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PPARD (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta)

Written2009-06Erhan Astarci, Sreeparna Banerjee
Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531, Turkey

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesperoxisome proliferative activated receptor, delta
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Alias_symbol (synonym)NUC1
NUCII
FAAR
NR1C2
Other aliasMGC3931
NUCI
PPAR-beta
PPAR-delta
PPARB
HGNC (Hugo) PPARD
LocusID (NCBI) 5467
Atlas_Id 41794
Location 6p21.31  [Link to chromosome band 6p21]
Location_base_pair Starts at 35342558 and ends at 35428191 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping PPARD.png]
Local_order According to NCBI Map Viewer, genes flanking PPAR delta in centromere to telomere direction on 6p21 are:
- UHRF1BP1 (UHRF1 (ICBP90) binding protein 1)
- ZNF76 (zinc finger protein 76 (expressed in testis))
- DEF6 (differentially expressed in FDCP 6 homolog (mouse))
- PPARD (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta)
- TULP1 (tubby like protein 1)
- C6orf126 (chromosome 6 open reading frame 126)
Fusion genes
(updated 2016)
DEF6 (6p21.31) / PPARD (6p21.31)PPARD (6p21.31) / ARHGEF1 (19q13.2)PPARD (6p21.31) / PPARD (6p21.31)
PPARD (6p21.31) / TMEM2 (9q21.13)PPARD (6p21.31) / WNK4 (17q21.31)
Note PPAR delta is one of the orphan nuclear hormone receptors which were first identified as proteins that control the size and the numbers of peroxisomes by binding to the peroxisome proliferators. PPARs (classified as PPARalpha, PPARgamma and delta/beta) perform a number of functions and are implicated in several diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer and atherosclerosis. In comparison to the other peroxisome proliferators, PPAR delta protein is a potent inhibitor of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma and this phenomenon is ligand induced.

DNA/RNA

Note PPAR delta gene is located on chromosome 6p21-22.
 
  PPAR delta gene diagram. Red boxes indicate the exons. Start and stop codons are shown by the two arrows respectively.
Description According to Entrez-Gene, PPARD gene maps to NC_000006.10 and spans a region of 10.7 kilo bases. According to Spidey (mRNA to genomic sequence alignment tool), PPAR delta has 8 exons, the sizes being 124, 84, 231, 155, 139, 203, 451, 2347.
Transcription PPAR delta mRNA NM_006238 has 3734 bp.
PPAR-delta is activated by either hypolipidemic drugs or fatty acids. The mammalian counterparts are particularly activated by 18C unsaturated fatty acids.
According to GeneCards, PPAR delta expression was detected in 12 human tissues including spleen, thymus, brain, spinal cord, heart, skeletal cord, liver, pancreas, prostate, kidney and lung.
Pseudogene According to Entrez Gene, ppar delta (PPARD) has no known pseudogenes.

Protein

Note PPARD has two protein isoforms produced by alternative splicing. PPAR delta acts as a transcription factor in the presence of a ligand and after heterodimerization with the retinoid acid X receptor.
Description PPARD protein is composed of 441 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 49.9 kDa. According to the NCBI conserved domain search, the protein contains two zinc finger C4 type domains which is a conserved domain in proteins with DNA binding activity. The protein also has a flexible hinge region and a ligand binding domain near the C terminus.
Expression PPAR delta is expressed in wide range of tissues and is highly expressed in spleen, thymus, brain, spinal cord, heart, skeletal cord, liver, pancreas, prostate, kidney and lung.
Localisation Located in the nucleus.
Function Similar to other peroxisome proliferator activated receptors PPAR delta is also involved in differentiation and metabolism. Fatty acid regulation and oxidation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues is one of the major functions of PPAR delta. It has been shown that the increase in muscle oxidative capacity correlates positively with PPAR delta expression. Additionally, fatty acid efflux is also regulated by PPAR delta by redirection of the fatty acid ligand from the adipose tissue to the skeletal muscles which results in a decrease in the size of the adipose tissue. Fatty acids are natural ligands of the PPAR delta and it is known that its activity increases by certain eicosanoids like leukotriene B4.
Homology Canis familiaris: PPAR-beta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta.
Pan troglodytes: LOC463188, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta.
Rattus norvegicus: Ppard, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta.
Mus musculus: Ppard, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor delta.
Gallus gallus: PPARD, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta.

