et al., 1989).
Transcription There are two reported gene transcripts, which encode the same protein.

 NCBI Reference SequenceLength (unspliced)Length (spliced)ExonsProteinAA
PCNA transcript variant 1NM_002592.211670 bp1355 bp7NP_002583.1261
PCNA transcript variant 2NM_182649.15049 bp1319 bp6NP_872590.1261

PCNA transcript variant 1 is 1355 bp long after the completion of mRNA splicing. It has NCBI Reference Sequence code NM_002592.2 (NCBI). The PCNA transcript variant 1 has seven exons, six of which are contributing to the protein sequence. The first intron is relatively large in comparison with the other PCNA transcript variant. Following the splicing the length of the transcript is shortened to about 12% of that of the initial transcript. The translation starts from the middle of the 2nd exon and ends in the beginning of 7th exon. The product is a full length protein, designated as NP_002583.1 (NCBI), with 261 amino acids.
PCNA transcript variant 2 is 1319 bp long after the completion of mRNA splicing. It has NCBI Reference Sequence code NM_182649.1 (NCBI). The PCNA transcript variant 2 has six exons, which are contributing to the protein sequence. After the splicing the length of the transcript is shortened to about 26% of that of the initial transcript. Translation starts from the end of the 1st exon and ends in the beginning of 7th exon. The product is a full length protein, designated as NP_872590.1 (NCBI), with 261 amino acids.

Pseudogene PCNAP - one pseudogene on human chromosome X - p11 (Ku et al., 1989; Webb et al., 1990).
PCNAP1 and PCNAP2 - two pseudogenes in tandem on human chromosome 4 - q24 (Taniguchi et al., 1996).
There are several other possible pseudogenes:
LOC390102 on chromosome 11 - p15.1 (Webb et al., 1990),
LOC392454 on chromosome X - p11.3 (Ku et al., 1989; Webb et al., 1990).

Protein

 
  PCNA and mapped interactions with several proteins (D-type of cyclins, CDKN1A, FEN1, RFC complex, polymerase epsilon and polymerase delta). Two residues are highlighted, lysine at position 164 (site of ubiquitylation) and tyrosine at position 211 (site of phosphorylation).
Description The human PCNA protein is a polypeptide of 261 amino acids and theoretical molecular weight of about 29 kDa. The functional protein is a homotrimer, build from three identical units interacting head-to-tail and forming a doughnut shaped molecule. There is an evidence for the existence of a double homotrimer in vivo (Naryzhny et al., 2005).
Expression Expressed in nearly all proliferating tissues with high levels detected in thymus, bone marrow, foetal liver and certain cells of the small intestine and colon.
Localisation PCNA is exclusively localized in the nucleus. It can be detected by immunofluorescence in all proliferating nuclei as discrete nuclear foci, representing sites of ongoing DNA replication and/or DNA repair.
Function PCNA was originally discovered as an antigen, reacting with antibodies derived from sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (Miyachi et al., 1978). The first assigned function of the PCNA protein is as an auxiliary factor of polymerase delta (Tan et al., 1986; Prelich et al., 1987). Later it was suggested that PCNA functions as a cofactor to many other eukaryotic polymerases such as polymerase epsilon, polymerase beta and several specialised polymerases known as translesion synthesis polymerases (eta, kappa, lambda, theta, etc.), with which PCNA is known to interact (Naryzhny, 2008). The role of PCNA in DNA replication is thoroughly investigated and PCNA is proposed to serve as a switch between the priming polymerase alpha and replicative polymerases (delta and epsilon) and functioning as a cofator of the latter polymerases. Complementary to enhancing the processivity of DNA replication, PCNA is known to coordinate the maturation of Okazaki fragments through interaction with FEN1 and stimulation of the flap endonuclease activity. PCNA interacts with large number of proteins, suggesting many functions in vivo (Naryzhny, 2008; Stoimenov and Helleday, 2009). There is evidence, derived from experiments in yeast, that PCNA may be involved in the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion in S phase of the cell cycle (Moldovan et al., 2006). PCNA is an indispensable factor for different DNA repair pathways including mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair and sub-pathways of base excision repair. There is a growing body of evidence for the function of PCNA in the chromatin remodelling and organisation. The interaction of PCNA and CAF1 is in the heart of the nucleosome assembly, while the chromatin modification is also known to be regulated by PCNA through the known interaction with DNMT1 and HDAC1. One of the most stable interactions of PCNA is that with the cyclin-kinase inhibitor CDKN1A, which suggests a role of PCNA in the cell cycle progression. Another evidence for the involvement of PCNA in the cell cylcle control is the interaction with cyclin-D. Several amino-acid residues are post-translationally modified, suggesting even more complex functions (Stoimenov and Helleday, 2009). PCNA could be subjected to post-translational phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation and SUMOylation.

