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SLC22A3 (Solute carrier family 22 member 3)

Written2015-05Hasan Hüseyin Kazan, Can Özen, Mesut Muyan
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Natural, Applied Sciences, Middle East Technical University, hasanhuseyinkazan@gmail.com (HK), Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Natural, Applied Sciences, Middle East Technical University, canozen@metu.edu.tr (CO), Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, mmuyan@metu.edu.tr (MM), Ankara, Turkey

Abstract Review on SLC22A3, with data on DNA, on the protein encoded, and where the gene is implicated.

Keywords SLC22A3; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Prostate cancer; Renal cell carcinoma; Colon cancer

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namessolute carrier family 22 (extraneuronal monoamine transporter), member 3
solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 3
Alias_symbol (synonym)OCT3
EMT
Other aliasEMT (Extraneuronal monoamine transporter)
OCT3 (Organic cation transporter 3)
HGNC (Hugo) SLC22A3
LocusID (NCBI) 6581
Atlas_Id 51061
Location 6q25.3  [Link to chromosome band 6q25]
Location_base_pair Starts at 160348373 and ends at 160452579 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping SLC22A3.png]
 
  Figure 1. Localization of human SLC22A3 gene on chromosome 6q26-q27 (as depicted in Verhaagh et al., 2009).IMAGE_FISH
Fusion genes
(updated 2016)
TXNL4B (16q22.2) / SLC22A3 (6q25.3)
Note The length of SLC22A3 gene is 3.499 base-pair (bp) with an open reading frame of 1.653 bp (Verhaagh et al., 1999). Genes encoding the members of solute carrier family 22a locate at human chromosome 6q26-q27 as a conserved gene cluster between apolipoprotein(a), APO(a)-like gene and tumor suppressor gene IGF2R (Figure 1; Verhaagh et al., 1999; Tregouet et al., 2009; Heise et al., 2012)

DNA/RNA

Note SLC22A3 is one of three members of cation transporter genes located on chromosome 6. SLC22A3 is involved in the transportation of a variety of organic cations. Organic transporters have been included into the family of solute carrier proteins due to their homologies and third member of this family which was previously called organic cation transporter 3, OCT3, and the extraneuronal monoamine transporter, EMT, renamed as SLC22A3 (Verhaagh et al., 1999; Wieland et al., 2000; Verhaagh et al., 2001).
 
  Figure 2. Gene structure of human SLC22A3 (as depicted inWieland et al., 2000).
Description The SLC22A3 gene consists of 11 exons and 10 introns, and encodes a 551 amino acid long membrane protein that comprises 12 predicted ?-helical transmembrane domains (TMDs). Intron/exon boundaries have the conserved gt/ag consensus splice sites (Figure 2). The exon 1 encodes N-terminus together with the first TMD and the exon 8 encodes TMD 10. The other SLC22A3 exons encode more than one TMDs (Wieland et al., 2000). SLC22A3 displays a structure conserved in members of solute carrier proteins (OCT1, OCT2, ORCTL2, ORCTL3, ORCTL4; Wieland et al., 2000) and in different organisms (rat, murine, mouse, and human; Burckhardt& Wolff, 2000; Wieland et al., 2000).
Transcription It is reported that a large noncoding RNA (ncRNA), Air, silences cis-linked distal paternal Slc22a3 gene (mouse SLC22A3 gene) allele-specifically by interacting Slc22a3 promoter and H3K9 histone methyltransferase in placenta (Nagano et al, 2008). Studies indicate that the basal promoter of SLC22A3 contains a large CpG island which extends into exon 1, and abnormal methylation decreases SLC22A3 expression in human prostate cancer (Chen et al., 2013).

