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TYRO3 (TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase)

Identity

Other namesBrt
BYK
DTK
FLJ16467
RSE
SKY
Tif
HGNC (Hugo) TYRO3
LocusID (NCBI) 7301
Location 15q15.1
Location_base_pair Starts at 41851220 and ends at 41871536 bp from pter ( according to hg19-Feb_2009)  [Mapping]

DNA/RNA

 
  The cartoon depicts the structure of the TYRO3 gene (bottom) roughly aligned with the corresponding functional protein domains (top). The genomic DNA is represented by boxes (exons) and connecting lines (introns). The exons are drawn approximately 10-fold larger than the introns to facilitate alignment with the protein domains. The open ended boxes for exons 1 and 19 indicate untranslated regions which are not shown here. Exon 2 can be alternatively spliced resulting in transcripts containing either exon 2A, 2B, or 2C.
Description The human TYRO3 gene is located on chromosome 15q15.1 and contains 19 exons. By sequence analysis, exons 1-9 are predicted to encode the extracellular domain, exon 10 may encode the transmembrane domain and exons 11-19 are predicted to encode the intracellular domain. Within the extracellular domain, there are two immunoglobulin (Ig) domains (predicted to be encoded by exons 2-5) and two fibronectin (FN) type III domains (predicted to be encoded by exons 6-9). Exons 12-19 are predicted to encode the tyrosine kinase domain, within the intracellular region (Hubbard et al., 2009).
Transcription A 4.2 kilobase mRNA transcript of TYRO3 has been identified in several tissues, including brain, placenta, lung, heart, kidney, pancreas, ovary and testis (Polvi et al., 1993; Dai et al., 1994). Alternative splicing results in three different splice variants. Isoform I contains exon 2A, Isoform II contains exon 2B, while exon 2C is found in Isoform III. All three splice variants encode a transmembrane TYRO3 protein, but differ in the signal peptide sequence at the amino terminus (Biesecker et al., 1995; Lewis et al., 1996; Lu et al., 1999).