Implicated in

Note
Note The absence of the proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA) protein is embryonic lethal in mice (Roa et al., 2008; Peled et al., 2008). The embryonic lethality in mice also suggests a critical importance of the PCNA protein for humans at least in proliferating tissues (Moldovan et al., 2007). The knockout mice for PCNA (Pcna-/-) are dying in embryonic state, consistent with the role of PCNA in orchestrating DNA replication (Moldovan et al., 2007). In addition to this fact, there are no known mutations of the PCNA protein in humans, which therefore leads to a speculation that PCNA is so vital that any alternation of its sequence would have deleterious consequences. One suggestion for such essential function is the fact that both sequences of the PCNA protein and of the respective gene are highly conserved during evolution (Stoimenov and Helleday, 2009). Indeed, a human population study of PCNA polymorphisms shows only 7 intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and 2 synonymous exonic SNPs (Ma et al., 2000).
According to OMIM and Human Locus Specific Mutation Databases there is no known disease, which is caused by mutation or loss of function of the PCNA protein.
The only implication of PCNA in human disease is as a prognostic or diagnostic marker, sometimes used together with other markers. The utilisation of PCNA as a marker is very much restricted to an illustration of proliferation potential and therefore cannot be specific for any disease. However, PCNA is indeed used as a prognostic and diagnostic marker in several human diseases in clinical practice, as shown below. The list is far from complete since any human disease associated with proliferation could utilise PCNA as a marker.
  
Entity Primary breast cancer
Note A group of patients with high PCNA labeling index was associated with poor overall survival compared with the low PCNA labeling index group in several immunohistochemical studies (Horiguchi et al., 1998; Chu et al., 1998). PCNA labeling index is stated to be an independent predictor in primary breast cancer patients (Horiguchi et al., 1998) with a prognostic value (Chu et al., 1998).
  
Entity Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL)
Note There are attempts to correlate the levels of the PCNA protein in cells derived from patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia and the prognosis of survival (del Giglio et al., 1992; Faderl et al., 2002). The high level of PCNA in the cells of CLL patients suggests a higher proliferative activity and potentially shorter survival (del Giglio et al., 1992). Intracellular levels of PCNA protein can be used as marker to predict clinical behaviour and overall survival in patients with CLL (Faderl et al., 2002).
  
Entity Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Note In studies conducting immunohistochemical staining of materials from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, PCNA labeling index together with AgNOR score can be used to predict overall survival (Korkolopoulou et al., 1998). PCNA is the only independent predictor of the post-relapse survival and the histologic grade, which is the most important indicator of disease-free survival (Korkolopoulou et al., 1998).
  
