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ST6GALNAC1 (ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1)

Written2008-03Philippe Delannoy, Anne Harduin-Lepers, Marie-Ange Krzewinski-Recchi
Structural, Functional Glycobiology Unit, UMR CNRS 8576, University of Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Identity

Alias_namesSIAT7A
sialyltransferase 7 ((alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetyl galactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase) A
ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1
ST6 GalNAc alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1
Alias_symbol (synonym)ST6GalNAcI
Other aliasHSY11339
HGNC (Hugo) ST6GALNAC1
LocusID (NCBI) 55808
Atlas_Id 44087
Location 17q25.1  [Link to chromosome band 17q25]
Location_base_pair Starts at 74620838 and ends at 74639920 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping ST6GALNAC1.png]
Local_order 72, 132,442-72, 151,489
Fusion genes
(updated 2016)
ST6GALNAC1 (17q25.1) / NDE1 (16p13.11)ST6GALNAC1 (17q25.1) / ST6GALNAC1 (17q25.1)

DNA/RNA

 
  Figure 1. Genomic organization of human ST6GalNAc I gene. The gene is located on chromosome 17q25.1, spans 19.05 kb and contains 9 exons labeled El E9.
Figure 2. RT-PCR analysis of the expression of hST6GalNAc I in various human cancer lines
Description ST6GalNAc I gene is located on chromosome 17, at location 72,132,442-72,151,489, spans 19.05 kb and contains 9 exons. The start of this gene is located in Contig AC005837.1.1.163218.
Transcription Northern blot analysis has shown that ST6GalNAc I gene is expressed in pyloric mucosa as a single 2.5 kb transcript, but it is not expressed in spleen, brain, or pancreas. ST6GalNAc I transcripts were also detected in intestinal metaplasia and duodenal mucosa. In situ hybridization demonstrated that the localization of transcripts correlated well with that of STn antigen in gastric cancer cells and Goblet cells in intestinal metaplastic glands (Ikehara et al., 1999).
RT-PCR analysis shows that ST6GalNAc I gene is expressed only in a limited number of cultured cancer cells, including HT29 and Dami cells (Figure 2). ST6GalNAc I ESTs have been obtained in bone marrow, cervix, esophagus, intestine, skeletal muscle, prostate, spleen, stomach, tongue and trachea, and in several cancer tissues, including cervical, esophageal, prostate, stomach and uterine cancers.
Two cDNA of about 2.5 and 2.3 kp have been isolated. The longer cDNA encodes a 600 amino acids protein (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank # Y11339). The shorter cDNA shows a nucleotide sequence identical to that of the longer form except for the lack of a 234 bp segment at nucleotide positions 652-885 (relative to the ATG of the long-form (# Y11339)). The short-form cDNA would encode a protein that lacks a 78 amino acid fragment at positions 218-295 in the catalytic region (Ikehara et al., 1999).
Pseudogene No ST6GalNAc I pseudogene has been identified in the human genome.

Protein

Note CMP-NeuAc: N-acetyl-galactosaminide-alpha1-O-Ser/Thr alpha2,6-sialyltransferase 1; synonyms: SIAT7A, HSY11339, hSTYI, ST6GalNAc I
 
