Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumors   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA

Bone: Subungual exostosis with t(X;6)(q13;q22) COL4A5/COL12A1

Written2007-07Clelia Tiziana Storlazzi, Fredrik Mertens
Department of Genetics, Microbiology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy (CTS); Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (FM)

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


ICD-Topo C400-C403,C408-C414,C418-C419 BONES & JOINTS
Atlas_Id 5526
Phylum Bones::Subungual exostosis
WHO/OMS Classification Bones
Other namesDupuytren's exostosis


Note Benign bone-producing neoplasm of unknown cellular origin.

Clinics and Pathology

Disease Subungual exostosis.
Phenotype / cell stem origin Unknown.
Embryonic origin Unknown.
Etiology Unknown.
Epidemiology Affects children and young adults.
Clinics Subungual exostosis usually presents as a slowly growing, painful mass localized dorsomedially in the distal phalanx, and in contrast to osteochondroma, there is usually no continuity with the underlying cortex.
Treatment Surgical excision, but local recurrences are not uncommon.
Prognosis Excellent.


Partial G-banding karyotype showing chromosomes 6 and X in a case of subungual exostosis. The arrows indicate the breakpoints.
Cytogenetics Molecular A Probe specific for COL12A1 (RP11-815E21) identified the breakpoint in 6q14.1, as it showed splitting signals on der(X) and der(6). On the same chromosomes, these signals colocalized with the signals of RP11-815E21, encompassing the COL4A5 and IRS4 genes in band Xq22.3.
FISH experiment revealing the breakpoint regions on both chromosomes 6 and X on a case of subungual exostosis.
Probes RP11-815E21 (COL4A5 and IRS4); RP11-1072D13 (COL12A1).
Variants The breakpoint on chromosome 6 could be centromeric to COL4A5, in an unknown location.

Genes involved and Proteins

Gene NameCOL4A5 (collagen type IV alpha 5 chain)
Location Xq22.3
Note It is currently unknown whether any of these two genes is involved in the pathogenesis of subungual exostosis.
Dna / Rna Genomic (chrX:107,569,810-107,827,431). Three transcript variants: isoform 1 (NM_000495), isoform 2 (NM_033380), isoform 3 (NM_03338).
Protein Three proteins, respectively encoded by the isoform 1 (695 aa), isoform 2 (1691 aa), and isoform 3 (1688 aa).

Gene NameCOL12A1 (collagen type XII alpha 1 chain)
Location 6q13
Dna / Rna Genomic (chr6:75,850,762-75,972,343). Two transcript variants, a long (NM_004370) and a short isoform (NM_080645).
Protein Two proteins: 1899 amino acids (aa) and 3063 aa, respectively encoded by the short and long transcript isoforms.

Result of the chromosomal anomaly

Hybrid Gene
Note No detected fusion gene.

To be noted

To elucidate how the transcription of these genes is affected by the translocation, further fresh or fresh frozen samples need to be studied.


Clonal chromosome abnormalities in a so-called Dupuytren's subungual exostosis.
Dal Cin P, Pauwels P, Poldermans LJ, Sciot R, Van den Berghe H
Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1999 ; 24 (2) : 162-164.
PMID 9885985
Subungual exostosis of the third toe.
Ilyas W, Geskin L, Joseph AK, Seraly MP
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2001 ; 45 (6 Suppl) : S200-S201.
PMID 11712058
Imaging of osteochondroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation.
Murphey MD, Choi JJ, Kransdorf MJ, Flemming DJ, Gannon FH
Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 2000 ; 20 (5) : 1407-1434.
PMID 10992031
Rearrangement of the COL12A1 and COL4A5 genes in subungual exostosis: molecular cytogenetic delineation of the tumor-specific translocation t(X;6)(q13-14;q22).
Storlazzi CT, Wozniak A, Panagopoulos I, Sciot R, Mandahl N, Mertens F, Debiec-Rychter M
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2006 ; 118 (8) : 1972-1976.
PMID 16284948
Distinct chromosomal rearrangements in subungual (Dupuytren) exostosis and bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (Nora lesion).
Zambrano E, Nosé V, Perez-Atayde AR, Gebhardt M, Hresko MT, Kleinman P, Richkind KE, Kozakewich HP
The American journal of surgical pathology. 2004 ; 28 (8) : 1033-1039.
PMID 15252309


This paper should be referenced as such :
Storlazzi, CT ; Mertens, F
Bone: Subungual exostosis with t(X;6)(q13;q22)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2008;12(3):253-254.
Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
On line version :

Translocations implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

 t(X;6)(q13;q22) COL4A5 and COL12A1

External links

Mitelman database t(X;6)(q13;q22) [CaseList]     t(X;6)(q13;q22) [Transloc - MCList]   COL4A5 Fusion - MCList]
COSMIC[ ]   [ ]
arrayMap Topo ( C40,C41) arrayMap ((UZH-SIB Zurich)   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
Disease databaseBone: Subungual exostosis with t(X;6)(q13;q22) COL4A5/COL12A1
REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
Last year articlesautomatic search in PubMed

© Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
indexed on : Mon Dec 14 18:30:45 CET 2020

Home   Genes   Leukemias   Solid Tumors   Cancer-Prone   Deep Insight   Case Reports   Journals  Portal   Teaching   

For comments and suggestions or contributions, please contact us