Entity Malignant and nonmalignant skin diseases
Note In one study of comparison between malignant skin diseases (squamous cell carcinoma, adult T lymphotrophic leukemia, mycosis fungoides, malignant melanoma and malignant lymphoma) and nonmalignant skin diseases (resistant atopic dermatitis, psoriasis vulgaris, verruca vulgaris) the anti-PCNA staining was used as a prognostic marker (Kawahira, 1999). The percentage of PCNA-positive cells reported in the study was higher for malignant skin diseases in comparison with the non-malignant skin deseases (Kawahira, 1999). The localization of PCNA-positive cells was found to be in the dermis and the basal layer in case of the malignant skin diseases, whereas in the nonmalignant skin diseases PCNA-positive cells were detected only in the basal layer (Kawahira, 1999). The PCNA labeling index and the distribution of PCNA-positive cells in the skin were suggested to be helpful in the early diagnosis of skin malignancies.
  
Entity Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Note The anti-PCNA antibodies were originally found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (Miyachi et al., 1978), most of whom had diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis in a small clinical study (Fritzler et al., 1983).
  

Bibliography

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunolabeling as a prognostic factor in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast in Taiwan.
Chu JS, Huang CS, Chang KJ.
Cancer Lett. 1998 Sep 25;131(2):145-52.
PMID 9851246
 
Expression profile of 11 proteins and their prognostic significance in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
Faderl S, Keating MJ, Do KA, Liang SY, Kantarjian HM, O'Brien S, Garcia-Manero G, Manshouri T, Albitar M.
Leukemia. 2002 Jun;16(6):1045-52.
PMID 12040436
 
Clinical features of patients with antibodies directed against proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
Fritzler MJ, McCarty GA, Ryan JP, Kinsella TD.
Arthritis Rheum. 1983 Feb;26(2):140-5.
PMID 6600614
 
Long-term prognostic value of PCNA labeling index in primary operable breast cancer.
Horiguchi J, Iino Y, Takei H, Maemura M, Takeyoshi I, Yokoe T, Ohwada S, Oyama T, Nakajima T, Morishita Y.
Oncol Rep. 1998 May-Jun;5(3):641-4.
PMID 9538167
 
Immunohistochemical staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in malignant and nonmalignant skin diseases.
Kawahira K.
Arch Dermatol Res. 1999 Jul-Aug;291(7-8):413-8.
PMID 10482011
 
Prognostic implications of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), AgNORs and P53 in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
Korkolopoulou P, Angelopoulou MK, Kontopidou F, Tsengas A, Patsouris E, Kittas C, Pangalis GA.
Leuk Lymphoma. 1998 Aug;30(5-6):625-36.
PMID 9711925
 
Human gene for proliferating cell nuclear antigen has pseudogenes and localizes to chromosome 20.
Ku DH, Travali S, Calabretta B, Huebner K, Baserga R.
Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1989 Jul;15(4):297-307.
PMID 2569765
 
Single nucleotide polymorphism analyses of the human proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pCNA) and flap endonuclease (FEN1) genes.
Ma X, Jin Q, Forsti A, Hemminki K, Kumar R.
Int J Cancer. 2000 Dec 15;88(6):938-42.
PMID 11093818
 
Autoantibody to a nuclear antigen in proliferating cells.
Miyachi K, Fritzler MJ, Tan EM.
J Immunol. 1978 Dec;121(6):2228-34.
PMID 102692
 
PCNA, the maestro of the replication fork.
Moldovan GL, Pfander B, Jentsch S.
Cell. 2007 May 18;129(4):665-79. (REVIEW)
PMID 17512402
 
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) may function as a double homotrimer complex in the mammalian cell.
Naryzhny SN, Zhao H, Lee H.
J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 8;280(14):13888-94. Epub 2005 Feb 1.
PMID 15805117
 
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen: a proteomics view.
Naryzhny SN.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Nov;65(23):3789-808. (REVIEW)
PMID 18726183
 
The biochemistry of somatic hypermutation.
Peled JU, Kuang FL, Iglesias-Ussel MD, Roa S, Kalis SL, Goodman MF, Scharff MD.
Annu Rev Immunol. 2008;26:481-511. (REVIEW)
PMID 18304001
 