Protein

 
  The cartoon on the top depicts the domain structure of the TYRO3 receptor tyrosine kinase. The conserved sequence within the kinase domain is shown. The amino acids at positions three and five within the conserved sequence are leucine (L) residues in TYRO3 and isoleucine (I) residues in the related receptor tyrosine kinases, AXL and MERTK. The cartoon on the bottom depicts the domain structure of the ligands, Gas6 and Protein S, which share 43% homology. Thrombin cleavage sites are present in the loop region of Protein S, but not Gas6. Gas6 and Protein S are rendered active by vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain.
Description TYRO3 is synthesized as an 890 amino acid protein. The predicted molecular weight of TYRO3 is 97 kD, however, the extracellular domain contains sites for NH2-linked glycosylation. Due to the potential for post-translational modifications, TYRO3 proteins can range in size from 100 to 140 kD (Linger et al., 2008). The extracellular domain of the TYRO3 receptor contains two Ig domains (aa 60-117 for domain 1 and aa 156-203 for domain 2) and two FNIII domains (aa 224-313 for domain 1 and aa 322-409 for domain 2) (Ohashi et al., 1994). The two Ig domains and two FNIII domains define TYRO3 as a member of a family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), which also includes AXL and MERTK. TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases (Linger et al., 2008). The extracellular domain of TYRO3 is the ligand-binding region for the ligands GAS6 and Protein S. GAS6 has been shown to bind the TYRO3 receptor specifically in the Ig domains (Heiring et al., 2004).
The tyrosine kinase domain (aa 525-776) is within the intracellular region of the TYRO3 receptor. This kinase domain contains a signature motif, KW(I/L)A(I/L)ES, that is only found in the TAM receptor family members (Graham et al., 1994). Following ligand binding to the extracellular domain, the TYRO3 receptors dimerize and autophosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase domain occurs. In addition to ligand-dependent signaling, studies suggest that TYRO3 signaling can be initated through a ligand-independent mechanism (Taylor et al., 1995; Heiring et al., 2004). Three tyrosine residues (Y681, Y685, Y686) located within the activation loop of the kinase domain of the TYRO3 receptor correspond to three tyrosine residues in the MERTK receptor kinase domain, which have been identified as sites of autophosphorylation, however, there is no direct evidence that Y681, Y685, and Y686 are autophosphorylated in the TYRO3 receptor (Linger et al., 2008). TYRO3 phosphorylation has been linked to the activation of ERK1/ERK2 and AKT (Chen et al., 1997; Lan et al., 2000; Prieto et al., 2007), but the downstream signaling events following ligand binding of the TYRO3 receptor are poorly understood. Studies have shown potential interactions between TYRO3 and RanBMP, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and the p85 subunit of PI3K (via one of its SH2 domains), as well as members of the Src family kinases (Toshima et al., 1995; Lan et al., 2000; Hafizi et al., 2005).
Expression High levels of TYRO3 expression are detected in the nervous system, including the neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. TYRO3 is also expressed in monocytes, macrophages, platelets, dendritic cells and NK cells. TYRO3 has also been found in the breast, ovary, testis, lung, kidney, retinal pigment epithelium and osteoclasts (Linger et al., 2008). Upregulation of the TYRO3 receptor has been found in AML, CML, multiple myeloma, and melanoma, as well as uterine endometrial cancers (Sun et al., 2003; Linger et al., 2008; Zhu et al., 2009).
Localisation TYRO3 is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase.
Function TYRO3 activation and downstream signaling through MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT may facilitate the cellular functions of TYRO3, including actin reorganization/cell migration and cell survival. Within the brain, activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways via TYRO3 may lead to expression of genes involved in alterations in the consolidation of memories, addictive behaviors, and circadian rhythms, as well as modulating synaptic plasticity (Prieto et al., 2007). TYRO3 has also been shown to mediate the survival and migration of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons within the forebrain (Pierce et al., 2008). There is evidence suggesting that TYRO3 plays a role in the clearance of apoptotic cells by dendritic cells, and to a lesser extent, macrophages and is essential for NK cell maturation and differentiation (Caraux et al., 2006; Seitz et al., 2007). TYRO3 is necessary for normal platelet aggregation and clot stabilization (Angelillo-Scherrer et al., 2005). TYRO3 may also mediate cell entry by filoviruses (Shimojima et al., 2006). In addition to its functions within the brain and immune cells, TYRO3 is also involved in the reabsorption of bone by osteoclasts (Nakamura et al., 1998).
Homology The two Ig domains and two FNIII domains within the extracelluar domain of TYRO3 are shared with the other members of the TAM family, AXL and MERTK. Within the extracellular regions, the TAM receptors share 31-36% sequence identity (52-57% similarity). The protein sequences in the intracellular domains are 54-59% identical (72-75% similar), with higher homology in the tyrosine kinase domains (Graham et al., 1995).

Mutations

Note No mutations in TYRO3 have been documented.

Implicated in

Entity Malignancy
Disease TYRO3, as well as the other TAM receptor family members have been implicated in several malignant diseases. Studies have shown that TYRO3 expression is upregulated in AML, CML, multiple myeloma, endometrial cancer and melanoma (Liu et al., 1988; Crosier et al., 1995; De Vos et al., 2001; Sun et al., 2003; Zhu et al., 2009). In addition to TYRO3 overexpression in many cancers, it has also been shown to have transforming abilities (Lan et al., 2000). TYRO3, like its family members, may function as a prosurvival factor in tumorigenesis. In melanoma cells, TYRO3 knockdown inhibits proliferation and leads to increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro (Zhu et al., 2009).
  
Entity Autoimmune disease
Disease Triple mutant mice that lack all three TAM receptors (TYRO3, AXL and MERTK) have a lymphoproliferative disorder of broad-spectrum autoimmunity. Specifically, triple mutant mice have high titers of auto-antibodies to nucleoproteins, dsDNA and collagen, leading to the development of diseases resembling rheumatoid arthritis, pemphigus vulgaris and systemic lupus erythematosus (Lu et al., 2001). These finding suggest a role for TYRO3 in regulation of the immune system however, no human cases have been reported.
  