Mutations

Note SNP rs1053049 rs6902123 rs2267668 are associated with insulin resistance.
SNP rs2016520, rs3734254 and rs9794 are associated with obesity.
Gly482Ser is associated with insulin resistance.
-87T/C polymorphism is associated with alterations in cholesterol metabolism.
-13454G>T, c.2022+12G>A, c.2629T>C, c.2806C>G are associated with obesity.

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Colorectal cancer
Disease PPARdelta is overexpressed in human colon cancers and genetic disruption of the gene in mice was shown to significantly reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer by reducing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Additionally, Wnt/beta-catenin has been shown to stimulate PPAR delta expression. Activation of the COX-2 pathway resulting in the production of prostaglandin E2 activated PPAR delta via the PI3K-Akt pathway. PPAR delta can also cross talk with other transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B. PPAR delta is highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract in a constitutive manner where it regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. In mouse it has been shown that mouse PPAR delta has both ligand dependent and independent effects and ligand independent effects are involved in down regulation of inflammation whereas the ligand dependent effects include proliferation and differentiation. Contradicting results support that PPARdelta can induce or alleviate the disease progression.
  
  
Entity Insulin resistance
Disease Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PPAR delta gene are associated with insulin resistance and increased fat storage due to an interference in mitochondrial functions. After having genotyped 156 patients for the reference SNPs (rs) who are in the risk group for type 2 diabetes, they were shown to carry the SNPs rs1053049, rs6902123, and rs2267668 (A:A, A:G, A:G respectively) in the PPAR delta gene.
Another study indicated that a (-87 T/C) polymorphism affects both plasma glucose levels in the fasting state, insulin sensitivity and cholesterol metabolism. Carriers with the C allele displayed increased plasma glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity with respect to the T allele carrying counterparts. Higher titer of low density lipoprotein was also observed in the C allele carriers. It was also concluded that higher levels of fasting plasma glucose levels were independent from the etiology of being diabetic or glucose tolerant. In both cases, insulin sensitivity was disrupted.
  
  
Entity Obesity
Disease Catabolism of fats has been shown to be regulated by PPAR delta which could thus be exploited as a potential target for the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Of the nine polymorphic markers sequenced in the PPAR delta gene four polymorphisms were found in the intronic regions, one in an untranslated region and four in the 3' untranslated region (UTR). The polymorphisms were -13454G>T, c.-87T>C, c.2022+12G>A, c.2629T>C, and c.2806C>G. The same polymorphisms, however, were not significantly associated with the risk for Type 2 diabetes. However in terms of fasting plasma glucose levels and body mass index, the findings were found to be associated with obesity.
  
  
Entity Atherosclerosis
Disease As lipid metabolism is involved in atherogenesis, the effects PPARdelta expression in atherosclerotic changes in macrophages were investigated. It has been shown that use of PPAR delta agonists reduces atherosclerosis in apoE double negative mice. The mechanism has been shown to be through elevation of high density lipoprotein level and suppression of inflammation possibly by the down regulation of chemokines which then results in a decrease in the chemoattractant signaling. PPARdelta activation is also associated with the increased expression of G-protein signaling genes which has been shown to block the chemokine receptors.
  

Bibliography

PPARdelta regulates multiple proinflammatory pathways to suppress atherosclerosis.
Barish GD, Atkins AR, Downes M, Olson P, Chong LW, Nelson M, Zou Y, Hwang H, Kang H, Curtiss L, Evans RM, Lee CH.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 18;105(11):4271-6. Epub 2008 Mar 12.
PMID 18337509
 
Effects of PPARalpha, gamma and delta haplotypes on plasma levels of lipids, severity and progression of coronary atherosclerosis and response to statin therapy in the lipoprotein coronary atherosclerosis study.
Chen S, Tsybouleva N, Ballantyne CM, Gotto AM Jr, Marian AJ.
Pharmacogenetics. 2004 Jan;14(1):61-71.
PMID 15128052
 
PPARs: the vasculature, inflammation and hypertension.
Duan SZ, Usher MG, Mortensen RM.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2009 Mar;18(2):128-33.
PMID 19434050
 
Quantitative expression patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) protein in mice.
Girroir EE, Hollingshead HE, He P, Zhu B, Perdew GH, Peters JM.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Jul 4;371(3):456-61. Epub 2008 Apr 28.
PMID 18442472
 
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta genetic polymorphism and its association with insulin resistance index and fasting plasma glucose concentrations in Chinese subjects.
Hu C, Jia W, Fang Q, Zhang R, Wang C, Lu J, Xiang K.
Diabet Med. 2006 Dec;23(12):1307-12.
PMID 17116180
 