Functional identity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a DNA polymerase-delta auxiliary protein.
Prelich G, Tan CK, Kostura M, Mathews MB, So AG, Downey KM, Stillman B.
Nature. 1987 Apr 2-8;326(6112):517-20.
PMID 2882424
 
Ubiquitylated PCNA plays a role in somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination and is required for meiotic progression.
Roa S, Avdievich E, Peled JU, Maccarthy T, Werling U, Kuang FL, Kan R, Zhao C, Bergman A, Cohen PE, Edelmann W, Scharff MD.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Oct 21;105(42):16248-53. Epub 2008 Oct 14.
PMID 18854411
 
PCNA on the crossroad of cancer.
Stoimenov I, Helleday T.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Jun;37(Pt 3):605-13.
PMID 19442257
 
An auxiliary protein for DNA polymerase-delta from fetal calf thymus.
Tan CK, Castillo C, So AG, Downey KM.
J Biol Chem. 1986 Sep 15;261(26):12310-6.
PMID 3745189
 
Cloning, sequencing, and chromosomal localization of two tandemly arranged human pseudogenes for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).
Taniguchi Y, Katsumata Y, Koido S, Suemizu H, Yoshimura S, Moriuchi T, Okumura K, Kagotani K, Taguchi H, Imanishi T, Gojobori T, Inoko H.
Mamm Genome. 1996 Dec;7(12):906-8.
PMID 8995762
 
Structure of the human gene for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
Travali S, Ku DH, Rizzo MG, Ottavio L, Baserga R, Calabretta B.
J Biol Chem. 1989 May 5;264(13):7466-72.
PMID 2565339
 
Localization of the gene for human proliferating nuclear antigen/cyclin by in situ hybridization.
Webb G, Parsons P, Chenevix-Trench G.
Hum Genet. 1990 Nov;86(1):84-6.
PMID 1979311
 
Prognostic value of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in chronic lymphoid leukemia.
del Giglio A, O'Brien S, Ford R, Saya H, Manning J, Keating M, Johnston D, Khetan R, el-Naggar A, Deisseroth A.
Blood. 1992 May 15;79(10):2717-20.
PMID 1350226
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Stoimenov, I ; Helleday, T
PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2012;16(3):208-211.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/PCNAID41670ch20p12.html


Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 3 ]
  Head and Neck: Laryngeal tumors: an overview
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
Head and Neck: Oral leukoplakia
Bone: Osteoblastoma