External links

Nomenclature
HGNC (Hugo)TYRO3   12446
Cards
AtlasTYRO3ID42739ch15q15
Entrez_Gene (NCBI)TYRO3  7301  TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase
GeneCards (Weizmann)TYRO3
Ensembl (Hinxton)ENSG00000092445 [Gene_View]  chr15:41851220-41871536 [Contig_View]  TYRO3 [Vega]
ICGC DataPortalENSG00000092445
AceView (NCBI)TYRO3
Genatlas (Paris)TYRO3
WikiGenes7301
SOURCE (Princeton)NM_006293
Genomic and cartography
GoldenPath (UCSC)TYRO3  -  15q15.1   chr15:41851220-41871536 +  15q15.1-q21.1   [Description]    (hg19-Feb_2009)
EnsemblTYRO3 - 15q15.1-q21.1 [CytoView]
Mapping of homologs : NCBITYRO3 [Mapview]
OMIM600341   
Gene and transcription
Genbank (Entrez)AB209431 AK022124 AK131389 AK295496 BC029925
RefSeq transcript (Entrez)NM_006293
RefSeq genomic (Entrez)AC_000147 NC_000015 NC_018926 NG_033013 NT_010194 NW_001838214 NW_004929398
Consensus coding sequences : CCDS (NCBI)TYRO3
Cluster EST : UnigeneHs.381282 [ NCBI ]
CGAP (NCI)Hs.381282
Alternative Splicing : Fast-db (Paris)GSHG0009801
Alternative Splicing GalleryENSG00000092445
Gene ExpressionTYRO3 [ NCBI-GEO ]     TYRO3 [ SEEK ]   TYRO3 [ MEM ]
Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure
UniProt/SwissProtQ06418 (Uniprot)
NextProtQ06418  [Medical]
With graphics : InterProQ06418
Splice isoforms : SwissVarQ06418 (Swissvar)
Catalytic activity : Enzyme2.7.10.1 [ Enzyme-Expasy ]   2.7.10.12.7.10.1 [ IntEnz-EBI ]   2.7.10.1 [ BRENDA ]   2.7.10.1 [ KEGG ]   
Domaine pattern : Prosite (Expaxy)FN3 (PS50853)    IG_LIKE (PS50835)    PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP (PS00107)    PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM (PS50011)    PROTEIN_KINASE_TYR (PS00109)   
Domains : Interpro (EBI)Fibronectin_type3    Ig-like_dom    Ig-like_fold    Ig_I-set    Ig_sub    Ig_sub2    Kinase-like_dom    Prot_kinase_dom    Protein_kinase_ATP_BS    Ser-Thr/Tyr_kinase_cat_dom    Tyr_kinase_AS    Tyr_kinase_cat_dom   
Related proteins : CluSTrQ06418
Domain families : Pfam (Sanger)fn3 (PF00041)    I-set (PF07679)    Pkinase_Tyr (PF07714)   
Domain families : Pfam (NCBI)pfam00041    pfam07679    pfam07714   
Domain families : Smart (EMBL)FN3 (SM00060)  IG (SM00409)  IGc2 (SM00408)  TyrKc (SM00219)  
DMDM Disease mutations7301
Blocks (Seattle)Q06418
PDB (SRS)1RHF   
PDB (PDBSum)1RHF   
PDB (IMB)1RHF   
PDB (RSDB)1RHF   
Human Protein AtlasENSG00000092445
Peptide AtlasQ06418
HPRD02641
IPIIPI00030887   IPI01010120   IPI00976181   
Protein Interaction databases
DIP (DOE-UCLA)Q06418
IntAct (EBI)Q06418
FunCoupENSG00000092445
BioGRIDTYRO3
InParanoidQ06418
Interologous Interaction database Q06418
IntegromeDBTYRO3
STRING (EMBL)TYRO3
Ontologies - Pathways
