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Carney complex (CNC)

Written2004-08Constantine A Stratakis, Ludmila Matyakhina
Unit on Genetics &Endocrinology (UGEN), DEB, NICHD, NIH, Building 10, Room 10N262, 10 Center Drive, MSC 1862, Bethesda, MD 20892-1862, USA

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Atlas_Id 10080
Genes implicated inCNC2  PRKAR1A  
Note A multiple neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac and other myxomas, endocrine tumors, psammomatous melanotic schwannomas and other tumors.
Inheritance A genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance for CNC1 (penetrance for CNC1 due to PRKARIA defects is close to 100%); this estimate of penetrance does not apply to kindreds with CNC2 because the CNC2 gene (s) is still unknown. Most of the cases of CNC (70%) are familial.


Phenotype and clinics Developmental disorder. In some cases the disease is diagnosed at birth. Onset of the disease occurs commonly at a young age and the median age at detection is 20 years.

Spotty skin pigmentation lesions, such as lentigines (small, brown to black, non or slightly elevated, round or irregular) and blue nevi (large, blue to black, domed lesion) observed primarily in the face, eyelids, ears, and borders of the lips are the most common clinical manifestation of CNC (77%). Lentigines tend to fade with the age, usually after the fourth decade of life.

Myxomas are frequent lesions in CNC patients; heart myxomas (53%) occur multicentrically, and in any, or all, cardiac chambers; skin myxomas (33%) are detected in the eyelid, the external ear canal, the nipple, the oropharynx, the female genital tract and the female pelvis. Breast myxomas are often bilateral and present in more than 70% of adult women with CNC.

Psammomatous melanotic shwannomas , very rare tumors (10%), may occur anywhere in the peripheral nervous system, but most frequently in the gastrointestinal tract and paraspinal symphatetic chain.

Breast ductal adenomas, unusual mammary tumors akin to intraductal papillomas have been detected in 3% of CNC cases.

Endocrine lesions in CNC include testicular neoplasms (33%), primary pigmented nodule adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) (26%), growth hormone (GH) and prolactin-producing pituitary tumors (14%) and thyroid cancer (5%).

Neoplastic risk
  • Skin lesions are benign.
  • Heart, skin and breast myxomas are benign lesions.
  • Psammomatous melanotic shwannoma may be malignant and metastasizes aggressively to lungs, brain and other organs
  • Breast ductal adenomas are benign but malignancy was detected in one case
  • Testicular tumors are almost always benign; metastasis has been reported only in one older patient.
  • PPNAD in CNC is always benign.
  • Growth hormone and prolactin-producing pituitary tumors are benign lesions.
  • Thyroid neoplasms may also become malignant.
  • Treatment Annual studies: echocardiogram (note that in pediatric patients it should be done during the first 6 months of life and annually thereafter), measurement of urinary free cortisol and serum IGF-1 levels, thyroid ultrasonography, testicular ultrasonography for male and transabdominal pelvic ultrasonography for females; surgery when necessary. Additional clinical and imaging studies may be necessary for the detection of PPNAD and GH-producing pituitary adenoma.
    Prognosis According to the severity of the disease in a given patient, and to the quality of a regular follow up, life span is decreased in patients with CNC. 57% of the deaths are due to heart related causes; others due to the postoperative complications or evolution of the maligant process; a presymptomatic diagnosis improves survival data and might prevent earlier the main causes of death in this disease.

    Genes involved and Proteins

    Gene NamePRKAR1A
    Alias HGNC:9388 CAR CNC1 MGC17251 PKR1 PRKAR1 TSE1
    Location 17q23-24
    Note Mutations in PRKARIA are found in about 46 % of cases of CNC syndrome; there is genetic heterogeneity, and unknown gene(s) on 2p16 is probably also responsible for the disease.
    Description 10 exons
    Description 48 kDa; contains two tandem cAMP-binding domains at the C-terminus and the dimerization domain at the N-terminus that serves also as a docking site for A Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs).
    Expression Ubiquitously expressed, in particular in brain, endocrine tissues, adipose tissue and bone.
    Function The function of PRKAR1A is to bind cAMP and regulate the function of the catalytic subunits of the protein kinase A (PKA) holoenzyme. Two regulatory subunits bind two catalytic subunits forming an inactive PKA tetramer. Activation of PKA occurs when 2 cAMP molecules bind to each regulatory subunit eliciting a reversible conformational change that releases active catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits of PKA have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. It may act as a tumor-suppressor in CNC and other tumors.
    Germinal Most mutations are null alleles; they are dispersed through the coding region of the gene, involving every exon except 4A, 9 and 10.
    Somatic Many of CNC tumors show loss of heterozygosity.

    Gene NameCNC2
    Location 2p16
    Description Unknown
    Function Unknown
    Somatic Many of CNC tumors show amplification or deletion of the 2p16 region.


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    Molecular analysis of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit 1A (PRKAR1A) gene in patients with Carney complex and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) reveals novel mutations and clues for pathophysiology: augmented PKA signaling is associated with adrenal tumorigenesis in PPNAD.
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    Pituitary adenoma in Carney complex: an immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and immunoelectron microscopic study.
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    Ovarian tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasias and related syndromes (Carney complex, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, von Hippel-Lindau disease, Cowden's disease).
    Papageorgiou T, Stratakis CA
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    PMID 12144681
    PRKAR1A, one of the Carney complex genes, and its locus (17q22-24) are rarely altered in pituitary tumours outside the Carney complex.
    Sandrini F, Kirschner LS, Bei T, Farmakidis C, Yasufuku-Takano J, Takano K, Prezant TR, Marx SJ, Farrell WE, Clayton RN, Groussin L, Bertherat J, Stratakis CA
    Journal of medical genetics. 2002 ; 39 (12) : page e78.
    PMID 12471216
    Chromosome 2 (2p16) abnormalities in Carney complex tumours.
    Matyakhina L, Pack S, Kirschner LS, Pak E, Mannan P, Jaikumar J, Taymans SE, Sandrini F, Carney JA, Stratakis CA
    Journal of medical genetics. 2003 ; 40 (4) : 268-277.
    PMID 12676898
    Clinical and molecular genetics of Carney complex.
    Sandrini F, Stratakis C
    Molecular genetics and metabolism. 2003 ; 78 (2) : 83-92.
    PMID 12666684
    Human tumors associated with Carney complex and germline PRKAR1A mutations: a protein kinase A disease!
    Stergiopoulos SG, Stratakis CA
    FEBS letters. 2003 ; 546 (1) : 59-64.
    PMID 12829237
    A typical Korean case of Carney complex.
    Yoon HD, Shon HS
    The Korean journal of internal medicine. 2003 ; 18 (4) : 260-265.
    PMID 14717239


    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Stratakis, CA ; Matyakhina, L
    Carney complex (CNC)
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2004;8(4):336-339.
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