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)PCNA   8729
Cards
AtlasPCNAID41670ch20p12
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)PCNA  5111  proliferating cell nuclear antigen
AliasesATLD2
GeneCards (Weizmann)PCNA
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000132646 [Gene_View]  chr20:5095599-5107268 [Contig_View]  PCNA [Vega]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000132646 [Gene_View]  chr20:5095599-5107268 [Contig_View]  PCNA [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000132646
TCGA cBioPortalPCNA
AceView (NCBI)PCNA
Genatlas (Paris)PCNA
WikiGenes5111
SOURCE (Princeton)PCNA
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)PCNA  -     chr20:5095599-5107268 -  20p13-p12.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)PCNA  -     20p13-p12.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
EnsemblPCNA - 20p13-p12.3 [CytoView hg19]  PCNA - 20p13-p12.3 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIPCNA [Mapview hg19]  PCNA [Mapview hg38]
OMIM176740   615919   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK300558 AK311014 AK313286 BC000491 BC062439
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_002592 NM_182649
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)NC_000020 NC_018931 NT_011387 NW_004929416
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)PCNA
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.744934 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.744934
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000132646
Gene ExpressionPCNA [ NCBI-GEO ]   PCNA [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   PCNA [ SEEK ]   PCNA [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)PCNA [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)5111
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)PCNA
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtP12004 (Uniprot)
NextProtP12004  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProP12004
Splice isoforms : SwissVarP12004 (Swissvar)
PhosPhoSitePlusP12004
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)PCNA_1 (PS01251)    PCNA_2 (PS00293)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Pr_cel_nuc_antig    Pr_cel_nuc_antig_C    Pr_cel_nuc_antig_CS    Pr_cel_nuc_antig_N   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)PCNA_C (PF02747)    PCNA_N (PF00705)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam02747    pfam00705   
DMDM Disease mutations5111
Blocks (Seattle)PCNA
PDB (SRS)1AXC    1U76    1U7B    1UL1    1VYJ    1VYM    1W60    2ZVK    2ZVL    2ZVM    3JA9    3P87    3TBL    3VKX    3WGW    4D2G    4RJF    4ZTD   
PDB (PDBSum)1AXC    1U76    1U7B    1UL1    1VYJ    1VYM    1W60    2ZVK    2ZVL    2ZVM    3JA9    3P87    3TBL    3VKX    3WGW    4D2G    4RJF    4ZTD   
PDB (IMB)1AXC    1U76    1U7B    1UL1    1VYJ    1VYM    1W60    2ZVK    2ZVL    2ZVM    3JA9    3P87    3TBL    3VKX    3WGW    4D2G    4RJF    4ZTD   
PDB (RSDB)1AXC    1U76    1U7B    1UL1    1VYJ    1VYM    1W60    2ZVK    2ZVL    2ZVM    3JA9    3P87    3TBL    3VKX    3WGW    4D2G    4RJF    4ZTD   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1AXC    1U76    1U7B    1UL1    1VYJ    1VYM    1W60    2ZVK    2ZVL    2ZVM    3JA9    3P87    3TBL    3VKX    3WGW    4D2G    4RJF    4ZTD   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1AXC    1U76    1U7B    1UL1    1VYJ    1VYM    1W60    2ZVK    2ZVL    2ZVM    3JA9    3P87    3TBL    3VKX    3WGW    4D2G    4RJF    4ZTD   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1AXC    1U76    1U7B    1UL1    1VYJ    1VYM    1W60    2ZVK    2ZVL    2ZVM    3JA9    3P87    3TBL    3VKX    3WGW    4D2G    4RJF    4ZTD   
SuperfamilyP12004
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000132646
Peptide AtlasP12004
HPRD01456
IPIIPI00021700   IPI00385373   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)P12004
IntAct (EBI)P12004
FunCoupENSG00000132646
BioGRIDPCNA
STRING (EMBL)PCNA
ZODIACPCNA
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOP12004
Ontology : AmiGOG1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle  regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle  purine-specific mismatch base pair DNA N-glycosylase activity  telomere maintenance via recombination  telomere maintenance  nuclear chromosome, telomeric region  chromatin binding  damaged DNA binding  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  DNA replication factor C complex  cytoplasm  centrosome  DNA strand elongation involved in DNA replication  leading strand elongation  transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair  nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision, 5'-to lesion  nucleotide-excision repair, DNA gap filling  mismatch repair  mismatch repair  DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest  heart development  cell proliferation  protein sumoylation  enzyme binding  translesion synthesis  translesion synthesis  estrogen receptor binding  DNA polymerase processivity factor activity  epithelial cell differentiation  replisome  receptor tyrosine kinase binding  replication fork processing  positive regulation of deoxyribonuclease activity  dinucleotide insertion or deletion binding  MutLalpha complex binding  nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision  response to lipid  cellular response to UV  histone acetyltransferase binding  error-prone translesion synthesis  DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage  identical protein binding  nuclear replication fork  PCNA complex  positive regulation of DNA repair  positive regulation of DNA replication  response to cadmium ion  extracellular exosome  DNA polymerase binding  PCNA-p21 complex  error-free translesion synthesis  mitotic telomere maintenance via semi-conservative replication  
