Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology


Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumours   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA

Uterus: High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with t(10;17)(q22-23;p13) YWHAE/NUTM2A-B

Written2013-04Arnold-Jan Kruse, Sabrina Croce, Roy FPM Kruitwagen, Robert G Riedl, Brigitte FM Slangen, Toon Van Gorp, Koen K Van de Vijver
GROW, School for Oncology, Developmental Biology (AJK, RFPMK, BFMS, TVG), Departments of Obstetrics, Gynaecology (AJK, RFPMK, BFMS, TVG), Pathology (RGR), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands, Department of Pathology, Institut Bergonie (SC), Bordeaux, France, Department of Pathology (KKVdV), The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)

Abstract

Abstract Review on High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, with data on clinics, and the genes involved.

Identity

ICD-Topo C540-C543,C548-C549
ICD-Morpho 8930/3
Atlas_Id 6649
Phylum Female organs: Uterus: Uterine Corpus Neoplasia: Mesenchymal neoplasia: Endometrial stromal tumors: High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma

Classification

    According to the 2003 World Health Organization classification, malignant endometrial stromal sarcomas are categorized as low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) and undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UES) (Tavassoli, et al, 2003). In general, patients with ESS have a favourable prognosis, and behave in a relatively indolent manner. It has been shown that ESSs of the type associated with YWHAE-NUTM2 fusion have a more aggressive clinical behaviour, and poorer prognosis compared to conventional ESS. This is more adequately reflected by the revised WHO 2014 classification in which this subset of ESS is now classified as high-grade ESS (Kurman et al, 2014).

Clinics and Pathology

Note The tumour is derived from endometrial stromal cells.
Epidemiology Rare tumour whose true frequency is unknown, as tumours previously considered undifferentiated uterine sarcoma may belong to this category.
Clinics A total of 20 patients with YWHAE-NUTM2 ESS are identified thus far (Lee et al, 2012, Croce et al, 2013, Kruse et al, 2014). The median age of the patients was 50 years (range 28-67 years) which is in line with the median age in conventional ESS (Tavassoli et al, 2003).The most common symptoms of YWHAE-NUTM2 ESS were abnormal vaginal bleeding, and an enlarged uterus presenting as a pelvic mass, symptoms which occur also frequently in women with conventional ESS. Stage was known for 17 patients, including 6 patients with stage I, 6 with stage II, 4 with stage III, and 1 patient with stage IV disease.
Pathology The clinic-pathological features of YWHAE-NUTM2 ESS have been described by Lee et al (Lee et al, 2012, Lee et al, 2012). In the recently published 2014 WHO classification, ESS are subdivided into low-grade and high-grade ESS, in which the high-grade ESS typically harbours the YWHAE-NUTM2 genetic fusion (Kurman et al, 2014). Although it has been found that FISH analysis demonstrated absolute specificity of this genetic fusion for high-grade ESS, a considerable number of high-grade ESS is negative according to the literature (5 of 12 cases (42%)) (Lee et al, 2012). In the 2014 WHO classification, high-grade ESS has been defined as a malignant tumour of endometrial stromal derivation with high-grade, round cell morphology sometimes associated with a low-grade spindle cell (fibroblastic) component that is most commonly fibromyxoid.. Immunohistochemistry may be of help to differentiate between conventional ESS and YWHAE-NUTM2 ESS, reviewed recently (Chiang et al, 2013). The neoplastic cells of low-grade ESS are immunoreactive for CD10 and at least focally for actin. They are usually, but not always negative for desmin and h-caldesmon. Low-grade ESS is almost always positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors. The spindle cell component of YWHAE-NUTM2 ESS is typically diffusely positive for CD10, ER, and PR, similar to the immunoprofile of conventional low-grade ESS, whereas the round cell component is consistently CD10-negative and shows absent to only focal, weak to moderate ER and PR staining. The cyclin D1 immunostain is quite discriminatory in this context (Lee et al, 2012), and recently Lee et al. found frequent expression of KIT in the high-grade round cell component, but lacking KIT hotspot mutations (Lee et al, 2014). The high-grade component shows strong membranous/cytoplasmic KIT staining and strong diffuse nuclear cyclin D1 positivity in more than 70% of tumour cells. The low-grade spindle cell component shows weak cytoplasmic KIT staining and weak to variable, heterogeneous cylin D1 expression. Conventional ESSs are typically negative for cyclin D1 expression.
Treatment Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and debulking if applicable.
Prognosis Follow-up information was available for 16 patients of the 20 abovementioned patients. Three patients died of their disease within 24 months, 1 patient had no evidence of disease, 4 patients developed recurrent disease, within 6, 12, and 18 months respectively. Four patients were alive with disease, no further information was available. Patients with high-grade ESS appear to have a prognosis that is intermediate between low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas and undifferentiated sarcoma.