Protein

Description The SLC22A3 protein is composed of 551 amino acids with a 61 kDa molecular mass (Kekuda et al., 1998). The protein is predicted to be composed of 12 TMDs and both NH2 and COOH termini of the protein locate at the cytoplasmic site of the plasma membrane (Kekuda et al., 1998; Burckhardt& Wolff, 2000). There are three potential N-linked glycosylation sites (positions 72, 99 and 114) within a large extracellular loop (106 amino acids) located between TMDs 1 and 2. Another N-linked glycosylation site is localized at position 199 in an extracellular loop formed between TMDs 3 and 4. SLC22A3 also contains putative phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C (Ser-286, Thr-292 and Thr-459) and protein kinase A (Thr-346 and Thr-544) (Kekuda et al., 1998).
Expression SLC22A3 is expressed in a wide range of tissues including the first-trimester and term placenta, skeletal muscle, prostate, liver, aorta, fetal lung, salivary gland, adrenal gland (Verhaagh et al., 1999), sympathetically innervated tissues (Lazar et al., 2003), heart, brain (Vialou et al., 2004; Chen et al., 2010), central nervous system (Zhu et al., 2012) and kidney (Wu et al., 2000).
Localisation SLC22A3 is localized on the plasma membrane (Kekuda et al., 1998; Burckhardt& Wolff, 2000).
Function SLC22A3 is a potential-sensitive organic cation transporter and activated by inside-negative membrane potential (Kekuda et al., 1998). The main function of the protein is to uptake and to eliminate clinically used drugs, endogenous organic cations (dopamine, norepinephrine and histamine; Wu et al., 2000) and toxic substances in the kidney, placenta and liver by uptake-2 transport system, which is the high-capacity and low-affinity transport system (Hayer-Zillgen et al. 2002; Vialou et al., 2004; Sakata et al., 2010). SLC22A3 uptakes catecholamines and neurotoxic organic cations in glial cells (Wieland et al., 2000). It also carries out the clearance of monoamines by co-localizing with other enzymes in placenta (Verhaagh et al., 2001). The mouse homolog Slc22a3 is shown to be involved in regulating salt-uptake (Vialou et al., 2004) and is a regulator of neurotransmission by controlling the transportation of dopamine, norepinephrine, 5-hydroxytriptamine, epinephrine and histamine in the central nervous system (Zhu et al., 2012). The activity of SLC22A3 is selectively inhibited by corticosterone, progesterone and 17?-estradiol, O-methylisoprenaline (OMI) and decynium22 (Hayer-Zillgen et al., 2002).
Homology SLC22A3 shares homology with the other members of organic cation transporter OCT1 and OCT2; at amino acid sequence level, the identity ranges between 30-51% (Kekuda et al., 1998). SLC22A3 also shows conserved amino acid sequences in mammals (Burckhardt& Wolff, 2000; Wu et al., 2000).

Mutations

Note It is reported that there are six single-nucleotide substitutions and one deletion within the core promoter, exonic and intronic sequences and 3' untranslated region without any amino acid changes in Caucasians, suggesting that the mutations would be as the result of demographic differences (Lazar et al., 2003). A non-synonymous substitution in SLC22A3 gene, Mel370Ile, may be related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (Lazar et al., 2008). Of the reported five nonsynonymous SNPs (T44M, A116S, T400I, A439V and G475S; NCBI dbSNP, http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP; Sakata et al., 2010), A116, A439 and G475 are found only in the SLC22A3 gene while the others are also found in other organic cation transporter genes. The variations in the amino acid sequence result in a reduced substrate uptake and functionality (Sakata et al., 2010). It is also reported that T44M, P84P, A116S, R102R, T400I, A411A, L498L SNPs in the coding regions of SLC22A3, as well as SNPs in intronic regions, may result in alterations in substrate specificity (Chen et al., 2010).

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Hepatocellular carcinoma
Note SLC22A3, as SLC22A1, is downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma. The downregulation of SLC22A3 is associated with tumor progression and poor patient survival (Heise et al. 2012).
  
  
Entity Prostate cancer
Note Studies with 12 known risk polymorphisms in risk allele status for prostate tissue suggest that 4 of 12 prostate cancer risk variants are related to five transcripts, one of which is SLC22A3. Studies suggest that the expression of SLC22A3 is reduced in prostate cancer cells due to the aberrant methylation of the promoter region, an indication that the reduced level of SLC22A3 expression may be involved in the progression of prostate cancer (Chen et al., 2013).
  
  
Entity Renal cell carcinoma
Note Kidneys are important for the excretion of xenobiotic compounds and consequently are highly susceptible for tumor development. Renal cell carcinomas are mainly resistant to chemotherapies, which appear to be dependent upon the expression of transporter proteins that include SLC22A3 (Shnitsar et al., 2009).
  