Ontology : EGO-EBIG1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle  regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle  purine-specific mismatch base pair DNA N-glycosylase activity  telomere maintenance via recombination  telomere maintenance  nuclear chromosome, telomeric region  chromatin binding  damaged DNA binding  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  nucleoplasm  DNA replication factor C complex  cytoplasm  centrosome  DNA strand elongation involved in DNA replication  leading strand elongation  transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair  nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision, 5'-to lesion  nucleotide-excision repair, DNA gap filling  mismatch repair  mismatch repair  DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest  heart development  cell proliferation  protein sumoylation  enzyme binding  translesion synthesis  translesion synthesis  estrogen receptor binding  DNA polymerase processivity factor activity  epithelial cell differentiation  replisome  receptor tyrosine kinase binding  replication fork processing  positive regulation of deoxyribonuclease activity  dinucleotide insertion or deletion binding  MutLalpha complex binding  nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision  response to lipid  cellular response to UV  histone acetyltransferase binding  error-prone translesion synthesis  DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage  identical protein binding  nuclear replication fork  PCNA complex  positive regulation of DNA repair  positive regulation of DNA replication  response to cadmium ion  extracellular exosome  DNA polymerase binding  PCNA-p21 complex  error-free translesion synthesis  mitotic telomere maintenance via semi-conservative replication  
Pathways : BIOCARTAp53 Signaling Pathway [Genes]   
Pathways : KEGGDNA replication    Base excision repair    Nucleotide excision repair    Mismatch repair    Cell cycle    Hepatitis B    HTLV-I infection   
REACTOMEP12004 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-113510 E2F mediated regulation of DNA replication [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-174411 Polymerase switching on the C-strand of the telomere [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-69183 Processive synthesis on the lagging strand [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-174414 Processive synthesis on the C-strand of the telomere [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-109977 Repair synthesis for gap-filling by DNA polymerase in TC-NER [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-110312 Translesion synthesis by REV1 [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-1538133 G0 and Early G1 [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-174417 Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-5656169 Termination of translesion DNA synthesis [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-69109 Leading Strand Synthesis [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-5358565 Mismatch repair (MMR) directed by MSH2:MSH6 (MutSalpha) [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-74967 Repair synthesis of patch ~27-30 bases long by DNA polymerase [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-5655862 Translesion synthesis by POLK [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-110320 Translesion Synthesis by POLH [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-5656121 Translesion synthesis by POLI [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-69166 Removal of the Flap Intermediate [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-69091 Polymerase switching [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-5651801 PCNA-Dependent Long Patch Base Excision Repair [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-5358606 Mismatch repair (MMR) directed by MSH2:MSH3 (MutSbeta) [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-110314 Recognition of DNA damage by PCNA-containing replication complex [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-69205 G1/S-Specific Transcription [pathway]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-174437 Removal of the Flap Intermediate from the C-strand [pathway]
NDEx NetworkPCNA
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkPCNA
Wikipedia pathwaysPCNA
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB5111
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000132646
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamPCNA
Homologs : HomoloGenePCNA
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)PCNA
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP, variants
NCBI Variation ViewerPCNA [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)PCNA
dbVarPCNA
ClinVarPCNA
1000_GenomesPCNA 
Exome Variant ServerPCNA
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)PCNA (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP5111
Genomic Variants (DGV)PCNA [DGVbeta]
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalPCNA 
TCGA Data PortalPCNA 
Broad Tumor PortalPCNA
OASIS PortalPCNA [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICPCNA 
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch PCNA
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)PCNA
DoCM (Curated mutations)PCNA (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)PCNA (select a term)
intoGenPCNA
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] 
Diseases
DECIPHER (Syndromes)20:5095599-5107268  ENSG00000132646
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisPCNA 
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDPCNA
OMIM176740    615919   
MedgenPCNA
Genetic Testing Registry PCNA
NextProtP12004 [Medical]
TSGene5111
GENETestsPCNA
Huge Navigator PCNA [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease5111
BioCentury BCIQPCNA
ClinGenPCNA
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD5111
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA263
Clinical trialPCNA
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)PCNA (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed499 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMinePCNA
EVEXPCNA
GoPubMedPCNA
iHOPPCNA
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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