  Figure 3. Logos representing the ST6GalNAc A family-motifs. (Patel & Balaji, 2006).
Figure 4. Sialylation reactions in the initial steps of the O-glycans biosynthesis. The name of the compound is indicated underneath the glycan structure. The sialic acid residue transferred is indicated in bold characters. The enzymes are indicated in italic and the question mark indicates that the enzyme is not characterized (from Harduin-Lepers et al. 2001).
Description The human ST6GalNAc I (EC 2.4.99.3, CAZy Family GT29, CMP-NeuAc R-GalNAc-alpha1-O-Ser/Thr alpha2,6-sialyltransferase, with R = H, Gal-beta1-3, or NeuAc-alpha2-3Gal-beta1-3) is a 600 AA type II membrane-bound sialyltransferase. It shares the same typical organization with other Golgi glycosyltransferases with a short N-terminal domain in the cytoplasm of the cell, a trans-membrane domain (TMD), an unusually long stem region and a catalytic domain oriented in the lumen of Golgi cisternae. The enzyme possess the 4 signature motifs (sialylmotifs L, S, VS and motif III) of mammalian sialyltransferases (Harduin-Lepers et al., 2005; Jeanneau et al., 2004) and the ST6GalNAc A family-motifs (Patel & Balaji, 2006). No 3D structure is available. The enzyme transfers a sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) from CMP-NeuAc in the 6-position of a GalNAc residue linked to a serine or a threonine residue of a mucin-type glycopeptide or glycoprotein. The human ST6GalNAc I accepts the following structures as acceptor substrate: GalNAc-alpha-O-Ser/Thr, Gal-beta1-3GalNAc-alpha-O-Ser/Thr and Neu5Ac-alpha2-3Gal-beta1-3GalNAc-alpha-O-Ser/Thr (Ikehara et al., 1999).
Expression The stable transfection of MDA-MB-231 or T47D breast cancer cells with an expression vector encoding ST6GalNAc I induces the expression of STn antigen at the cell surface, which is carried by several high molecular weight membrane bound O-glycoproteins, including MUC1 (Julien et al., 2001; Julien et al., 2005). Sialyl-Tn expression is associated with morphological changes, decreased growth and adhesion, and increased cell migration of sialyl-Tn positive clones. STn positive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibit an increased tumor growth in SCID mice (Julien et al., 2006). The MKN45 gastric cell line stably transfected with the full length ST6GalNAc-I also showed high expression of Sialyl-Tn antigen (Marcos et al., 2004). In breast carcinomas, a complete correlation between the expression of ST6GalNAc-I and the expression of sialyl-Tn has been shown (Sewell et al., 2006).
Localisation ST6GalNAc I is a Golgi-resident glycosyltransferase.
Function The Human ST6GalNAc I is a sialyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate moiety of mucin-type O-linked glycan chains, transferring a sialic acid residue in 6-position of the first GalNAc residue linked to the peptide aglycone. ST6GalNAc I is particularly involved in the biosynthesis of the sialyl-Tn antigen (STn, NeuAc-alpha2-6GalNAc-alpha1-O-Ser/Thr) and also participates to the biosynthesis of sialyl-6-T (Gal-beta1-3[NeuAc-alpha2-6]GalNAc-alpha1-O-Ser/Thr) and disialyl-T antigens (NeuAc-alpha2-3Gal-beta1-3[NeuAc-alpha2-6]GalNAc-alpha1-O-Ser/Thr) (Figure 4).
ST6GalNAc I compete with O-glycans elongating glycosyltransferases and prevent cancer cells to exhibit longer O-glycans. While fetal and normal adult tissues weakly express STn, the antigen is over-expressed in a wide range of epithelial cancers and is considered as a good maker of tumor. The prognostic value of STn expression has been widely studied, especially in gastric, colorectal, ovarian and breast cancers, and is correlated to a decreased survival of the patients.
Homology ST6GalNAc I is a sialyltransferase (GT-family #29 in the CAZy classification) belonging to the ST6GalNAc family . The amino acid sequence in the catalytic region of human ST6GalNAc I (250 amino acid residues from the C-terminal end) shows sequence identity to mouse ST6GalNAc I (85%), chick ST6GalNAc I (67.2%), 62% homology to human ST6GalNAc II, 36.4% to human ST6GalNAc III, 35.5% to human ST6GalNAc IV, 37.6% to human ST6GalNAc V, and 36.6% to human ST6GalNAc VI.

Mutations

Note Mutation analysis showed a heterozygous transition (g.136T→C) leading to p.V80A with a frequency of 9.3% in 32 unrelated control individuals. No other exonic sequence variations were found. In addition, one intronic (g.IVS8 24G→A) and one 3'UTR SNP (g.1653A→G) were found (Meuleman et al., 2001).

