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Soft Tissues: Lipoma :: benign lipomatous tumors

Written2000-05Nils Mandahl
Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden

(Note : for Links provided by Atlas : click)


ICD-Topo C470-C476,C478-C479,C490-C496,C498-C499 CONNECTIVE & SOFT TISSUE
Atlas_Id 5050
Phylum Soft Tissues::Benign Lipomatous tumor
WHO/OMS Classification Soft Tissues
Note lipomas are benign adipose tissue tumors with many subtypes, constituting one-third of all soft tissue tumors


  • Ordinary lipoma: the solitary, ordinary lipomas represent the most common soft tissue tumors, with subcutaneous tumors being much more common than the deep-seated ones
    Epidemiology: the incidence of lipomas is about one in 1000 inhabitants per year, but is probably underestimated since many lesions cause few problems; they occur most frequently between 30 and 70 years of age, with a peak incidence between 40 and 60 years
    Clinics: solitary lipomas are slow-growing masses, most frequently located in the upper back, neck, shoulder, abdomen, and the proximal portions of the extremities
    Evolution: surgery is required primarily when the tumors reach large size and cause cosmetic problems or complications due to their anatomical site; there is no risk of progression to malignancy, and recurrences are rare after shelling-out
  • Angiolipoma: angiolipomas show characteristic histological features and occur primarily as subcutaneous, painful nodules; multiple lesions are much more common than solitary ones; they are usually smaller than solitary, ordinary lipomas and present at an earlier age, with the dominating site being the forearm; an increased familial incidence has been noted
  • Spindle cell/ pleomorphic lipoma: the characteristic feature of spindle cell lipoma is the replacement of mature fat by collagen-forming spindle cells; these rare tumors typically occur subcutaneously in the neck and shoulders of men aged 45 to 65 years
    pleomorphic lipoma probably represents a highly pleomorphic variant of spindle cell lipoma and show similar clinical features;
    both of these types of lesions may be confused with liposarcoma
  • Lipoblastoma: lipoblastoma is a tumor of the infancy; most tumors occur before three years of age and may occasionally be seen already at birth; the site is primarily the upper and lower extremities; there may be a close resemblance to myxoid liposarcoma
  • Hibernoma: hibernoma is chiefly a tumor of adults, although in average occurring at lower ages than solitary, ordinary lipomas; the most common sites are the scapular and interscapular regions, mediastinum and upper thorax
  • Angiomyo-lipoma: angiomyolipoma is a hamartomatous lesion in the kidneys of adult patients, with a preponderance of women
  • Chondroid lipoma: chondroid lipoma is a rare tumor occurring in the subcutis or muscle of adults; it may be confused with liposarcoma and chondrosarcoma, and shows microscopic features of both lipoma and hibernoma
  • Cytogenetics

    Chondroid lipoma: a cytogenetically identical rearrangement, t(11;16)(q13;p13), found in the only two cases reported indicate that this is a recurrent aberration


