XRCC2 is one of five somatic RAD51 paralogs, all of which have Walker A and B ATPase motifs. Each of the paralogs, including XRCC2, has a function in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination (HR). However, their individual roles are not as well understood as that of RAD51 itself. The XRCC2 protein forms a complex (BCDX2) with three other RAD51 paralogs, RAD51B, RAD51C and RAD51D. It is believed that the BCDX2 complex mediates HR downstream of BRCA2 but upstream of RAD51, as XRCC2 is involved in the assembly of RAD51 into DNA damage foci. XRCC2 can bind DNA and, along with RAD51D, can promote homologous pairing in vitro. Consistent with its role in HR, XRCC2-deficient cells have increased levels of spontaneous chromosome instability, and exhibit hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C and cisplatin as well as ionizing radiation, alkylating agents and aldehydes. XRCC2 also functions in promoting DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Biallelic mutation of XRCC2 (FANCU) causes the FA-U subtype of FA, while heterozygosity for deleterious mutations in XRCC2 may be associated with an increased breast cancer risk. XRCC2 appears to function downstream in the FA pathway, since it is not required for FANCD2 monoubiquitination, which is the central step in the FA pathway. Clinically, the only known FA-U patient in the world exhibits severe congenital abnormalities, but had not developed, by seven years of age, the bone marrow failure and cancer that are often seen in patients from other FA complementation groups.
Paul R Andreassen ; Helmut Hanenberg
XRCC2 (X-ray repair cross complementing 2)
Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. 2018-04-01
Online version: http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/gene/334/xrcc2