Reduction of isoforms of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX)-1 and 15-LOX-2 in human breast cancer.
Jiang WG, Watkins G, Douglas-Jones A, Mansel RE.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Apr;74(4):235-45. Epub 2006 Mar 23.
PMID 16556493
 
PPARbeta/delta ligands as modulators of the inflammatory response.
Kilgore KS, Billin AN.
Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 May;9(5):463-9. (REVIEW)
PMID 18465655
 
Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta inhibits colon carcinogenesis.
Marin HE, Peraza MA, Billin AN, Willson TM, Ward JM, Kennett MJ, Gonzalez FJ, Peters JM.
Cancer Res. 2006 Apr 15;66(8):4394-401.
PMID 16618765
 
NO-donating aspirin isomers downregulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta expression in APC(min/+) mice proportionally to their tumor inhibitory effect: Implications for the role of PPARdelta in carcinogenesis.
Ouyang N, Williams JL, Rigas B.
Carcinogenesis. 2006 Feb;27(2):232-9. Epub 2005 Sep 1.
PMID 16141240
 
Role of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) in gastrointestinal tract function and disease.
Peters JM, Hollingshead HE, Gonzalez FJ.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2008 Aug;115(4):107-27. (REVIEW)
PMID 18616431
 
Activation of PPAR{beta}/{delta} inhibits leukocyte recruitment, cell adhesion molecule expression, and chemokine release.
Piqueras L, Sanz MJ, Perretti M, Morcillo E, Norling L, Mitchell JA, Li Y, Bishop-Bailey D.
J Leukoc Biol. 2009 Apr 23. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID 19389799
 
Genetic polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta associated with obesity.
Shin HD, Park BL, Kim LH, Jung HS, Cho YM, Moon MK, Park YJ, Lee HK, Park KS.
Diabetes. 2004 Mar;53(3):847-51.
PMID 14988273
 
Genetic variations in PPARD and PPARGC1A determine mitochondrial function and change in aerobic physical fitness and insulin sensitivity during lifestyle intervention.
Stefan N, Thamer C, Staiger H, Machicao F, Machann J, Schick F, Venter C, Niess A, Laakso M, Fritsche A, Haring HU.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 May;92(5):1827-33. Epub 2007 Feb 27.
PMID 17327385
 
Variations in PPARD determine the change in body composition during lifestyle intervention: a whole-body magnetic resonance study.
Thamer C, Machann J, Stefan N, Schafer SA, Machicao F, Staiger H, Laakso M, Bottcher M, Claussen C, Schick F, Fritsche A, Haring HU.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr;93(4):1497-500. Epub 2008 Feb 5.
PMID 18252792
 
A gut feeling of the PXR, PPAR and NF-kappaB connection.
Wahli W.
J Intern Med. 2008 Jun;263(6):613-9. (REVIEW)
PMID 18479261
 
The PPAR-gamma Agonist 15-Deoxy-Delta-Prostaglandin J(2) Attenuates Microglial Production of IL-12 Family Cytokines: Potential Relevance to Alzheimer's Disease.
Xu J, Barger SW, Drew PD.
PPAR Res. 2008;2008:349185.
PMID 18615183
 
