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RASSF1 (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member)

Written2001-12Debora Angeloni, Michael I. Lerman
Laboratory of Immunobiology, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer Research Facility Bldg. 560 Rm. 12 26 Frederick, MD 21702, USA

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


Alias (NCBI)123F2
HGNC Alias symbNORE2A
HGNC Previous nameRas association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1
LocusID (NCBI) 11186
Atlas_Id 377
Location 3p21.31  [Link to chromosome band 3p21]
Location_base_pair Starts at 50329788 and ends at 50340836 bp from pter ( according to GRCh38/hg38-Dec_2013)  [Mapping RASSF1.png]
Local_order telomeric to BLU and centromeric to FUS1
  Probe(s) - Courtesy Mariano Rocchi, Resources for Molecular Cytogenetics
Fusion genes
(updated 2017)
Data from Atlas, Mitelman, Cosmic Fusion, Fusion Cancer, TCGA fusion databases with official HUGO symbols (see references in chromosomal bands)
RASSF1 (3p21.31)::CAPN1 (11q13.1)RASSF1 (3p21.31)::PDZRN3 (3p13)
Note RASSF1 is also known as NORE2A. More correctly, NORE must be considered a paralog of RASSF1, a human ortholog of mouse NoreA.
genomic clones: cosmid LUCA 12 and LUCA 13


  Grey: exon 1a, green: exon 1b; blue: exon 2ab; yellow : exon 2g; brown: exons 3,4, 5, 6. Arrows: transcription start sites. CpG: location of CpG islands. RASSF1A and RASSF1B start with exon 1a and 1b respectively. The second exon (2ab) is common to both forms. Exon 2g is the first exon of RASSF1C and is present in this transcript only.
Description the genomic size of the gene is about 7.6 kb.
Transcription At least three alternative transcripts were identified (A, B and C) that originate from alternative splicing and promoter usage. Exons 3 to 6 are common to all forms. Transcript A has two 5' exons (designated 1a and 2ab), this cDNA is 1,873 bp (ORF: 340 amino acids). RASSF1B first exon is designated 1b and is different from RASSF1A. Exon two is 2ab as in transcript A. cDNA size: 1,664 bp. Transcript RASSF1C first exon is designated 2g, cDNA size 1700 bp (ORF 270 amino acids).
Pseudogene no known pseudogenes.


  Schematic representation of RASSF1 protein variants, as deduced from the transcripts.
Description The carboxy terminus of RASSF1A shows about 55% identity to the mouse protein Nore1 and the rat protein Maxp1, both are Ras effector proteins (Nore1 was shown to interact in vivo with Ras upon receptor activation in a GTP-dependent manner). RASSF1A N terminus has high homology with a domain known as protein kinase C conserved region 1 domain (a cysteine-rich diacylglycerol/phorbol ester binding domain). RASSF1B most likely is constituted only of the Ras association domain.
Expression RASSF1A and RASSF1C are expressed in heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, pancreas, spleen, thymus, prostate, testis, small intestine, colon, peripheral blood leukocytes. RASSF1B is expressed predominantly in cells of hematopoietic origin.
Localisation not determined.
Function RASSF1 binds Ras in a GTP-dependent manner and may serve as the effector that mediates Ras apoptotic effects. Alternatively, it may sequester RAS proteins thereby regulating the availability of these proteins for signaling.


Note single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 1a: AAG (Lys21)/CAG (Gln21).
Somatic Mutations were rarely found. In non small cell lung cancer four were found: GAC (Asp129) to GAG (Glu129); ATT (Ile135) to ACT (Thr135); CGG (Arg257) to CAG (Gln257); GCC (Ala336) to ACC (Thr336).

Implicated in

Entity clear cell renal carcinoma and papillary renal carcinoma; lung cancer; ovarian cancer; prostate cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma; bladder carcinoma; nasopharingeal carcinoma; breast cancer.
Note The mechanism of inactivation of this tumor suppressor consists in promoter hypermethylation. The gene promoter was found hypermetylated in 90 % of primary kidney tumors and 40 % of lung tumors. Hypermethylation and loss of transcription were causally related. Hypermethylation occurs in variable percentage in other tumors and indicate a role for this gene in malignant progression (62 % of bladder carcinoma; 49 % of breast tumors; 40 % of ovarian tumors; 12 % of colon cancer).