Ontology : AmiGOnatural killer cell differentiation  protein tyrosine kinase activity  transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity  receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity  protein binding  ATP binding  nucleus  nuclear envelope  endoplasmic reticulum membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  cell adhesion  signal transduction  spermatogenesis  phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  forebrain cell migration  signal transduction by phosphorylation  platelet activation  secretion by cell  negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway  substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading  ovulation cycle  apoptotic cell clearance  protein kinase B signaling  negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding  negative regulation of innate immune response  protein autophosphorylation  protein heterodimerization activity  negative regulation of inflammatory response  negative regulation of lymphocyte activation  vagina development  neuron cellular homeostasis  platelet aggregation  
Ontology : EGO-EBInatural killer cell differentiation  protein tyrosine kinase activity  transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity  receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity  protein binding  ATP binding  nucleus  nuclear envelope  endoplasmic reticulum membrane  integral component of plasma membrane  cell adhesion  signal transduction  spermatogenesis  phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  forebrain cell migration  signal transduction by phosphorylation  platelet activation  secretion by cell  negative regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway  substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading  ovulation cycle  apoptotic cell clearance  protein kinase B signaling  negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding  negative regulation of innate immune response  protein autophosphorylation  protein heterodimerization activity  negative regulation of inflammatory response  negative regulation of lymphocyte activation  vagina development  neuron cellular homeostasis  platelet aggregation  
Protein Interaction DatabaseTYRO3
Wikipedia pathwaysTYRO3
Gene fusion - rearrangments
Polymorphisms : SNP, mutations, diseases
SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (NCBI)TYRO3
SNP (GeneSNP Utah)TYRO3
SNP : HGBaseTYRO3
Genetic variants : HAPMAPTYRO3
1000_GenomesTYRO3 
ICGC programENSG00000092445 
CONAN: Copy Number AnalysisTYRO3 
Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMICTYRO3 
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)Whole genome datasets
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD - Leiden Open Variation Database
LOVD (Leiden Open Variation Database)LOVD 3.0 shared installation
Mutations and Diseases : HGMDTYRO3
OMIM600341   
MedgenTYRO3
GENETestsTYRO3
Disease Genetic AssociationTYRO3
Huge Navigator TYRO3 [HugePedia]  TYRO3 [HugeCancerGEM]
Genomic VariantsTYRO3  TYRO3 [DGVbeta]
Exome VariantTYRO3
dbVarTYRO3
ClinVarTYRO3
snp3D : Map Gene to Disease7301
General knowledge
Homologs : HomoloGeneTYRO3
Homology/Alignments : Family Browser (UCSC)TYRO3
Phylogenetic Trees/Animal Genes : TreeFamTYRO3
Chemical/Protein Interactions : CTD7301
Chemical/Pharm GKB GenePA37097
Clinical trialTYRO3
Cancer Resource (Charite)ENSG00000092445
Other databases
Probes
Litterature
PubMed46 Pubmed reference(s) in Entrez
CoreMineTYRO3
iHOPTYRO3