  
Entity Distal colon cancer
Note Genome-wide studies suggest that the genetic variant rs7758229 in SLC22A3 is associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility in Japanese population (Cui et al, 2011), the same variant, on the other hand, shows no association for colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese cohort (Zhu et al., 2013).
  
  
Entity Coronary artery disease (CAD)
Note Genome-wide haplotype association studies suggest that SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster constitutes a strong susceptibility locus for CAD (Tregouet et al., 2009).
  
  
Entity Methamphetamine (MAP) use disorder
Note MAP is an amphetamine derivative and illicit psycho-stimulant. MAP dependence, an important social problem, is thought to be influenced by genetic factors. Due to the ability of SLC22A3 to transport MAP (Wu et al., 1998), it is suggested that polymorphisms in SLC22A3 gene may be correlated with MAP dependence (Aoyama et al., 2006).
  
  
Entity Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Note OCD is primarily linked with abnormalities in serotonergic system. The observations that genome-wide linkage of OCD (6q26) overlaps with SLC22A3 (6q26-q27) provides a support for a role of SLC22A3 in OCD. Two novel mutations, Met370Ile and -106/107delAG which cause 40% reduction in norepinephrine transport in patients, could underlie the modulatory role of SLC22A3 in OCD (Lazar et al., 2008).
  
  
Entity Depression
Note Clearance of neurotransmitters for the homeodynamic regulation of the central nervous system is mediated by uptake-1 and uptake-2 systems. The uptake-2 is a low-affinity and high-capacity system within which SLC22A3 plays a significant role (Schildkraut and Mooney, 2004). SLC22A3 transports various neurotransmitters including dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine (Wu et al., 2000). Anti-depressants currently used in clinics include selective 5-HT and 5-HT-NE inhibitors. Studies suggest that the inhibition of SLC22A3-mediated neurotransmitter uptake is a critical contributor for the effects of antidepressants, underlying the importance of SLC22A3 in depression progression and protection (Baganz et al., 2008; Mooney et al., 2008; Zhu et al., 2012).
  

Bibliography

Association between gene polymorphisms of SLC22A3 and methamphetamine use disorder
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Organic cation transporter 3: Keeping the brake on extracellular serotonin in serotonin-transporter-deficient mice
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Structure of renal organic anion and cation transporters
Burckhardt G, Wolff NA
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2000 Jun;278(6):F853-66
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Genetic and epigenetic regulation of the organic cation transporter 3, SLC22A3
Chen L, Hong C, Chen EC, Yee SW, Xu L, Almof EU, Wen C, Fujii K, Johns SJ, Stryke D, Ferrin TE, Simko J, Chen X, Costello JF, Giacomini KM
Pharmacogenomics J 2013 Apr;13(2):110-20
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Role of organic cation transporter 3 (SLC22A3) and its missense variants in the pharmacologic action of metformin
Chen L, Pawlikowski B, Schlessinger A, More SS, Stryke D, Johns SJ, Portman MA, Chen E, Ferrin TE, Sali A, Giacomini KM
Pharmacogenet Genomics 2010 Nov;20(11):687-99
PMID 20859243
 
Common variant in 6q26-q27 is associated with distal colon cancer in an Asian population
Cui R, Okada Y, Jang SG, Ku JL, Park JG, Kamatani Y, Hosono N, Tsunoda T, Kumar V, Tanikawa C, Kamatani N, Yamada R, Kubo M, Nakamura Y, Matsuda K
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Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3
Hayer-Zillgen M, Brüss M, Bönisch H
Br J Pharmacol 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36
PMID 12110607
 
Downregulation of organic cation transporters OCT1 (SLC22A1) and OCT3 (SLC22A3) in human hepatocellular carcinoma and their prognostic significance
Heise M, Lautem A, Knapstein J, Schattenberg JM, Hoppe-Lotichius M, Foltys D, Weiler N, Zimmermann A, Schad A, Gründemann D, Otto G, Galle PR, Schuchmann M, Zimmermann T
BMC Cancer 2012 Mar 22;12:109
PMID 22439694
 
Cloning and functional characterization of a potential-sensitive, polyspecific organic cation transporter (OCT3) most abundantly expressed in placenta
Kekuda R, Prasad PD, Wu X, Wang H, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V
J Biol Chem 1998 Jun 26;273(26):15971-9
PMID 9632645
 
