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SRXN1 (sulfiredoxin 1)

Written2012-11Hedy A Chawsheen, Hong Jiang, Qiou Wei
Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40513, USA

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesC20orf139
chromosome 20 open reading frame 139
sulfiredoxin 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae)
Alias_symbol (synonym)Npn3
SRX1
YKL086W
dJ850E9.2
HGNC (Hugo) SRXN1
LocusID (NCBI) 140809
Atlas_Id 52295
Location 20p13  [Link to chromosome band 20p13]
Location_base_pair Starts at 627268 and ends at 634014 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping SRXN1.png]
Fusion genes
(updated 2016)
SRXN1 (20p13) / SRXN1 (20p13)

DNA/RNA

Note Human Srx is located on chromosome 20 in the region of p13.
Description Human Srx gene is 6632 bp in length, composed of 2 exons and located at chromosome 20p13.
Transcription The size of Srx mRNA is 2580 bp. Srx transcript contains two exons. Exon 1 is 271 bp and exon 2 is 2300 bp. The catalytic domain of Srx reducing enzyme activity is localized in exon 2.

Protein

Note Human Srx protein has a total of 137 amino acids and a 14 kDa molecular weight.
Description Srx is a member of antioxidant protein family containing a ParB-like nuclease domain. It forms 5 beta strands and 6 helix secondary structures. Srxn1 binds to peroxiredoxins (Prxs) and reduces overoxidized Prxs in the presence of cofactors including magnesium and ATP.
 
  Structure of Human Srx bound to an ATP molecule and Mg2+ in solution (NCBI).
Expression In adult, Srx protein was found in internal organs such as mouse liver and kidney. Expression pattern of Srx in embryonic development is not clear. Transcriptional regulation of Srx expression is mainly mediated through AP-1 and/or Nrf-2 activation (Jeong et al., 2012). In yeast, it may also be negatively regulated at the translational level through Ras-PKA pathway (Molin et al., 2011).
Localisation Srx is mainly localized in the cytosol. In the presence of severe oxidative stress, it may also translocate to mitochondria (Noh et al., 2009).
Function Srx was first identified as a gene preferentially expressed in transformed JB6 cells (Sun et al., 1994). The primary biochemical function of Srx is to reduce the overoxidized cysteine residues of Prx I, Prx II, Prx III and Prx IV under severe oxidative stress (Biteau et al., 2003; Chang et al., 2004). The spectrum and specificity of its enzymatic function remains elusive. Srx may also cause the deglutathionylation of Prx II and others (Park et al., 2009; Findlay et al., 2006). The biological function of Srx may involve in the regulation of various cell signaling pathways to promote tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Abnormally high expression of Srx has been demonstrated in many malignant tumors including those of skin, lung, and colon (Wei et al., 2008). Srx may not be essential for development since Srx null mice are viable and normal (Planson et al., 2011).
Homology Srx gene is conserved among species, from metazoan to human.

Implicated in

Note
  
Entity Tissue injury
Note Srx, together with Prxs, are required for the protection of tissues from oxidative stress induced damages by alcohol and Pyrazole (Bae et al., 2012; Bae et al., 2011).
  
  
Entity Lung fibrosis
Note Srx is found to be expressed in alveolar macrophages in non-specific interstitial pneumonia and may contribute to the process of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (Mazur et al., 2010).
  

Bibliography

Peroxiredoxin III and sulfiredoxin together protect mice from pyrazole-induced oxidative liver injury.
Bae SH, Sung SH, Lee HE, Kang HT, Lee SK, Oh SY, Woo HA, Kil IS, Rhee SG.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012 Nov 15;17(10):1351-61. doi: 10.1089/ars.2011.4334. Epub 2012 May 31.
PMID 22490042
 
ATP-dependent reduction of cysteine-sulphinic acid by S. cerevisiae sulphiredoxin.
Biteau B, Labarre J, Toledano MB.
Nature. 2003 Oct 30;425(6961):980-4.
PMID 14586471
 
Sulfiredoxin redox-sensitive interaction with S100A4 and non-muscle myosin IIA regulates cancer cell motility.
Bowers RR, Manevich Y, Townsend DM, Tew KD.
Biochemistry. 2012 Oct 2;51(39):7740-54. doi: 10.1021/bi301006w. Epub 2012 Sep 19.
PMID 22934964
 