Implicated in

Note
Note ST6GALNAC1 encodes a specific CMP-Neu5Ac: GalNAc a2,6-sialyltransferase termed ST6GalNAc I responsible for the biosynthesis of sialyl-Tn (STn) antigen (Ikehara et al., 1999). STn is over-expressed in a wide range of epithelial cancers and is considered as a good tumoral maker. However, its pattern of expression varies according to the cell morphology and differentiation, which depend on the cancer type. STn seems to be related to invasive behavior and metastatic potential of the cancer cells, while the involved mechanisms remain unclear. The prognostic value of STn expression has been widely studied, especially in pancreas, gastric, colorectal, and ovarian cancers and breast cancers. For all the cases, the antigen detection is correlated to a decreased survival of the patients.
  
  
Entity Pancreas Cancer
Note Enhanced expression of Tn and STn antigens is usually observed in pancreas cancer. STn is expressed in intra-epithelial neoplasms of the pancreas concomitantly with aberrant expression of MUC5AC and MUC6 gastric mucins (Kim et al., 2002). High serum concentrations of STn are also observed in pancreas carcinomas (Nanashima et al., 1999). STn appears to be a more specific tumor marker in pancreas cancer than Tn antigen (Ching et al., 1994). STn has been also reported in benign pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia stage III (PanIN3), the last histologic grade relevant to benign tumor before that the tumor become invasive (Hruban et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2002).
Prognosis Poor, decreased survival of the patients
  
  
Entity Gastric Cancer
Note STn antigen is over-expressed in gastric carcinomas and associated with MUC1 mucin VNTR polymorphism (Santos-Silva et al., 2005). STn is also a useful predictor of poor prognosis in patients with advanced stomach cancer (Terashima et al., 1998). In particular, pre-operative serum levels of STn predict liver metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer (Nakagoe et al., 2001). STn is able to modulate the malignant phenotype inducing a more aggressive cell behavior, a decreased cell-cell aggregation and an increased ECM adhesion, migration and invasion (Pinho et al., 2007). However, the expression of ST6GalNAc I is low in gastric carcinoma cell lines, in accordance with the low/absent expression of the STn (Ogata et al., 2001).
Prognosis Poor, decreased survival of the patients
  
  
Entity Colorectal Cancer
Note STn is strongly expressed in a large number of colorectal carcinomas. However, not correlation was found between STn antigen tissue expression and ST6GalNAc I activity levels in colorectal cancer, in spite of the overexpression of the antigen in tumorous and transitional tissue (Vázquez-Martìn et al., 2004). The activity of core 1 beta3-Gal-transferase seems to be an important determinant of the STn phenotype of colon cancer cells (Brockhausen et al., 2001). Cell surface-expressed STn in colon cancer is predominantly carried on high molecular weight splice variants of CD44 (Singh et al., 2001). Pre-operative serum level of STn predicts recurrence after curative surgery in node-negative colorectal cancer patients (Takahashi et al., 1993).
Prognosis Poor, decreased survival of the patients
  
  
Entity Breast Cancer
Note ST6GalNAc I is responsible for the synthesis of the tumor-associated STn O-glycan in human breast cancer (Sewell et al., 2006). However, established breast cancer cell-lines express neither ST6GalNAc I nor STn (Julien et al., 2001). Stable transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with ST6GalNAc I cDNA induces STn antigen expression together with important modifications of the O-glycosylation pattern of MUC1 in MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cells (Julien et al., 2001; Julien et al., 2005). ST6GalNAc I expression induces a decrease of adhesion and an increase of migration of MDA-MB-231. Moreover, ST6GalNAc I positive clones exhibit an increased tumor growth in SCID mice, suggesting that ST6GalNAc I expression is sufficient to enhance the tumorigenicity of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (Julien et al., 2006).
Prognosis Poor, decreased survival of the patients
  