    Fusion genes in solid tumors.
    Aman P
    Seminars in cancer biology. 1999 ; 9 (4) : 303-318.
    PMID 10448117
    Genomic characterization of human HMGIC, a member of the accessory transcription factor family found at translocation breakpoints in lipomas.
    Ashar HR, Cherath L, Przybysz KM, Chada K
    Genomics. 1996 ; 31 (2) : 207-214.
    PMID 8824803
    Disruption of the architectural factor HMGI-C: DNA-binding AT hook motifs fused in lipomas to distinct transcriptional regulatory domains.
    Ashar HR, Fejzo MS, Tkachenko A, Zhou X, Fletcher JA, Weremowicz S, Morton CC, Chada K
    Cell. 1995 ; 82 (1) : 57-65.
    PMID 7606786
    Translocation t(3;12)(q28;q14) in parosteal lipoma.
    Bridge JA, DeBoer J, Walker CW, Neff JR
    Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1995 ; 12 (1) : 70-72.
    PMID 7534115
    Chromosome analysis in angiomyolipoma.
    Dal Cin P, Sciot R, Van Poppel H, Baert L, Van Damme B, Van den Berghe H
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1997 ; 99 (2) : 132-134.
    PMID 9398869
    Cytogenetic analysis of renal angiomyolipoma.
    Debiec-Rychter M, Saryusz-Wolska H, Salagierski M
    Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1992 ; 4 (1) : 101-103.
    PMID 1377003
    Enzinger FM, Weiss SW
    Soft Tissue Tumors, 3rd ed..
    Correlation between clinicopathological features and karyotype in lipomatous tumors. A report of 178 cases from the Chromosomes and Morphology (CHAMP) Collaborative Study Group.
    Fletcher CD, Akerman M, Dal Cin P, de Wever I, Mandahl N, Mertens F, Mitelman F, Rosai J, Rydholm A, Sciot R, Tallini G, van den Berghe H, van de Ven W, Vanni R, Willen H
    The American journal of pathology. 1996 ; 148 (2) : 623-630.
    PMID 8579124
    Cytogenetic findings in pediatric adipose tumors: consistent rearrangement of chromosome 8 in lipoblastoma.
    Fletcher JA, Kozakewich HP, Schoenberg ML, Morton CC
    Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1993 ; 6 (1) : 24-29.
    PMID 7680218
    Hibernomas are characterized by homozygous deletions in the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I region. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals complex rearrangements not detected by conventional cytogenetics.
    Gisselsson D, Höglund M, Mertens F, Dal Cin P, Mandahl N
    The American journal of pathology. 1999 ; 155 (1) : 61-66.
    PMID 10393837
    Chromosomal aberration in lipoblastoma: a case with 46,XX,ins(8;6)(q11.2;q13q27).
    Kanazawa C, Mitsui T, Shimizu Y, Saitoh E, Kawakami T, Shiihara T, Yokoyama S, Yamagiwa I, Hayasaka K
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1997 ; 95 (2) : 163-165.
    PMID 9169035
    Cytogenetics and molecular genetics of bone and soft tissue tumors.
    Mandahl N
    Advances in cancer research. 1996 ; 69 : 63-99.
    PMID 8791679
    Cytogenetic aberrations in 188 benign and borderline adipose tissue tumors.
    Mandahl N, Höglund M, Mertens F, Rydholm A, Willén H, Brosjö O, Mitelman F
    Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1994 ; 9 (3) : 207-215.
    PMID 7515663
    A new cytogenetic subgroup in lipomas: loss of chromosome 16 material in spindle cell and pleomorphic lipomas.
    Mandahl N, Mertens F, Willén H, Rydholm A, Brosjö O, Mitelman F
    Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology. 1994 ; 120 (12) : 707-711.
    PMID 7798294
    Involvement of 10q22 and 11q13 in hibernoma.
    Meloni AM, Spanier SS, Bush CH, Stone JF, Sandberg AA
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1994 ; 72 (1) : 59-64.
    PMID 8111740
    Identification of new translocation breakpoints at 12q13 in lipomas.
    Merscher S, Marondel I, Pedeutour F, Gaudray P, Kucherlapati R, Turc-Carel C
    Genomics. 1997 ; 46 (1) : 70-77.
    PMID 9403060
    Hibernomas are characterized by rearrangements of chromosome bands 11q13-21.
    Mertens F, Rydholm A, Brosjö O, Willén H, Mitelman F, Mandahl N
    International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 1994 ; 58 (4) : 503-505.
    PMID 8056446