Methylation associated inactivation of RASSF1A from region 3p21.3 in lung, breast and ovarian tumours.
Agathanggelou A, Honorio S, Macartney DP, Martinez A, Dallol A, Rader J, Fullwood P, Chauhan A, Walker R, Shaw JA, Hosoe S, Lerman MI, Minna JD, Maher ER, Latif F
Oncogene. 2001 ; 20 (12) : 1509-1518.
PMID 11313894
Epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A in lung and breast cancers and malignant phenotype suppression.
Burbee DG, Forgacs E, Zöchbauer-Müller S, Shivakumar L, Fong K, Gao B, Randle D, Kondo M, Virmani A, Bader S, Sekido Y, Latif F, Milchgrub S, Toyooka S, Gazdar AF, Lerman MI, Zabarovsky E, White M, Minna JD
Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2001 ; 93 (9) : 691-699.
PMID 11333291
Frequent epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A by aberrant promoter hypermethylation in human gastric adenocarcinoma.
Byun DS, Lee MG, Chae KS, Ryu BG, Chi SG
Cancer research. 2001 ; 61 (19) : 7034-7038.
PMID 11585730
Epigenetic inactivation of a RAS association domain family protein from the lung tumour suppressor locus 3p21.3.
Dammann R, Li C, Yoon JH, Chin PL, Bates S, Pfeifer GP
Nature genetics. 2000 ; 25 (3) : 315-319.
PMID 10888881
The CpG island of the novel tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A is intensely methylated in primary small cell lung carcinomas.
Dammann R, Takahashi T, Pfeifer GP
Oncogene. 2001 ; 20 (27) : 3563-3567.
PMID 11429703
Hypermethylation of the cpG island of Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), a putative tumor suppressor gene from the 3p21.3 locus, occurs in a large percentage of human breast cancers.
Dammann R, Yang G, Pfeifer GP
Cancer research. 2001 ; 61 (7) : 3105-3109.
PMID 11306494
The candidate tumor suppressor gene, RASSF1A, from human chromosome 3p21.3 is involved in kidney tumorigenesis.
Dreijerink K, Braga E, Kuzmin I, Geil L, Duh FM, Angeloni D, Zbar B, Lerman MI, Stanbridge EJ, Minna JD, Protopopov A, Li J, Kashuba V, Klein G, Zabarovsky ER
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2001 ; 98 (13) : 7504-7509.
PMID 11390984
Frequent epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A in human bladder carcinoma.
Lee MG, Kim HY, Byun DS, Lee SJ, Lee CH, Kim JI, Chang SG, Chi SG
Cancer research. 2001 ; 61 (18) : 6688-6692.
PMID 11559536
The 630-kb lung cancer homozygous deletion region on human chromosome 3p21.3: identification and evaluation of the resident candidate tumor suppressor genes. The International Lung Cancer Chromosome 3p21.3 Tumor Suppressor Gene Consortium.
Lerman MI, Minna JD
Cancer research. 2000 ; 60 (21) : 6116-6133.
PMID 11085536
High frequency of promoter hypermethylation of RASSF1A in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Lo KW, Kwong J, Hui AB, Chan SY, To KF, Chan AS, Chow LS, Teo PM, Johnson PJ, Huang DP
Cancer research. 2001 ; 61 (10) : 3877-3881.
PMID 11358799
Epigenetic inactivation of the RASSF1A 3p21.3 tumor suppressor gene in both clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma.
Morrissey C, Martinez A, Zatyka M, Agathanggelou A, Honorio S, Astuti D, Morgan NV, Moch H, Richards FM, Kishida T, Yao M, Schraml P, Latif F, Maher ER
Cancer research. 2001 ; 61 (19) : 7277-7281.
PMID 11585766
Ras uses the novel tumor suppressor RASSF1 as an effector to mediate apoptosis.
Vos MD, Ellis CA, Bell A, Birrer MJ, Clark GJ
The Journal of biological chemistry. 2000 ; 275 (46) : 35669-35672.
PMID 10998413
Hypermethylation of the CpG island of the RASSF1A gene in ovarian and renal cell carcinomas.
Yoon JH, Dammann R, Pfeifer GP
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2001 ; 94 (2) : 212-217.
PMID 11668500


This paper should be referenced as such :
Angeloni, D ; Lerman, MI
RASSF1 (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2002;6(2):93-95.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]

External links

HGNC (Hugo)RASSF1   9882
Atlas Explorer : (Salamanque)RASSF1
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)RASSF1    Ras association domain family member 1
Aliases123F2; NORE2A; RASSF1A; RDA32; 
GeneCards (Weizmann)RASSF1
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000068028 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000068028 [Gene_View]  ENSG00000068028 [Sequence]  chr3:50329788-50340836 [Contig_View]  RASSF1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000068028
Genatlas (Paris)RASSF1
SOURCE (Princeton)RASSF1
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)RASSF1
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)RASSF1  -     chr3:50329788-50340836 -  3p21.31   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)RASSF1  -     3p21.31   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPathRASSF1 - 3p21.31 [CytoView hg19]  RASSF1 - 3p21.31 [CytoView hg38]
Genome Data Viewer NCBIRASSF1 [Mapview hg19]  
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AF040703 AF061836 AF102770 AF102771 AF102772
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001206957 NM_007182 NM_170712 NM_170713 NM_170714 NM_170715 NM_170716 NM_170717
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)RASSF1
Gene ExpressionRASSF1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   RASSF1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   RASSF1 [ SEEK ]   RASSF1 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)RASSF1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
GenevisibleExpression of RASSF1 in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)11186
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)RASSF1
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000068028-RASSF1 [pathology]   [cell]   [tissue]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)
Conserved Domain (NCBI)RASSF1
Human Protein Atlas [tissue]ENSG00000068028-RASSF1 [tissue]
Protein Interaction databases
Ontologies - Pathways
PubMed496 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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