Bibliography

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PMID 12820722
 
Stable expression of sialyl-Tn antigen in T47-D cells induces a decrease of cell adhesion and an increase of cell migration.
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Aberrant expression of MUC5AC and MUC6 gastric mucins and sialyl Tn antigen in intraepithelial neoplasms of the pancreas.
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Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Delannoy, P ; Harduin-Lepers, A ; Krzewinski-Recchi, MA
ST6GALNAC1 (ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2009;13(1):70-74.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/ST6GALNAC1ID44087ch17q25.html


External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)ST6GALNAC1   23614
Cards
AtlasST6GALNAC1ID44087ch17q25
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)ST6GALNAC1  55808  ST6GALNAC1, alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1
AliasesHSY11339; SIAT7A; ST6GalNAcI; STYI
GeneCards (Weizmann)ST6GALNAC1
Ensembl hg19 (Hinxton)ENSG00000070526 [Gene_View]  chr17:74620838-74639920 [Contig_View]  ST6GALNAC1 [Vega]
Ensembl hg38 (Hinxton)ENSG00000070526 [Gene_View]  chr17:74620838-74639920 [Contig_View]  ST6GALNAC1 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000070526
TCGA cBioPortalST6GALNAC1
AceView (NCBI)ST6GALNAC1
Genatlas (Paris)ST6GALNAC1
WikiGenes55808
SOURCE (Princeton)ST6GALNAC1
Genetics Home Reference (NIH)ST6GALNAC1
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath hg19 (UCSC)ST6GALNAC1  -     chr17:74620838-74639920 -  17q25.3   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
GoldenPath hg38 (UCSC)ST6GALNAC1  -     17q25.3   [Description]    (hg38-Dec_2013)
EnsemblST6GALNAC1 - 17q25.3 [CytoView hg19]  ST6GALNAC1 - 17q25.3 [CytoView hg38]
Mapping of homologs : NCBIST6GALNAC1 [Mapview hg19]  ST6GALNAC1 [Mapview hg38]
OMIM610138   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AK000113 AK310906 AY096001 AY358918 BC022462
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_001289107 NM_018414
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)NC_000017 NC_018928 NT_010783 NW_004929407
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)ST6GALNAC1
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.105352 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.105352
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000070526
Gene ExpressionST6GALNAC1 [ NCBI-GEO ]   ST6GALNAC1 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ]   ST6GALNAC1 [ SEEK ]   ST6GALNAC1 [ MEM ]
Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse)ST6GALNAC1 [ Firebrowse - Broad ]
SOURCE (Princeton)Expression in : [Datasets]   [Normal Tissue Atlas]  [carcinoma Classsification]  [NCI60]
GenevisibleExpression in : [tissues]  [cell-lines]  [cancer]  [perturbations]  
BioGPS (Tissue expression)55808
GTEX Portal (Tissue expression)ST6GALNAC1
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ9NSC7   [function]  [subcellular_location]  [family_and_domains]  [pathology_and_biotech]  [ptm_processing]  [expression]  [interaction]
NextProtQ9NSC7  [Sequence]  [Exons]  [Medical]  [Publications]
With graphics : InterProQ9NSC7
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ9NSC7
Catalytic activity : Enzyme2.4.99.3 [ Enzyme-Expasy ]   2.4.99.32.4.99.3 [ IntEnz-EBI ]   2.4.99.3 [ BRENDA ]   2.4.99.3 [ KEGG ]   
PhosPhoSitePlusQ9NSC7
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Glyco_trans_29   
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)Glyco_transf_29 (PF00777)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00777   
Conserved Domain (NCBI)ST6GALNAC1
DMDM Disease mutations55808
Blocks (Seattle)ST6GALNAC1
SuperfamilyQ9NSC7
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000070526
Peptide AtlasQ9NSC7