Cytogenetics

Note NOTE High-grade ESS typically harbours a rearrangement that consists of a fusion between the YWHAE and NUTM2A/B (previously known as FAM22A/B) genes subsequent to a t(10;17) (q22;p13). Although it has been found that FISH analysis demonstrated absolute specificity of this genetic fusion for high-grade ESS, a considerable number of high-grade ESS is negative according to the literature (5 of 12 cases (42%)) (Lee et al, 2012).
Cytogenetics Molecular It has been shown that the use of FISH or RT-PCR studies may confirm the presence of YWHAE-NUTM2 genetic fusion in cases with a histo-pathological appearance as described above (Lee et al, 2012). Croce et al recommend to test for YWHAE rearrangements by FISH break-apart for ESS cases with high-grade morphology, and to complete the investigation by RT-PCR in borderline cases (Croce et al, 2013). It is important to note that it is not known whether discordance between FISH break-apart and RT-PCR results reflects a true biological reality (Croce et al). It is assumed that FISH break-apart is more sensitive than RT-PCR. This could be explained by the involvement of more partners (some unknown) in the translocation. It has been suggested that the threshold for FISH positivity of 30% of cells with rearrangements seems to be the reference cutoff. However, the authors state that the biological significance of some cells (up to 20%) with YWHAE rearrangements is still unexplained.

Genes involved and Proteins

Gene Name NUTM2A
Location 10q23.2
Note or NUTM2B , located in 10q22.3
Protein Further analysis of NUTM2A/B protein sequences revealed a bipartite nuclear localisation sequence (Arg-805 to Arg-822) encoded by exons 7 of NUTM2A and NUTM2B.

Gene Name YWHAE
Location 17p13.3
Protein The gene product of YWHAE gene belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins, cytoskeletal configuration, metabolism, differentiation, survival, and transcription in eukaryotic cells (Mackintosh C, 2004).

Result of the chromosomal anomaly

Hybrid Gene
Note It has been shown that the use of FISH or RT-PCR studies may confirm the presence of YWHAE-NUTM2 genetic fusion in cases with a histopathological appearance as described above (Lee et al, 2012). Croce et al recommend to test for YWHAE rearrengements by FISH break-apart for ESS cases with high-grade morphology, and to complete the investigation by RT-PCR in borderline cases (Croce et al, 2013). It is important to note that it is not known whether discordance between FISH break-apart and RT-PCR results reflects a true biological reality (Croce et al). It is assumed that FISH break-apart is more sensitive than RT-PCR. This could be explained by the involvement of more partners (some unknown) in the translocation. It has been suggested that the threshold for FISH positivity of 30% of cells with rearrangements seems to be the reference cutoff. However, the authors state that the biological significance of some cells (up to 20%) with YWHAE rearrangements is still unexplained.
Description The translocation produces an in-frame fusion gene that is comprised of exons 1-5 of YWHAE and exons 2-7 of NUTM2A/B.
Fusion Protein
Description YWHAE- NUTM2A/B oncogenic fusion results in nuclear accumulation of the functionally intact YWHAE protein-interaction domain. Known cytoplasmic YWHAE protein-protein interactions are thereby likely redirected to the nuclear compartment (Lee et al, 2012).
  