Genetic variability of the extraneuronal monoamine transporter EMT (SLC22A3)
Lazar A, Gründemann D, Berkels R, Taubert D, Zimmermann T, Schömig E
J Hum Genet 2003;48(5):226-30
PMID 12768439
 
Novel mutations of the extraneuronal monoamine transporter gene in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder
Lazar A, Walitza S, Jetter A, Gerlach M, Warnke A, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Gründemann D, Grimberg G, Schulz E, Remschmidt H, Wewetzer C, Schömig E
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2008 Feb;11(1):35-48
PMID 17477885
 
Enhanced norepinephrine output during long-term desipramine treatment: a possible role for the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (SLC22A3)
Mooney JJ, Samson JA, Hennen J, Pappalardo K, McHale N, Alpert J, Koutsos M, Schildkraut JJ
J Psychiatr Res 2008 Jul;42(8):605-11
PMID 17727882
 
The Air noncoding RNA epigenetically silences transcription by targeting G9a to chromatin
Nagano T, Mitchell JA, Sanz LA, Pauler FM, Ferguson-Smith AC, Feil R, Fraser P
Science 2008 Dec 12;322(5908):1717-20
PMID 18988810
 
Functional analysis of human organic cation transporter OCT3 (SLC22A3) polymorphisms
Sakata T, Anzai N, Kimura T, Miura D, Fukutomi T, Takeda M, Sakurai H, Endou H
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PMID 20562519
 
Toward a rapidly acting antidepressant: the normetanephrine and extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake 2) hypothesis
Schildkraut JJ, Mooney JJ
Am J Psychiatry 2004 May;161(5):909-11
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Expression of human organic cation transporter 3 in kidney carcinoma cell lines increases chemosensitivity to melphalan, irinotecan, and vincristine
Shnitsar V, Eckardt R, Gupta S, Grottker J, Müller GA, Koepsell H, Burckhardt G, Hagos Y
Cancer Res 2009 Feb 15;69(4):1494-501
PMID 19190342
 
Genome-wide haplotype association study identifies the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster as a risk locus for coronary artery disease
Trégouüt DA, König IR, Erdmann J, Munteanu A, Braund PS, Hall AS, Grosshennig A, Linsel-Nitschke P, Perret C, DeSuremain M, Meitinger T, Wright BJ, Preuss M, Balmforth AJ, Ball SG, Meisinger C, Germain C, Evans A, Arveiler D, Luc G, Ruidavets JB, Morrison C, van der Harst P, Schreiber S, Neureuther K, Schäfer A, Bugert P, El Mokhtari NE, Schrezenmeir J, Stark K, Rubin D, Wichmann HE, Hengstenberg C, Ouwehand W; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; Cardiogenics Consortium, Ziegler A, Tiret L, Thompson JR, Cambien F, Schunkert H, Samani NJ
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The extraneuronal monoamine transporter Slc22a3/Orct3 co-localizes with the Maoa metabolizing enzyme in mouse placenta
Verhaagh S, Barlow DP, Zwart R
Mech Dev 2001 Jan;100(1):127-30
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Organic cation transporter 3 (Slc22a3) is implicated in salt-intake regulation
Vialou V, Amphoux A, Zwart R, Giros B, Gautron S
J Neurosci 2004 Mar 17;24(11):2846-51
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Analysis of the gene structure of the human (SLC22A3) and murine (Slc22a3) extraneuronal monoamine transporter
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J Neural Transm 2000;107(10):1149-57
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Structure, function, and regional distribution of the organic cation transporter OCT3 in the kidney
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Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2000 Sep;279(3):F449-58
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Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain
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PMID 9830022
 
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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Kazan HH, Özen C, Muyan M
SLC22A3 (Solute carrier family 22 member 3);
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. in press
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/SLC22A3ID51061ch6q25.html


Other Solid tumors implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 1 ]
  Prostate tumors: an overview