Targeted genetic disruption of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta and colonic tumorigenesis.
Zuo X, Peng Z, Moussalli MJ, Morris JS, Broaddus RR, Fischer SM, Shureiqi I.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 May 20;101(10):762-7. Epub 2009 May 12.
PMID 19436036
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Astarci, E ; Banerjee, S
PPARD (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(5):470-472.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/PPARDID41794ch6p21.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)PPARD   9235
Cards
AtlasPPARDID41794ch6p21
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)PPARD  5467  peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta
AliasesFAAR; NR1C2; NUC1; NUCI; 
NUCII; PPARB
GeneCards (Weizmann)PPARD
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000112033 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000112033 [Gene_View]  chr6:35342558-35428191 [Contig_View]  PPARD [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000112033
TCGA cBioPortalPPARD
AceView (NCBI)PPARD
Genatlas (Paris)PPARD
WikiGenes5467
SOURCE (Princeton)PPARD
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)PPARD
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)PPARD  -     chr6:35342558-35428191 +  6p21.31   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)PPARD  -     6p21.31   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblPPARD - 6p21.31 [CytoView hg19]  PPARD - 6p21.31 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIPPARD [Mapview hg19]  PPARD [Mapview hg38]
OMIM600409   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB099507 AB307691 AK122614 AK291661 AK296425
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001171818 NM_001171819 NM_001171820 NM_006238 NM_177435
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)PPARD
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.696032 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.696032
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000112033
Gene ExpressionPPARD [ NCBI-GEO ]   PPARD [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   PPARD [ SEEK ]   PPARD [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)PPARD [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)5467
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)PPARD
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ03181   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ03181  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ03181
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ03181
PhosPhoSitePlusQ03181
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)NUCLEAR_REC_DBD_1 (PS00031)    NUCLEAR_REC_DBD_2 (PS51030)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)1Cnucl_rcpt    1Cnucl_rcpt_B    Nucl_hrmn_rcpt_lig-bd    Nuclear_hrmn_rcpt    Znf_hrmn_rcpt    Znf_NHR/GATA   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Hormone_recep (PF00104)    zf-C4 (PF00105)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00104    pfam00105   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)HOLI (SM00430)  ZnF_C4 (SM00399)  
Conserved Domain (NCBI)PPARD
DMDM Disease mutations5467
Blocks (Seattle)PPARD
PDB (SRS)1GWX    1Y0S    2AWH    2B50    2BAW    2ENV    2GWX    2J14    2Q5G    2XYJ    2XYW    2XYX    2ZNP    2ZNQ    3D5F    3DY6    3ET2    3GWX    3GZ9    3OZ0    3PEQ    3SP9    3TKM   
PDB (PDBSum)1GWX    1Y0S    2AWH    2B50    2BAW    2ENV    2GWX    2J14    2Q5G    2XYJ    2XYW    2XYX    2ZNP    2ZNQ    3D5F    3DY6    3ET2    3GWX    3GZ9    3OZ0    3PEQ    3SP9    3TKM   
PDB (IMB)1GWX    1Y0S    2AWH    2B50    2BAW    2ENV    2GWX    2J14    2Q5G    2XYJ    2XYW    2XYX    2ZNP    2ZNQ    3D5F    3DY6    3ET2    3GWX    3GZ9    3OZ0    3PEQ    3SP9    3TKM   
PDB (RSDB)1GWX    1Y0S    2AWH    2B50    2BAW    2ENV    2GWX    2J14    2Q5G    2XYJ    2XYW    2XYX    2ZNP    2ZNQ    3D5F    3DY6    3ET2    3GWX    3GZ9    3OZ0    3PEQ    3SP9    3TKM   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1GWX    1Y0S    2AWH    2B50    2BAW    2ENV    2GWX    2J14    2Q5G    2XYJ    2XYW    2XYX    2ZNP    2ZNQ    3D5F    3DY6    3ET2    3GWX    3GZ9    3OZ0    3PEQ    3SP9    3TKM   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1GWX    1Y0S    2AWH    2B50    2BAW    2ENV    2GWX    2J14    2Q5G    2XYJ    2XYW    2XYX    2ZNP    2ZNQ    3D5F    3DY6    3ET2    3GWX    3GZ9    3OZ0    3PEQ    3SP9    3TKM   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1GWX    1Y0S    2AWH    2B50    2BAW    2ENV    2GWX    2J14    2Q5G    2XYJ    2XYW    2XYX    2ZNP    2ZNQ    3D5F    3DY6    3ET2    3GWX    3GZ9    3OZ0    3PEQ    3SP9    3TKM   
SuperfamilyQ03181
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000112033
Peptide AtlasQ03181
HPRD02679
IPIIPI00009330   IPI00219761   IPI01009482   IPI00955473   IPI00908986   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q03181
IntAct (EBI)Q03181
FunCoupENSG00000112033
BioGRIDPPARD
STRING (EMBL)PPARD
ZODIACPPARD
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOQ03181
Ontology : AmiGOnegative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  nuclear chromatin  transcriptional repressor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding  DNA binding  transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding  transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding  steroid hormone receptor activity  transcription coactivator activity  RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  glucose metabolic process  proteoglycan metabolic process  generation of precursor metabolites and energy  regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter  lipid metabolic process  fatty acid beta-oxidation  fatty acid beta-oxidation  vitamin A metabolic process  apoptotic process  heart development  embryo implantation  transcription factor binding  drug binding  cholesterol metabolic process  zinc ion binding  cell proliferation  cell proliferation  lipid binding  axon ensheathment  phospholipid biosynthetic process  fatty acid catabolic process  mRNA transcription  response to glucose  positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  response to activity  regulation of skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation  negative regulation of smooth muscle cell migration  glucose transport  fatty acid transport  cell differentiation  negative regulation of cell growth  intracellular receptor signaling pathway  