Characterization of mammalian sulfiredoxin and its reactivation of hyperoxidized peroxiredoxin through reduction of cysteine sulfinic acid in the active site to cysteine.
Chang TS, Jeong W, Woo HA, Lee SM, Park S, Rhee SG.
J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 3;279(49):50994-1001. Epub 2004 Sep 24.
PMID 15448164
 
A novel role for human sulfiredoxin in the reversal of glutathionylation.
Findlay VJ, Townsend DM, Morris TE, Fraser JP, He L, Tew KD.
Cancer Res. 2006 Jul 1;66(13):6800-6.
PMID 16818657
 
Genetic polymorphisms and protein expression of NRF2 and Sulfiredoxin predict survival outcomes in breast cancer.
Hartikainen JM, Tengstrom M, Kosma VM, Kinnula VL, Mannermaa A, Soini Y.
Cancer Res. 2012 Nov 1;72(21):5537-46. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-1474. Epub 2012 Sep 10.
PMID 22964583
 
Role of sulfiredoxin as a regulator of peroxiredoxin function and regulation of its expression.
Jeong W, Bae SH, Toledano MB, Rhee SG.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Aug 1;53(3):447-56. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.05.020. Epub 2012 May 24. (REVIEW)
PMID 22634055
 
Cell-specific elevation of NRF2 and sulfiredoxin-1 as markers of oxidative stress in the lungs of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and non-specific interstitial pneumonia.
Mazur W, Lindholm P, Vuorinen K, Myllarniemi M, Salmenkivi K, Kinnula VL.
APMIS. 2010 Sep 1;118(9):703-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2010.02646.x.
PMID 20718723
 
Life span extension and H(2)O(2) resistance elicited by caloric restriction require the peroxiredoxin Tsa1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Molin M, Yang J, Hanzen S, Toledano MB, Labarre J, Nystrom T.
Mol Cell. 2011 Sep 2;43(5):823-33. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.07.027.
PMID 21884982
 
Sulfiredoxin Translocation into Mitochondria Plays a Crucial Role in Reducing Hyperoxidized Peroxiredoxin III.
Noh YH, Baek JY, Jeong W, Rhee SG, Chang TS.
J Biol Chem. 2009 Mar 27;284(13):8470-7. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M808981200. Epub 2009 Jan 28.
PMID 19176523
 
Deglutathionylation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin is specifically catalyzed by sulfiredoxin.
Park JW, Mieyal JJ, Rhee SG, Chock PB.
J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 28;284(35):23364-74. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.021394. Epub 2009 Jun 27.
PMID 19561357
 
Sulfiredoxin protects mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock.
Planson AG, Palais G, Abbas K, Gerard M, Couvelard L, Delaunay A, Baulande S, Drapier JC, Toledano MB.
Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011 Jun;14(11):2071-80. doi: 10.1089/ars.2010.3552. Epub 2011 Mar 17.
PMID 21083423
 
Molecular cloning of five messenger RNAs differentially expressed in preneoplastic or neoplastic JB6 mouse epidermal cells: one is homologous to human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3.
Sun Y, Hegamyer G, Colburn NH.
Cancer Res. 1994 Mar 1;54(5):1139-44.
PMID 8118794
 