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)SLC22A3   10967
Cards
AtlasSLC22A3ID51061ch6q25
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)SLC22A3  6581  solute carrier family 22 member 3
AliasesEMT; EMTH; OCT3
GeneCards (Weizmann)SLC22A3
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000146477 [Gene_View]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000146477 [Gene_View]  chr6:160348373-160452579 [Contig_View]  SLC22A3 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000146477
TCGA cBioPortalSLC22A3
AceView (NCBI)SLC22A3
Genatlas (Paris)SLC22A3
WikiGenes6581
SOURCE (Princeton)SLC22A3
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)SLC22A3
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)SLC22A3  -     chr6:160348373-160452579 +  6q25.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)SLC22A3  -     6q25.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblSLC22A3 - 6q25.3 [CytoView hg19]  SLC22A3 - 6q25.3 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBISLC22A3 [Mapview hg19]  SLC22A3 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM604842   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AF078749 AI810629 AJ001417 AK096980 AK125826
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_021977
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)SLC22A3
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.567337 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.567337
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000146477
Gene ExpressionSLC22A3 [ NCBI-GEO ]   SLC22A3 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   SLC22A3 [ SEEK ]   SLC22A3 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)SLC22A3 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)6581
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)SLC22A3
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtO75751   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtO75751  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProO75751
Splice isoforms : SwissVarO75751
PhosPhoSitePlusO75751
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)MFS (PS50850)    SUGAR_TRANSPORT_1 (PS00216)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)MFS    MFS_dom    Orgcat_transp/SVOP    Sugar_transporter_CS   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)MFS_1 (PF07690)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam07690   
Conserved Domain (NCBI)SLC22A3
DMDM Disease mutations6581
Blocks (Seattle)SLC22A3
SuperfamilyO75751
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000146477
Peptide AtlasO75751
HPRD05328
IPIIPI00872448   IPI00465437   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)O75751
IntAct (EBI)O75751
FunCoupENSG00000146477
BioGRIDSLC22A3
STRING (EMBL)SLC22A3
ZODIACSLC22A3
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOO75751
Ontology : AmiGOdopamine transmembrane transporter activity  protein binding  plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  drug transmembrane transport  organic anion transmembrane transporter activity  organic cation transmembrane transporter activity  organic cation transmembrane transporter activity  organic cation transmembrane transporter activity  quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity  organic cation transport  quaternary ammonium group transport  organic anion transport  dopamine transport  membrane  toxin transporter activity  regulation of appetite  histamine uptake  ammonium transmembrane transport  toxin transport  
Ontology : EGO-EBIdopamine transmembrane transporter activity  protein binding  plasma membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  drug transmembrane transport  organic anion transmembrane transporter activity  organic cation transmembrane transporter activity  organic cation transmembrane transporter activity  organic cation transmembrane transporter activity  quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity  organic cation transport  quaternary ammonium group transport  organic anion transport  dopamine transport  membrane  toxin transporter activity  regulation of appetite  histamine uptake  ammonium transmembrane transport  toxin transport  
REACTOMEO75751 [protein]
REACTOME PathwaysR-HSA-549127 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkSLC22A3
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkSLC22A3
Wikipedia pathwaysSLC22A3
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB6581
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000146477
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamSLC22A3
HOVERGENO75751
HOGENOMO75751
Homologs : HomoloGeneSLC22A3
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)SLC22A3
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerSLC22A3 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)SLC22A3
dbVarSLC22A3
ClinVarSLC22A3
1000_GenomesSLC22A3 
Exome Variant ServerSLC22A3
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)SLC22A3 (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP6581
Genomic Variants (DGV)SLC22A3 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHERSLC22A3 [patients]   [syndromes]   [variants]   [genes]  
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisSLC22A3 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalSLC22A3 
TCGA Data PortalSLC22A3 
Broad Tumor PortalSLC22A3
OASIS PortalSLC22A3 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICSLC22A3  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDSLC22A3
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch SLC22A3
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)SLC22A3
DoCM (Curated mutations)SLC22A3 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)SLC22A3 (select a term)
intoGenSLC22A3
NCG5 (London)SLC22A3
Cancer3DSLC22A3(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM604842   
Orphanet
MedgenSLC22A3
Genetic Testing Registry SLC22A3
NextProtO75751 [Medical]
TSGene6581
GENETestsSLC22A3
Target ValidationSLC22A3
Huge Navigator SLC22A3 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease6581
BioCentury BCIQSLC22A3
ClinGenSLC22A3
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD6581
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA330
Clinical trialSLC22A3
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)SLC22A3 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed71 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineSLC22A3
EVEXSLC22A3
GoPubMedSLC22A3
iHOPSLC22A3
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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