cell-substrate adhesion  positive regulation of insulin secretion  negative regulation of collagen biosynthetic process  response to vitamin A  wound healing  negative regulation of apoptotic process  steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway  positive regulation of skeletal muscle tissue regeneration  sequence-specific DNA binding  keratinocyte proliferation  positive regulation of fat cell differentiation  negative regulation of myoblast differentiation  positive regulation of epidermis development  negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  decidualization  protein heterodimerization activity  negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation  negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation  negative regulation of inflammatory response  NF-kappaB binding  keratinocyte migration  adipose tissue development  linoleic acid binding  cellular response to lipopolysaccharide  cellular response to hypoxia  apoptotic signaling pathway  positive regulation of blood vessel diameter  negative regulation of pri-miRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  positive regulation of myoblast proliferation  
Ontology : EGO-EBInegative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  nuclear chromatin  transcriptional repressor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding  DNA binding  transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding  transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding  steroid hormone receptor activity  transcription coactivator activity  RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding  protein binding  nucleus  nucleoplasm  glucose metabolic process  proteoglycan metabolic process  generation of precursor metabolites and energy  regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter  lipid metabolic process  fatty acid beta-oxidation  fatty acid beta-oxidation  vitamin A metabolic process  apoptotic process  heart development  embryo implantation  transcription factor binding  drug binding  cholesterol metabolic process  zinc ion binding  cell proliferation  cell proliferation  lipid binding  axon ensheathment  phospholipid biosynthetic process  fatty acid catabolic process  mRNA transcription  response to glucose  positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  response to activity  regulation of skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation  negative regulation of smooth muscle cell migration  glucose transport  fatty acid transport  cell differentiation  negative regulation of cell growth  intracellular receptor signaling pathway  cell-substrate adhesion  positive regulation of insulin secretion  negative regulation of collagen biosynthetic process  response to vitamin A  wound healing  negative regulation of apoptotic process  steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway  positive regulation of skeletal muscle tissue regeneration  sequence-specific DNA binding  keratinocyte proliferation  positive regulation of fat cell differentiation  negative regulation of myoblast differentiation  positive regulation of epidermis development  negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated  decidualization  protein heterodimerization activity  negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation  negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation  negative regulation of inflammatory response  NF-kappaB binding  keratinocyte migration  adipose tissue development  linoleic acid binding  cellular response to lipopolysaccharide  cellular response to hypoxia  apoptotic signaling pathway  positive regulation of blood vessel diameter  negative regulation of pri-miRNA transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter  positive regulation of myoblast proliferation  
Pathways : BIOCARTANuclear Receptors in Lipid Metabolism and Toxicity [Genes]    Basic mechanism of action of PPARa, PPARb(d) and PPARg and effects on gene expression [Genes]    WNT Signaling Pathway [Genes]   
Pathways : KEGGPPAR signaling pathway    Wnt signaling pathway    Pathways in cancer    Acute myeloid leukemia   
REACTOMEQ03181 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-5362517 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkPPARD
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkPPARD
Wikipedia pathwaysPPARD
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB5467
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000112033
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamPPARD
HOVERGENQ03181
HOGENOMQ03181
Homologs : HomoloGenePPARD
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)PPARD
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Fusion : MitelmanPPARD/WNK4 [6p21.31/17q21.31]  
Fusion: TCGAPPARD 6p21.31 WNK4 17q21.31 LUAD
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerPPARD [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)PPARD
dbVarPPARD
ClinVarPPARD
1000_GenomesPPARD 
Exome Variant ServerPPARD
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)PPARD (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP5467
Genomic Variants (DGV)PPARD [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERPPARD [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisPPARD 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalPPARD 
TCGA Data PortalPPARD 
Broad Tumor PortalPPARD
OASIS PortalPPARD [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICPPARD  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDPPARD
BioMutasearch PPARD
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)PPARD
DoCM (Curated mutations)PPARD (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)PPARD (select a term)
intoGenPPARD
NCG5 (London)PPARD
Cancer3DPPARD(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM600409   
Orphanet
MedgenPPARD
Genetic Testing Registry PPARD
NextProtQ03181 [Medical]
TSGene5467
GENETestsPPARD
Target ValidationPPARD
Huge Navigator PPARD [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease5467
BioCentury BCIQPPARD
ClinGenPPARD
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD5467
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA33557
Clinical trialPPARD
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)PPARD (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed295 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMinePPARD
EVEXPPARD
GoPubMedPPARD
iHOPPPARD
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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