HPRD15340
IPIIPI00031534   IPI00333334   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q9NSC7
IntAct (EBI)Q9NSC7
FunCoupENSG00000070526
BioGRIDST6GALNAC1
STRING (EMBL)ST6GALNAC1
ZODIACST6GALNAC1
Ontologies - Pathways
QuickGOQ9NSC7
Ontology : AmiGOGolgi membrane  ganglioside biosynthetic process  alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase activity  alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase activity  protein glycosylation  sialyltransferase activity  oligosaccharide metabolic process  oligosaccharide biosynthetic process  integral component of membrane  protein N-linked glycosylation via asparagine  sialylation  
Ontology : EGO-EBIGolgi membrane  ganglioside biosynthetic process  alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase activity  alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase activity  protein glycosylation  sialyltransferase activity  oligosaccharide metabolic process  oligosaccharide biosynthetic process  integral component of membrane  protein N-linked glycosylation via asparagine  sialylation  
Pathways : KEGGMucin type O-Glycan biosynthesis   
REACTOMEQ9NSC7 [protein]
REACTOME Pathways4085001 [pathway]   
NDEx NetworkST6GALNAC1
Atlas of Cancer Signalling NetworkST6GALNAC1
Wikipedia pathwaysST6GALNAC1
Orthology - Evolution
OrthoDB55808
GeneTree (enSembl)ENSG00000070526
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamST6GALNAC1
HOVERGENQ9NSC7
HOGENOMQ9NSC7
Homologs : HomoloGeneST6GALNAC1
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)ST6GALNAC1
Gene fusions - Rearrangements
Polymorphisms : SNP and Copy number variants
NCBI Variation ViewerST6GALNAC1 [hg38]
dbSNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)ST6GALNAC1
dbVarST6GALNAC1
ClinVarST6GALNAC1
1000_GenomesST6GALNAC1 
Exome Variant ServerST6GALNAC1
ExAC (Exome Aggregation Consortium)ST6GALNAC1 (select the gene name)
Genetic variants : HAPMAP55808
Genomic Variants (DGV)ST6GALNAC1 [DGVbeta]
DECIPHER (Syndromes)17:74620838-74639920  ENSG00000070526
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisST6GALNAC1 
Mutations
ICGC Data PortalST6GALNAC1 
TCGA Data PortalST6GALNAC1 
Broad Tumor PortalST6GALNAC1
OASIS PortalST6GALNAC1 [ Somatic mutations - Copy number]
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICST6GALNAC1  [overview]  [genome browser]  [tissue]  [distribution]  
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDST6GALNAC1
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
BioMutasearch ST6GALNAC1
DgiDB (Drug Gene Interaction Database)ST6GALNAC1
DoCM (Curated mutations)ST6GALNAC1 (select the gene name)
CIViC (Clinical Interpretations of Variants in Cancer)ST6GALNAC1 (select a term)
intoGenST6GALNAC1
NCG5 (London)ST6GALNAC1
Cancer3DST6GALNAC1(select the gene name)
Impact of mutations[PolyPhen2] [SIFT Human Coding SNP] [Buck Institute : MutDB] [Mutation Assessor] [Mutanalyser]
Diseases
OMIM610138   
Orphanet
MedgenST6GALNAC1
Genetic Testing Registry ST6GALNAC1
NextProtQ9NSC7 [Medical]
TSGene55808
GENETestsST6GALNAC1
Huge Navigator ST6GALNAC1 [HugePedia]
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease55808
BioCentury BCIQST6GALNAC1
ClinGenST6GALNAC1
Clinical trials, drugs, therapy
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD55808
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA134935906
Clinical trialST6GALNAC1
Miscellaneous
canSAR (ICR)ST6GALNAC1 (select the gene name)
Other databasehttp://www.cazy.org/fam/GT29.html
Probes
Litterature
PubMed16 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
GeneRIFsGene References Into Functions (Entrez)
CoreMineST6GALNAC1
EVEXST6GALNAC1
GoPubMedST6GALNAC1
iHOPST6GALNAC1
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year publicationsautomatic search in PubMed

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