Bibliography

YWHAE rearrangement identified by FISH and RT-PCR in endometrial stromal sarcomas: genetic and pathological correlations
Croce S, Hostein I, Ribeiro A, Garbay D, Velasco V, Stoeckle E, Guyon F, Floquet A, Neuville A, Coindre JM, MacGrogan G, Chibon F
Mod Pathol 2013 Oct;26(10):1390-400
PMID 23599159
 
Aggressive behavior and poor prognosis of endometrial stromal sarcomas with YWHAE-FAM22 rearrangement indicate the clinical importance to recognize this subset
Kruse AJ, Croce S, Kruitwagen RF, Riedl RG, Slangen BF, Van Gorp T, Van de Vijver KK
Int J Gynecol Cancer 2014 Nov;24(9):1616-22
PMID 25244606
 
World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Female Reproductive Organs.
Kurman RJ, Carcangiu ML, Herrington CS, Young RH.
Lyon: IARC Press; 2014.
 
Cyclin D1 as a diagnostic immunomarker for endometrial stromal sarcoma with YWHAE-FAM22 rearrangement
Lee CH, Ali RH, Rouzbahman M, Marino-Enriquez A, Zhu M, Guo X, Brunner AL, Chiang S, Leung S, Nelnyk N, Huntsman DG, Blake Gilks C, Nielsen TO, Dal Cin P, van de Rijn M, Oliva E, Fletcher JA, Nucci MR
Am J Surg Pathol 2012 Oct;36(10):1562-70
PMID 22982899
 
Frequent expression of KIT in endometrial stromal sarcoma with YWHAE genetic rearrangement
Lee CH, Hoang LN, Yip S, Reyes C, Marino-Enriquez A, Eilers G, Tao D, Chiang S, Fletcher JA, Soslow RA, Nucci MR, Oliva E
Mod Pathol 2014 May;27(5):751-7
PMID 24186140
 
The clinicopathologic features of YWHAE-FAM22 endometrial stromal sarcomas: a histologically high-grade and clinically aggressive tumor
Lee CH, Mariño-Enriquez A, Ou W, Zhu M, Ali RH, Chiang S, Amant F, Gilks CB, van de Rijn M, Oliva E, Debiec-Rychter M, Dal Cin P, Fletcher JA, Nucci MR
Am J Surg Pathol 2012 May;36(5):641-53
PMID 22456610
 
14-3-3 fusion oncogenes in high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma
Lee CH, Ou WB, Mariño-Enriquez A, Zhu M, Mayeda M, Wang Y, Guo X, Brunner AL, Amant F, French CA, West RB, McAlpine JN, Gilks CB, Yaffe MB, Prentice LM, McPherson A, Jones SJ, Marra MA, Shah SP, van de Rijn M, Huntsman DG, Dal Cin P, Debiec-Rychter M, Nucci MR, Fletcher JA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Jan 17;109(3):929-34
PMID 22223660
 
Dynamic interactions between 14-3-3 proteins and phosphoproteins regulate diverse cellular processes
Mackintosh C
Biochem J 2004 Jul 15;381(Pt 2):329-42
PMID 15167810
 
World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Breast and Female Genital Organs.
Tavassoli FA, Devilee P.
Lyon: IARC Press; 2003.
 

Citation

This paper should be referenced as such :
Kruse AJ, Croce S, Kruitwagen RFPM, Riedl RG, Slangen BFM, Van Gorp T, Van de Vijver KK.
Uterus: High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with t(10;17)(q22-23;p13) YWHAE/NUTM2A-
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. in press
On line version : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Tumors/EndometStromalSarcYWHAE-NUTM2ID6649.html


Translocations implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

 t(10;17)(q22;p13)
 t(10;17)(q23;p13)

External links

Mitelman database t(10;17)(q22;p13) [Case List]    t(10;17)(q22;p13) [Association List] Mitelman database (CGAP - NCBI)
Mitelman database t(10;17)(q23;p13) [Case List]    t(10;17)(q23;p13) [Association List] Mitelman database (CGAP - NCBI)
arrayMap arrayMap ((UZH-SIB Zurich)   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
 
 
Disease databaseUterus: High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with t(10;17)(q22-23;p13) YWHAE/NUTM2A-B
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year articlesautomatic search in PubMed


© Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
indexed on : Wed Jan 18 15:19:20 CET 2017


Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumours   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

For comments and suggestions or contributions, please contact us

jlhuret@AtlasGeneticsOncology.org.