Bibliography

Transforming genes in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Liu E, Hjelle B, Bishop JM.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Mar;85(6):1952-6.
PMID 3279421
 
The human TYRO3 gene and pseudogene are located in chromosome 15q14-q25.
Polvi A, Armstrong E, Lai C, Lemke G, Huebner K, Spritz RA, Guida LC, Nicholls RD, Alitalo K.
Gene. 1993 Dec 8;134(2):289-93.
PMID 8262388
 
Molecular cloning of a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, tif, highly expressed in human ovary and testis.
Dai W, Pan H, Hassanain H, Gupta SL, Murphy MJ Jr.
Oncogene. 1994 Mar;9(3):975-9.
PMID 8108143
 
Cloning and mRNA expression analysis of a novel human protooncogene, c-mer.
Graham DK, Dawson TL, Mullaney DL, Snodgrass HR, Earp HS.
Cell Growth Differ. 1994 Jun;5(6):647-57.
PMID 8086340
 
Cloning of the cDNA for a novel receptor tyrosine kinase, Sky, predominantly expressed in brain.
Ohashi K, Mizuno K, Kuma K, Miyata T, Nakamura T.
Oncogene. 1994 Mar;9(3):699-705.
PMID 8108112
 
Identification of alternative exons, including a novel exon, in the tyrosine kinase receptor gene Etk2/tyro3 that explain differences in 5' cDNA sequences.
Biesecker LG, Giannola DM, Emerson SG.
Oncogene. 1995 Jun 1;10(11):2239-42.
PMID 7784069
 
Identification of a novel receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in acute myeloid leukemic blasts.
Crosier PS, Hall LR, Vitas MR, Lewis PM, Crosier KE.
Leuk Lymphoma. 1995 Aug;18(5-6):443-9.
PMID 8528051
 
Cloning and developmental expression analysis of the murine c-mer tyrosine kinase.
Graham DK, Bowman GW, Dawson TL, Stanford WL, Earp HS, Snodgrass HR.
Oncogene. 1995 Jun 15;10(12):2349-59.
PMID 7784083
 
Overexpression of the Sky receptor tyrosine kinase at the cell surface or in the cytoplasm results in ligand-independent activation.
Taylor IC, Roy S, Varmus HE.
Oncogene. 1995 Dec 21;11(12):2619-26.
PMID 8545119
 
Autophosphorylation activity and association with Src family kinase of Sky receptor tyrosine kinase.
Toshima J, Ohashi K, Iwashita S, Mizuno K.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Apr 17;209(2):656-63.
PMID 7537495
 
Analysis of the murine Dtk gene identifies conservation of genomic structure within a new receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily.
Lewis PM, Crosier KE, Wood CR, Crosier PS.
Genomics. 1996 Jan 1;31(1):13-9.
PMID 8808274
 
Identification of Gas6 as a ligand for Mer, a neural cell adhesion molecule related receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in cellular transformation.
Chen J, Carey K, Godowski PJ.
Oncogene. 1997 May 1;14(17):2033-9.
PMID 9160883
 
Tyro 3 receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand, Gas6, stimulate the function of osteoclasts.
Nakamura YS, Hakeda Y, Takakura N, Kameda T, Hamaguchi I, Miyamoto T, Kakudo S, Nakano T, Kumegawa M, Suda T.
Stem Cells. 1998;16(3):229-38.
PMID 9617898
 
Tyro-3 family receptors are essential regulators of mammalian spermatogenesis.
Lu Q, Gore M, Zhang Q, Camenisch T, Boast S, Casagranda F, Lai C, Skinner MK, Klein R, Matsushima GK, Earp HS, Goff SP, Lemke G.
Nature. 1999 Apr 22;398(6729):723-8.
PMID 10227296
 
Transforming activity of receptor tyrosine kinase tyro3 is mediated, at least in part, by the PI3 kinase-signaling pathway.
Lan Z, Wu H, Li W, Wu S, Lu L, Xu M, Dai W.
Blood. 2000 Jan 15;95(2):633-8.
PMID 10627473
 
Identifying intercellular signaling genes expressed in malignant plasma cells by using complementary DNA arrays.
De Vos J, Couderc G, Tarte K, Jourdan M, Requirand G, Delteil MC, Rossi JF, Mechti N, Klein B.
Blood. 2001 Aug 1;98(3):771-80.
PMID 11468178
 
Homeostatic regulation of the immune system by receptor tyrosine kinases of the Tyro 3 family.
Lu Q, Lemke G.
Science. 2001 Jul 13;293(5528):306-11.
PMID 11452127
 
Coexpression of growth arrest-specific gene 6 and receptor tyrosine kinases Axl and Sky in human uterine endometrial cancers.
Sun WS, Fujimoto J, Tamaya T.
Ann Oncol. 2003 Jun;14(6):898-906.
PMID 12796028
 
Ligand recognition and homophilic interactions in Tyro3: structural insights into the Axl/Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase family.
Heiring C, Dahlback B, Muller YA.
J Biol Chem. 2004 Feb 20;279(8):6952-8. Epub 2003 Nov 17.
PMID 14623883
 