Sulfiredoxin-Peroxiredoxin IV axis promotes human lung cancer progression through modulation of specific phosphokinase signaling.
Wei Q, Jiang H, Xiao Z, Baker A, Young MR, Veenstra TD, Colburn NH.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 26;108(17):7004-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1013012108. Epub 2011 Apr 12.
PMID 21487000
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Chawsheen, HA ; Jiang, H ; Wei, Q
SRXN1 (sulfiredoxin 1)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2013;17(4):272-274.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/SRXN1ID52295ch20p13.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)SRXN1   16132
Cards
AtlasSRXN1ID52295ch20p13
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)SRXN1  140809  sulfiredoxin 1
AliasesC20orf139; Npn3; SRX; SRX1
GeneCards (Weizmann)SRXN1
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000271303 [Gene_View]  chr20:627268-634014 [Contig_View]  SRXN1 [Vega]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000271303 [Gene_View]  chr20:627268-634014 [Contig_View]  SRXN1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000271303
TCGA cBioPortalSRXN1
AceView (NCBI)SRXN1
Genatlas (Paris)SRXN1
WikiGenes140809
SOURCE (Princeton)SRXN1
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)SRXN1
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)SRXN1  -     chr20:627268-634014 -  20p13   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)SRXN1  -     20p13   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
EnsemblSRXN1 - 20p13 [CytoView hg19]  SRXN1 - 20p13 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBISRXN1 [Mapview hg19]  SRXN1 [Mapview hg38]
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AF075053 AK098418 AK127435 AK312054 AL833944
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_080725
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)NC_000020 NC_018931 NT_011387 NW_004929416
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)SRXN1
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.516830 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.516830
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000271303
Gene ExpressionSRXN1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   SRXN1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   SRXN1 [ SEEK ]   SRXN1 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)SRXN1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)140809
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)SRXN1
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ9BYN0   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ9BYN0  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ9BYN0
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ9BYN0
PhosPhoSitePlusQ9BYN0
Domains : Interpro (EBI)ParB/Sulfiredoxin_dom    Sulfiredoxin   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)ParBc (PF02195)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam02195   
Conserved Domain (NCBI)SRXN1
DMDM Disease mutations140809
Blocks (Seattle)SRXN1
PDB (SRS)1XW3    1XW4    1YZS    2B6F    2RII    3CYI    3HY2   
PDB (PDBSum)1XW3    1XW4    1YZS    2B6F    2RII    3CYI    3HY2   
PDB (IMB)1XW3    1XW4    1YZS    2B6F    2RII    3CYI    3HY2   
PDB (RSDB)1XW3    1XW4    1YZS    2B6F    2RII    3CYI    3HY2   
Structural Biology KnowledgeBase1XW3    1XW4    1YZS    2B6F    2RII    3CYI    3HY2   
SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins)1XW3    1XW4    1YZS    2B6F    2RII    3CYI    3HY2   
CATH (Classification of proteins structures)1XW3    1XW4    1YZS    2B6F    2RII    3CYI    3HY2   
SuperfamilyQ9BYN0
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000271303
Peptide AtlasQ9BYN0
HPRD12747
IPIIPI00168554   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q9BYN0
IntAct (EBI)Q9BYN0
FunCoupENSG00000271303
BioGRIDSRXN1
STRING (EMBL)SRXN1
ZODIACSRXN1
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOQ9BYN0
Ontology : AmiGOATP binding  cytosol  response to oxidative stress  oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors  sulfiredoxin activity  oxidation-reduction process  cellular oxidant detoxification  
Ontology : EGO-EBIATP binding  cytosol  response to oxidative stress  oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors  sulfiredoxin activity  oxidation-reduction process  cellular oxidant detoxification  
NDEx NetworkSRXN1
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkSRXN1
Wikipedia pathwaysSRXN1
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB140809
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000271303
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamSRXN1
HOVERGENQ9BYN0
HOGENOMQ9BYN0
Homologs : HomoloGeneSRXN1
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)SRXN1
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerSRXN1 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)SRXN1
dbVarSRXN1
ClinVarSRXN1
1000_GenomesSRXN1 
Exome Variant ServerSRXN1
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)SRXN1 (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP140809
Genomic Variants (DGV)SRXN1 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHER (Syndromes)20:627268-634014  ENSG00000271303
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisSRXN1 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalSRXN1 
TCGA Data PortalSRXN1 
Broad Tumor PortalSRXN1
OASIS PortalSRXN1 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICSRXN1  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDSRXN1
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch SRXN1
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)SRXN1
DoCM (Curated mutations)SRXN1 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)SRXN1 (select a term)
intoGenSRXN1
NCG5 (London)SRXN1
Cancer3DSRXN1(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM
Orphanet
MedgenSRXN1
Genetic Testing Registry SRXN1
NextProtQ9BYN0 [Medical]
TSGene140809
GENETestsSRXN1
Huge Navigator SRXN1 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease140809
BioCentury BCIQSRXN1
ClinGenSRXN1
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD140809
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA25681
Clinical trialSRXN1
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)SRXN1 (select the gene name)
Probes
Litterature
PubMed34 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineSRXN1
EVEXSRXN1
GoPubMedSRXN1
iHOPSRXN1
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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