    Chromosome 12 breakpoints are cytogenetically different in benign and malignant lipogenic tumors: localization of breakpoints in lipoma to 12q15 and in myxoid liposarcoma to 12q13.3.
    Mrózek K, Karakousis CP, Bloomfield CD
    Cancer research. 1993 ; 53 (7) : 1670-1675.
    PMID 8453640
    Translocation (11;14)(q13;q32) and overexpression of cyclin D1 protein in a CD23-positive low-grade B-cell neoplasm.
    Nanjangud G, Naresh KN, Nair CN, Parikh B, Dixit PH, Advani SH, Amare PS
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1998 ; 106 (1) : 37-43.
    PMID 9772907
    LPP, the preferred fusion partner gene of HMGIC in lipomas, is a novel member of the LIM protein gene family.
    Petit MM, Mols R, Schoenmakers EF, Mandahl N, Van de Ven WJ
    Genomics. 1996 ; 36 (1) : 118-129.
    PMID 8812423
    LHFP, a novel translocation partner gene of HMGIC in a lipoma, is a member of a new family of LHFP-like genes.
    Petit MM, Schoenmakers EF, Huysmans C, Geurts JM, Mandahl N, Van de Ven WJ
    Genomics. 1999 ; 57 (3) : 438-441.
    PMID 10329012
    Expression of reciprocal fusion transcripts of the HMGIC and LPP genes in parosteal lipoma.
    Petit MM, Swarts S, Bridge JA, Van de Ven WJ
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1998 ; 106 (1) : 18-23.
    PMID 9772904
    Cytogenetic analysis of a rare case of pediatric myxolipoma.
    Peulve P, Thomine E, Hemet J
    Annales de genetique. 1990 ; 33 (4) : 222-224.
    PMID 2095704
    The t(3;12)(q27;q14-q15) with underlying HMGIC-LPP fusion is not determining an adipocytic phenotype.
    Rogalla P, Kazmierczak B, Meyer-Bolte K, Tran KH, Bullerdiek J
    Genes, chromosomes & cancer. 1998 ; 22 (2) : 100-104.
    PMID 9598796
    Recurrent rearrangements in the high mobility group protein gene, HMGI-C, in benign mesenchymal tumours.
    Schoenmakers EF, Wanschura S, Mols R, Bullerdiek J, Van den Berghe H, Van de Ven WJ
    Nature genetics. 1995 ; 10 (4) : 436-444.
    PMID 7670494
    Cytogenetic analysis of subcutaneous angiolipoma: further evidence supporting its difference from ordinary pure lipomas: a report of the CHAMP Study Group.
    Sciot R, Akerman M, Dal Cin P, De Wever I, Fletcher CD, Mandahl N, Mertens F, Mitelman F, Rosai J, Rydholm A, Tallini G, Van den Berghe H, Vanni R, Willen H
    The American journal of surgical pathology. 1997 ; 21 (4) : 441-444.
    PMID 9130991
    The cytogenetic and molecular characterization of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors.
    Sreekantaiah C
    Cytogenetics and cell genetics. 1998 ; 82 (1-2) : 13-29.
    PMID 9763652
    Overrepresentation of 1q21-23 and 12q13-21 in lipoma-like liposarcomas but not in benign lipomas: a comparative genomic hybridization study.
    Szymanska J, Virolainen M, Tarkkanen M, Wiklund T, Asko-Seljavaara S, Tukiainen E, Elomaa I, Blomqvist C, Knuutila S
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1997 ; 99 (1) : 14-18.
    PMID 9352790
    Expression of HMGI-C and HMGI(Y) in ordinary lipoma and atypical lipomatous tumors: immunohistochemical reactivity correlates with karyotypic alterations.
    Tallini G, Dal Cin P, Rhoden KJ, Chiapetta G, Manfioletti G, Giancotti V, Fusco A, Van den Berghe H, Sciot R
    The American journal of pathology. 1997 ; 151 (1) : 37-43.
    PMID 9212729
    A case report of fibrolipoma with t(12;16)(q13;q24).
    Tayyeb MT, Neff JR, Bridge JA
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1993 ; 67 (2) : 145-146.
    PMID 8330272
    Cytogenetic and cytologic features of chondroid lipoma of soft tissue.
    Thomson TA, Horsman D, Bainbridge TC
    Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc. 1999 ; 12 (1) : 88-91.
    PMID 9950168
    Comparison of chromosomal patterns with clinical features in 165 lipomas: a report of the CHAMP study group.
    Willén H, Akerman M, Dal Cin P, De Wever I, Fletcher CD, Mandahl N, Mertens F, Mitelman F, Rosai J, Rydholm A, Sciot R, Tallini G, Van den Berghe H, Vanni R
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics. 1998 ; 102 (1) : 46-49.
    PMID 9530339