Role of Gas6 receptors in platelet signaling during thrombus stabilization and implications for antithrombotic therapy.
Angelillo-Scherrer A, Burnier L, Flores N, Savi P, DeMol M, Schaeffer P, Herbert JM, Lemke G, Goff SP, Matsushima GK, Earp HS, Vesin C, Hoylaerts MF, Plaisance S, Collen D, Conway EM, Wehrle-Haller B, Carmeliet P.
J Clin Invest. 2005 Feb;115(2):237-46.
PMID 15650770
 
The Ran binding protein RanBPM interacts with Axl and Sky receptor tyrosine kinases.
Hafizi S, Gustafsson A, Stenhoff J, Dahlback B.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005 Nov;37(11):2344-56.
PMID 15964779
 
Natural killer cell differentiation driven by Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinases.
Caraux A, Lu Q, Fernandez N, Riou S, Di Santo JP, Raulet DH, Lemke G, Roth C.
Nat Immunol. 2006 Jul;7(7):747-54. Epub 2006 Jun 4.
PMID 16751775
 
Tyro3 family-mediated cell entry of Ebola and Marburg viruses.
Shimojima M, Takada A, Ebihara H, Neumann G, Fujioka K, Irimura T, Jones S, Feldmann H, Kawaoka Y.
J Virol. 2006 Oct;80(20):10109-16.
PMID 17005688
 
Localization and signaling of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase Tyro3 in cortical and hippocampal neurons.
Prieto AL, O'Dell S, Varnum B, Lai C.
Neuroscience. 2007 Dec 5;150(2):319-34. Epub 2007 Sep 26.
PMID 17980494
 
Macrophages and dendritic cells use different Axl/Mertk/Tyro3 receptors in clearance of apoptotic cells.
Seitz HM, Camenisch TD, Lemke G, Earp HS, Matsushima GK.
J Immunol. 2007 May 1;178(9):5635-42.
PMID 17442946
 
TAM receptor tyrosine kinases: biologic functions, signaling, and potential therapeutic targeting in human cancer.
Linger RM, Keating AK, Earp HS, Graham DK.
Adv Cancer Res. 2008;100:35-83.
PMID 18620092
 
Axl and Tyro3 modulate female reproduction by influencing gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration.
Pierce A, Bliesner B, Xu M, Nielsen-Preiss S, Lemke G, Tobet S, Wierman ME.
Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Nov;22(11):2481-95. Epub 2008 Sep 11.
PMID 18787040
 
Ensembl 2009.
Hubbard TJ, Aken BL, Ayling S, Ballester B, Beal K, Bragin E, Brent S, Chen Y, Clapham P, Clarke L, Coates G, Fairley S, Fitzgerald S, Fernandez-Banet J, Gordon L, Graf S, Haider S, Hammond M, Holland R, Howe K, Jenkinson A, Johnson N, Kahari A, Keefe D, Keenan S, Kinsella R, Kokocinski F, Kulesha E, Lawson D, Longden I, Megy K, Meidl P, Overduin B, Parker A, Pritchard B, Rios D, Schuster M, Slater G, Smedley D, Spooner W, Spudich G, Trevanion S, Vilella A, Vogel J, White S, Wilder S, Zadissa A, Birney E, Cunningham F, Curwen V, Durbin R, Fernandez-Suarez XM, Herrero J, Kasprzyk A, Proctor G, Smith J, Searle S, Flicek P.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jan;37(Database issue):D690-7. Epub 2008 Nov 25.
PMID 19033362
 
A genomic screen identifies TYRO3 as a MITF regulator in melanoma.
Zhu S, Wurdak H, Wang Y, Galkin A, Tao H, Li J, Lyssiotis CA, Yan F, Tu BP, Miraglia L, Walker J, Sun F, Orth A, Schultz PG, Wu X.
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PMID 19805117
 
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Contributor(s)

Written01-2010Kristen M Jacobsen, Rachel MA Linger, Douglas K Graham
Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Jacobsen, KM ; Linger, RMA ; Graham, DK
TYRO3 (TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2010;14(11):-.
Free online version   Free pdf version   [Bibliographic record ]
URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Genes/TYRO3ID42739ch15q15.html

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indexed on : Mon Oct 13 13:36:29 CEST 2014

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