    This paper should be referenced as such :
    Mandahl, N
    Soft tissue tumors: Lipoma / benign lipomatous tumors
    Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2000;4(3):135-137.
    Free journal version : [ pdf ]   [ DOI ]
    On line version :

    Other genes implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas) [ 9 ]


    Translocations implicated (Data extracted from papers in the Atlas)

     t(1;12)(p32;q14) PPAP2B/HMGA2
     t(12;13)(q14;q13) HMGA2/LHFP
     t(2;12)(q37;q14) HMGA2/ACKR3
     t(3;12)(q28;q15) HMGA2/LPP
     t(5;12)(q33;q14) HMGA2/EBF1
     t(9;12)(p22;q14) HMGA2/NFIB

    External links

    Mitelman database t(1;12)(p32;q14) [CaseList]     t(1;12)(p32;q14) [Transloc - MCList]   PPAP2B/HMGA2 Fusion - MCList]
    COSMIC[ PPAP2B ]   [ HMGA2 ]
    Mitelman database t(12;13)(q14;q13) [CaseList]     t(12;13)(q14;q13) [Transloc - MCList]   HMGA2/LHFP Fusion - MCList]
    COSMIC[ HMGA2 ]   [ LHFP ]
    Mitelman database t(2;12)(q37;q14) [CaseList]     t(2;12)(q37;q14) [Transloc - MCList]   HMGA2/ACKR3 Fusion - MCList]
    COSMIC[ HMGA2 ]   [ ACKR3 ]
    Mitelman database t(3;12)(q28;q15) [CaseList]     t(3;12)(q28;q15) [Transloc - MCList]   HMGA2/LPP Fusion - MCList]
    COSMIC[ HMGA2 ]   [ LPP ]
    Mitelman database t(5;12)(q33;q14) [CaseList]     t(5;12)(q33;q14) [Transloc - MCList]   HMGA2/EBF1 Fusion - MCList]
    COSMIC[ HMGA2 ]   [ EBF1 ]
    Mitelman database t(9;12)(p22;q14) [CaseList]     t(9;12)(p22;q14) [Transloc - MCList]   HMGA2/NFIB Fusion - MCList]
    COSMIC[ HMGA2 ]   [ NFIB ]
    arrayMap Topo ( C47,C49) arrayMap ((UZH-SIB Zurich)   [auto + random 100 samples .. if exist ]   [tabulated segments]
    Mitelman databaseHMGA2/ACKR3[MCList]    HMGA2 (12q14.3) ACKR3 (2q37.3)   
    Mitelman databaseHMGA2/ACKR3[MCList]    HMGA2 (12q14.3) ACKR3 (2q37.3)   t(2;12)(q37;q14)
    COSMIC_fusionHMGA2 (12q14.3) EBF1 (5q33.3)    [fusion1020] [fusion1021]
    Mitelman databaseHMGA2/EBF1[MCList]    HMGA2 (12q14.3) EBF1 (5q33.3)   t(5;12)(q33;q14)
    COSMIC_fusionHMGA2 (12q14.3) LHFP (13q13.3)    [fusion976] [fusion977]
    Mitelman databaseHMGA2/LHFP[MCList]    HMGA2 (12q14.3) LHFP (13q13.3)   t(12;13)(q14;q13)
    Mitelman databaseHMGA2/LPP[MCList]    HMGA2 (12q14.3) LPP (3q28)   t(2;12)(q37;q14)
    TICdbHMGA2/LPP    HMGA2 (12q14.3) LPP (3q28)
    Mitelman databaseHMGA2/NFIB[MCList]    HMGA2 (12q14.3) NFIB (9p23)   ins(9;12)(p22;q14q14)
    TICdbHMGA2/NFIB    HMGA2 (12q14.3) NFIB (9p23)
    Disease databaseSoft Tissues: Lipoma :: benign lipomatous tumors
    REVIEW articlesautomatic search in PubMed
    Last year articlesautomatic search in PubMed

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